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THIS work, although based upon Chambers's Encyclopaedia, whose distinguished 
merit is widely known, differs from it in important respects. It could scarcely be 
expected that an Encyclopaedia, edited and published for a foreign market, would give 
as muck prominence to American topics as American readers might desire. To supply 
these and other deficiencies the American Editors have inserted about 15,000 titles, 
arranging the whole, including Chambers's Supplement, in a single alphabet. The 
total number of titles is now about 40,000. The additions give greater fullness in the 
departments of biography, geography, history, natural history, and general and applied 
science. Scrupulous care has been taken not to mutilate or modify the original text of 
the edition of 18SO; no changes have been made except such verbal alterations as are 
required by the omission of the wood-cuts. The titles of articles from Chambers'3 
Encyclopaedia, either from the main work or from the Supplement, arc printed in bold- 
faced type AMERICA. The titles of the American additions, whether of new topics or 
of enlargements of the old, are printed in plain capitals AMERICA. Should it appear 
that an article from the English work and its American continuation disagree in any 
points, the reader will readily refer the conflicting statements to their proper sources. 

The labor of consultation will be much reduced by the catch-words in bold-faced 
type at the top of the page, being the first and last titles of the pages which face each 
other; and by the full title-words on the back of the volume, being the first and last 
titles contained therein. 

The word ante refers to Chambers's Encyclopaedia, as represented in this issue. 
Whenever the word (ante) follows a title in the American additions, it indicates that 
the article is an enlargement of one under the same title in Chambers's Encyclopaedia-^ 
usually to be found immediately preceding. 




STRANGULATION may be defined to be " an act of violence in which constriction IB 
applied directly to the neck, either around it or in the fore part, so as to prevent the 
passage of air, and thereby suddenly suspending respiration and life." Taylor's 
Principles and Practice of Medical Jurisprudence, 1865, p. 673. This definition, as Dr. 
Taylor observes, obviously includes hanging (q.v.). Hanging has been already briefly 
noticed in a special article, but the medico-legal relations of this and the other varieties of 
.strangulation have still to be considered. The primary cause of death from hanging has 
been considered in the article just referred to, but it is necessary to add that if a person 
-who has hanged himself has been cut down sufficiently soon to allow of the respiratory 
process being restored, he is by no means safe; death often taking place from secondary 
effects at various periods after the accident. The most prominent morbid appearance in 
these instances was extreme congestion of the brain. 

When the suspension of the body has not continued for much more than five minutes, 
and the parts about the neck have not suffered violence, there is a probability that resus- 
citation may be established; although many cases are recorded, when after only a few 
minutes' suspension, it has been found impossible to restore life. It is believed that 
death takes place very rapidly, and without causing any suffering; the_violent convul- 
sions that are so often observed being similar to those which occur in epilepsy. A man 
named Hornshaw, who was on three occasions resuscitated from hanging a feat which 
lie performed in London for the amusement of the public stated that he lost his senses 
.almost at once; and other persons who have been restored state that the only symptoms 
of which they were conscious were a ringing in the ears, a flash of light before the eyes, 
then darkness and oblivion. The treatment to be adopted after the patient has been cut 
down may be briefly summed up as follows: exposure to a free current of air, cold affu- 
sion if the skin is warm, the application of ammonia to the nostrils, of mustard poul- 
tices to the chest and legs, and of hot water to the feet, and the subsequent abstraction 
of blood if there should be much cerebral congestion; artificial respiration should also 
be tried if the above means fail to re-establish the respiratory process. From the post- 
mortem appearances, together with circumstantial evidence, the medical practitioner is 
not unfrequently called upon to decide such questions as these: Was death caused by 
hanging, or was the body suspended after death? Was the hanging the result of acci- 
dent, homicide, or suicide? For the full discussion of these questions the reader is 
referred to chap. 53 of Dr. Taylor's volume. In case of strangulation from other causes 
than that of hanging, the post-mortem symptoms are similar, but the injury done to the 
parts about the neck is commonly greater. In manual strangulation, the external marks 
of injury will be in front of the neck, about and below the larynx; and if death has been 
caused by a ligature, the mark round the neck will be circular, whereas in hanging it is 
usually oblique. The internal appearances are much the same as in the case of hanging 

STRANGURY (Gr. strangx, that which oozes out, oureo, I micturate) is perhaps to be 
regarded as a symptom rather than a disease. It shows itself in a frequent and irresisti- 
ble desire to pass water, which is discharged, however, in very small quantity, and 
whose passage from the bladder is accompanied with scalding and cutting pains along 
the course of the urethra. The pain often extends to the bladder and even to the kid 
neys, and is sometimes so severe as to implicate the lower bowel (the rectum), r.nd to 
produce the straining condition known as tenesmus. It is usually caused by irritating 
substances in the urine, especially by cantJiarides or Spanish flies (whose irritant prin- 
ciple is liable to find its way into the renal secretion, whether the above named drug is 
taken internally or merely applied to the skin as a blistering agent), and by oil of turpen- 
tine, when administered internally in small doses, and is generally present in cases of 
gravel. Severe as the affection is, it is very transitory, and yields readily to treatment. 
After the removal of the cause, if it can be recognized and the removal is possible, a 
dram of laudanum in a wine-glassful of starch mucilage should be thrown into the 
lower bowel, and mild mucilaginous draughts (of barley-water, for example) should be 


freely given in order to render the urine less irritating. The warm bath is also useful, 
and if it cannot readily be obtained, hot local fomentations often tend to relieve the p;'.m 
and allow the urine to pass more freely. 


in loch Ryan was at one time very productive,~but has latterly fallen off greatly. A 
mail-steamer runs daily between Slranraer and Larne. in Ireland, in connection with the- 
railways on either side. In 1875, 1258 vessels of 202,770 tons, entered and cleared the 
port. Agricultural produce and cattle, leather, and shoes are exported. Pop. of royal 
burgh (1871), 3,615; of parliamentary burgh, 5,1)41. Slrauracr unites with the Wigtown 
burghs in sending a member to parliament. 

STRAP, in carpentry, an iron band fixed round two or more timbers, sometimes with 
branches along each, to hold them all firmly together. 

STRASBOURG (Ger. Strassburg), A fortified t., formerly the capital of the French 
department of the Bas Rhin, but, since 1871, capital of the new German province of 
Alsace-Lorraine, stands at the confluence of the 111 and the Brusche, and not l,ar from 
the left bank of the Rhine. 89 m. n. of Basel, and 312 m. e. of Paris by rail. The 
citadel, originally built by Vauban. 1684, was demolished by the Germans during tlie 
bombardment of 1870, but in 1873 they began to rebuild it. and this in conjunction with 
a system of 12 detached forts, being erected at several miles' distance 1'rom the walls, 
will make the position one of great strength. The most celebrated building is the min- 
ster, or cathedral, founded in 1015, which is one of the most sublime specimens of 
Gothic architecture. Of the two western towers, one, that at the s. corner, has not been 
completed. The other, finished in 1399, rises, according to Baedeker, to a height of 4!K> 
ft. above the pavement 14 ft. higher than the original top of the pyramid of Cheops, 
while the towers of Cologne cathedral are to be 514 ft. high. The minster has a remark- 
able astronomical clock representing the planetary system. Other notable structures are 
the Protestant church of St. Thomas, with the tomb of marshal Saxe, and various monu- 
ments to distinguished Strasbourg scholars; the temple Neitf, or new temple, the syna- 
gogue of the Jews, the town-house, the palace of justice, the arsenal, the cpi>co|>iil 
palace, and the theater. The university of Strasbourg was the only complete univtTMiy 
in France i.e., the only cue which has the full complement of faculties besides that 
of Paris. It was founded in 1G21, became specially famous in the branches of u:cdLine 
and philology, w r ent to the ground during the great revolution, and had its plarc sup- 
plied by an ccole centrale. In 1803 a Protestant academy was established with 10 chairs, 
for teaching theology, philology, philosophy, and history. Five years later, Napoleon 
founded an imperial academy, with faculties of law, medicine, physical science, and 
philosophy; and in 1819 a partial fusion of these academies took place, greatly to the 
benefit of both. The university was reopened after the Franco-Prussian war, in May. 
1872. In 1878 it had 624 students. The famous library of Strasbourg, consisting of 
nearly 200,000 volumes, and rich in incunabula (q.v.), was entirely destroyed by fire 
during the bombardment in 1870, but has been to some extent replaced by a library of 
about 120,000 volumes contributed by the Germans. The trade of Strasbourg, especially 
its transit-trade, is very extensive, and it has a great variety of manufactures beer, ham, 
sausages, fat-liver pies, watches and clocks, leather, cottons, woolens, silks, cutlery, 
musical and mathematical instruments, jewelry, brandy, potash, tobacco, etc The 
Basel and Baden railways, the railway to Paris, and the communication with Rotterdam 
and London by means of the Rhine steamers, as well as with the Danube and all the 
great rivers of France by means of canals, have greatly added to its facilities for con 
ducting commerce. The country round about Strasbourg is fertile and carefully culti- 
vated, with beautiful gardens, mansions, and villages. Pop. ('71), 85,529; (75), 92,379,. 
of whom about one-half are Catholics. 

Strasbourg, th'e Argentoratum of the Romans, was extant before the time of Caesar, 
but is first mentioned by Ptolemy. The Romans had a manufactory of arms here. In 
the 5th c. it appears to have received the name of Strata- Bur gum or Strata-Burgus, per- 
haps from the invading Franks, whence the modern German Strassburg and the French 
Strasbourg. It became a free town of the German empire, and in 1681 passed with the 
rest of Alsace into the hands of the French, under whom its population and prosperity 
greatly increased. On Sept. 28, 1870, after a bombardment of seven weeks, Strasbourg 
surrendered to the Germans, and in 1871 was annexed to Germany. 

STRATEGY is defined by military writers to be the science of maneuvering an army- 
out of fire of the enemy, as tactics is the art of managing it in a battle, or under fire, 
btrategy is the greater science, as including all those vast combinations which lead to 
the subsequent available displays of tactics. A good strategist has to attend to the 
establishing of his bases and depots, although some brilliant generals have dared to act 
without these last aids notably, Sherman in America in 1864, and Wellington in 1813, 
advancing from Portugal through Spain into France. The strategist must know how to- 
diffuse tlie influence of his arms over a broad area, while yet holding his force well in 
knd to strike crushing blows. Such was Wellington's Salamanca campaign; in which,. 

*7 Str;jnraer 


though retreating himself to his former base, he compelled the French to evacuate 

Strategy must not he confounded with stratagem, although there is relationship 
"between the two. Stratagem is any device for deceiving the enemy as to the point or 
strength of an a'. tack, buch are ambuscades, feints, bugle-calls to imaginary troops, 
concealment of infantry by clouds of cavalry, and many other efforts. 

STRATFORD, a thriving t, of Essex, on the Lea, 3 m. c. of London. It is the scat of 
various and extensive manufactures. There are flour-mills, distilleries, and chemical 
works. In the town and its suburbs, many London merchants have built residences. 
The prosperity of the town has been much increased by its connection with the Eastern 
Counties railway. Pop. '51, 10,586; '01, 15,994; '71, 23,286. On the opposite side of 
the Lea is the parish of Stratford-le-Bow, or Bow, with (1871) 26,055 inhabitants. 

STRATFORD, a t. in s.w. Ontario; co. scat of Perth co., and port of entry; at the 
junction of the Buffalo and Goderich division with the main line of the Grand Trunk rail- 
way; pop. '71, 4,313. It is 88 m. from Toronto, has valuable water-power, and is the* 
center of a fertile agricultural region. It, contains the court-house and county offices, a 
town-hall, 7 churches, 3 newspapers (1 German), a monthly magazine, 3 branch banks, 
and several hotels. The leading industries are the manufacture of ale and beer, flour, 
iron castings, machinery, agricultural implements, woolen goods, steam-engines, and 
boilers, leather, boots and shoes. It contains the railroad repair shops. 

is son of a London merchant, and cousin of the celebrated George Canning, lie was 
borii 1788, educated at Eton, and entered himself of King's college, Cambridge, in 1806, 
but left in 1807, on receiving an appointment as precis writer in the foreign office, lie 
was appointed secretary of embassy at Constantinople in 1809. He returned to Cam- 
bridge in 1812 for the purpose of resuming his studies, and took the degree of M.A. 
He was sent as envoy to Switzerland in 1814. About this time he published an ode lull 
of spirit and power, entitled Buonaparte. It is called by lord Byron a " noble poem." 
In 1820 he went as plenipotentiary to the United States, and remained at Washington 
three years. In 1824 he was sent on special missions to St. Petersburg and Vienna." In 
1825 his introduction to eastern diplomacy commenced with his appointment by 31 r. 
Canning, then foreign secretary, as ambassador-extraordinary to the sublime porte. 
Here his good offices were warmly exerted on behalf of the Greeks. In 1831 he was 
accredited with a special mission to Turkey, to fix the boundaries of the new kingdom 
of Greece, and to settle the treaty in virtue of which Otho ascended the Greek throne, 
lie went to Madrid and Lisbon on a special mission in 1832. He had previously sat in 
the house of commons for Old Sarum and Stockbridge during a brief interval in Lis 
diplomatic career. In 1834 he was elected for King's Lynn, which he represented until 
1841, when, having twice refused the governor-generalship of Canada, he was appointed 
by the government of sir Robert Peel ambassador at Constantinople. Here his influ- 
ence was strenuously exerted in the cause of civilization and progress. In 1852 the 
Derby administration recommended the crown to confer upon him the title and dhinity 
of viscount. When the long standing quarrel between tl.e Greek and Latin monks in 
Palestine involved the powers of Europe in the struggle, Stratford remembered how 
the emperor Nicholas of Russia had, from 1829 to 1853,'sought to establish a predomi- 
nant influence, excluding all others, over the porte, with the~view of settling the future 
destinies of Turkey to the profit of Russia when the propitious juncture arrived. At 
the time when prince Menchikoff was sent to Constantinople upon a mission from the 
czar, Stratford was absent in England on leave. He returned to Constantinople in 
April, 1853, and prepared to resist Menchikoff s demands. The keenly contested diplo- 
matic struggle between Stratford and the Russian ambassador-extraordinary is narrated 
with dramatic power by Mr. Kinglake in his Inrasion of ihe Crimea, who calls Stratford 
the " Great Eltchi." Stratford's influence with the porte prevailed, for, to adopt the 
words of Mr. Kinglake, "as > hough yielding to fate itself, the Tinkish mind vised to 
bend and fall dovn before him;" and he placed on England the responsibility of a 
defensive alliance with the sultan against the czar. As Russia would not withdraw her 
troops from the principalities, the sultan declared war against Russia, and France and 
England came to the aid of the porte. Stratford retired from the Turkish eniua^y 
in 1858 upon a pension. He has since tnken a frequent part in the debates 01 the upper 
house on questions of foreign policy. He was created a knight of the garter in 18G9. 
In 1873 he published Why am I a Christian? a work on the evidences of Christianity, 
and in 1876 a play, Alfred the Great in Athelncy. 

ing that the independence of Turkey with equal rights to all races and religionists 
would b?st promote the peace of Europe and the prosperity of the numerous nationali- 
ties embraced under Turkish, rule, he labored assiduously to promote these objects. 
For 14 years he not only ruled the empire of Turkey by his personal influence with the 
sultan Mahmoud, whose throne had just been saved by the intervention of Europe 
against Mohammed Ali, but also swayed the policy of Europe in regard to the east. 

Stratford. g 


The hatti-houmayoun, which promised so much for civil and religious liberty in 
Turkey, was his work; and had he continued to represent England in Constantinople, 
it probably would not have remained a dead letter. He however was withdrawn to 
please Napoleon, who sought to make French influence predominant in the east. He 
was an earnest Christian; warmly appreciated the work of the American missionaries in 
Turkey, and aided them by counsel and influence. He protected the persecuted, 
founded the Protestant civil community in Turkey, and secured to them whatever 
privileges they enjoy. He died Aug. 14, 1880. 

STRATFORD-UPON-AVON, a municipal borough and township of England, in the 
county of Warwick, and 8 in. s.w. of the town of that name, is situated on the right 
bank of the river Avon. Pop. '71, 3,863. The town is neatly built, and has quite a 
modern look, most of the old houses having disappeared. Some trade is carried on in 
corn and malt. Stratford-upon-Avon is the birthplace of Shakespeare. The house in 
which he was born is still preserved, and is visited by enthusiastic pilgrims from all 
quarters of the world. The great poet is buried in the parish church. 

STRATH, a Gaelic word signifying a broad valley, is often prefixed in the n. of 
Scotland to the names of rivers, as Strathearn, Strathallan, Strathnairn, Strathspey, in 
each of which cases it signifies the open valley through which the river flows. In such 
cases, however, as Strathmore (great valley), it simply signifies a valley -like depression. 
In the s. of Scotland, the word is not used, the Northumbrian word dak being used 
instead, as Clydesdale, Anuaudale, Teviotdale, Tweeddale. 

STRATHA'VEN, a t. of Scotland, in Lanarkshire, about a mile w. of Avon Water, 
and 14 m. s.e. of Glasgow. On the n. side is the picturesque ruin of Avondale castle, 
and from 5 to 7 m. s.w. are the battle-fields of Drumclog and Loudoun Hill. The more 
recently built part of the town is neat and spacious. Pop. '71, 3,645, chiefly engaged. 
in weaving and trading in cheese and cattle. 

STRATHCLYDE'. In the 8th c., the ancient confederacy of the Britains was broken 
up into the separate divisions of Wales and English and Scottish Cumbria. Scottish. 
Cumbria, otherwise called Strathclyde, thenceforth formed a little kingdom, compris- 
ing the country between Clyde and Solway, governed by princes of its own, and hav- 
ing the fortress-town of Alclyde or Dumbarton for its capital. Becoming gradually 
more and more dependent on Scotland, it was annexed to the Scottish crown at the 
death of Malcolm I., on failure of the line of native sovereigns. Edgar bequeathed 
Strathclyde to his youngest brother David, again separating it from the crown of Scot- 
land, which went to his intermediate brother, Alexander I. David held it throughout 
Alexander's reign in spite of that king's opposition, and on Alexander's death without 
issue in 1124, it was permanently reunited to the Scottish kingdom under David I. 

STRATHMORE' (the Great Valley), the most extensive plain in Scotland, is a low- 
lying tract extending across the country from Dumbartonshire n.e. to Stonehaven in 
Ivincardiueshire, is bounded on the n. by the great mountain-rampart of the Highland-;, 
and on the s. by the Lennox, the Ochil, and the Sidlaw hills, and is 100 ra. long and 
from 5 to 10 m. broad. In a stricter sense, however, Strathmore proper extends only 
from the neighborhood of Perth to that of Brechin in Forfar, a distance of about 40 

STRATHSPEY, a kind of Scottish national dance slower than the reel, which is said 
to derive its name from having been first practiced in the district called Strathspey. 

STRATIO'TES, a genus of plants of the natural order hydrocharidea, having a two- 
leaved spathe with numerous barren flowers, one female flower in each spathe. 8, aloidca, 
popularly called WATER SOLDIER, is common in lakes and ditches in the e. of Eng 
land. It is a singular plant with numerous leaves, which are strap-shaped, and spring 
from the root, from which also springs the two-edged flower-stem, bearing the spathe 
with beautiful and delicate white flowers. In autumn the whole plant disappears, the 
root alone remaining at the bottom of the water, from which a number of young plants 
arise in spring, filling up ditches, so that nothing else can grow in them. It is a 
very ornamental aquatic plant. 

STRATUM, pi. strata, (Lat. strewn or spread out), the term applied by geologists to 
the layers into which most of the rocks that form the crust of the earth are divided. 
It implies that the layers have been spread out over the surface, and that they were 
formed in this way we may infer from the deposits that are now taking place in lakes 
and seas into which rivers laden with muddy sediment empty themselves. 

All the aqueous rocks, which cover so large a proportion of the earth's surface, are 
stratified. They were formed from the abraded materials of older rocks (aqueous or 
igneous), which have been washed down and rearranged. The kind of rock produced 
depended upon the material to which the carrying agent had access. Fine mud would 
produce shales, sand sandstones, and calcareous matter limestones. In a section, 
these different kinds of rocks are frequently found to interchange within a short space. 
This is produced either by the water obtaining different materials, or changing its 
velocity. Thus the fine sediment which has fallen from slowly flowing water may be 
covered by a layer of sand brought down by a flood, and this again may have spread 
ver it a covering of shells and corals, and such changes may go on alternately for an 

Q Stratford. 


Indefinite period. Each of the different beds composed of the same kind of material 
is called a stratum. Thus, in the series mentioned, there would be a " stratum" of clay, 
one of sand, and then one of calcareous matter. An assemblage of strata having a com- 
mon age is called a "formation," and this term is also extended to rocks which agree in 
their composition or origin. Thus, we speak of stratified and uustratified, aqueous and 
igneous, fresh water and" marine, primary and secondary, metalliferous and nou-metallif- 
- formations. As a formation is composed of many different beds, so a stratum 
is frequently made up of several " laminae" or "layers." The laminae have a more or 
less firm cohesion, but the strata easily separate from each other. Sometimes the cohe- 
sion of the laminae is so great that it is as easy to split the rock against as with the 
grain. In such compact rocks the lamination is obscure, or altogether imperceptible in. 
fresh specimens, but whenever they are exposed to the influence of the weather, it 
becomes obvious. The laminae have been produced by short interruptions in the deposi- 
tion, similar to what might be the result of tidal or other intermittent action. The 
degree of cohesion may be the result of rapid succession in the acts of deposition, but 
it fs frequently produced by metamorphic action subsequent to deposition. The planes 
of stratification want the complete coalescence characteristic of lamination; when the 
contiguous layers are closely united, it is the result of the adhesion of two bodies, 
and not of their coalescence into one. 

STKATJ BING, a t. of Lower Bavaria, on the right bank of the Danube, 25 m. s.e. 
of Ratisbon, lies in a very fertile valley, and carries on a river-trade in corn, cattle, 
and horses. In a little chapel here there is a monument to Agnes Bernauer (q.v.). 
Pop. '75, 11,590. 

STKATJSS, DAVID FRIEDRICH, author of the famous Leben Jesu, was b. on 
Jan. 27, 1808, at Ludwigsburg, in Wiirtemberg. His education was begun in his native 
town, and completed in the theological seminaries of Blaubeuren and Tubingen. In 
1830. his head filled with Hegel's philosophy and Schleiermacher's theology, he entered 
on the simple life of a country pastor, but already in the following year he was in 
Maulbronu acting as professor in the seminary, and went thence to Berlin for six mouths 
to continue his Hegelian studies, and hear the lectures of Schleiermacher. Returning 
to Tubingen in 1832, he became rcpttcitt in the theological seminary, and in the next 
years held also philosophical lectures in the university as a disciple of Hegel. Known 
as yet only to a narrow circle, he became all at once a man of mark by the publication, 
in 1835, of his Life of Jesu * criii<'<il!i/ tinted (2 vols. Tub. ; 4th ed. 1840; translated into 
English, 1846). In this work, written from the point of view of a Hegelian philosopher, 
and designed only for the learned, he attempted to prove the received gospel history to 
be a collection of myths gradually formed in the early Christian communities, and, 
sought by an analytical dissection of each separate narrative, to detect, where it existed, 
a nucleus 1 of historical truth free from every trace of supematuralism. The book made 
a real epoch in theological literature, and produced a violent excitement in and out of 
Germany, calling forth numberless replies from opponents, frightening many by Its bold 
disregard of consequences back into the ranks of orthodoxy, and stirring up others to 
similar investigations. The first consequence to the author was his dismissal from 
his academical position in Tubingen, and transference to- the ,'yceum of Ludwigsburg. 
lie resigned the new post, however, very soon in 1836, and retired into private life at 
Stuttgart, to Lave leisure to defend himself. In 1837 he published his Strcitschriften 
against his opponents; and in 1838 Zitei ' friedliche Blatter, a more conciliatory exposi- 
tion of his views. Early in 1839 he was called by the board of education in Zurich to 
be professor of dogmatics and church history in the university; but the step raised such 
a storm of opposition among the public that the proposition had to be dropped, find 
even the government itself had to resign in the same year. Thrown back on his lit- 
terary labors. Strauss, who had published during the year his CJw/rakteristiken und Kriti- 
/>-//. sent forth shortly afterward his second great work, Die Christliche Gluubenslelire, a 
review of Christian dogma "in its historical development and its struggle with modern 
science" (Tub. 1840-41). This formed a natural sequel to the purely critical investi- 
gation of the origins of Christianity in the first work. When Strauss, after a long 
period of silence, next appeared on the literary field, it was no longer as a professed 
theologian. In 1847 he drew attention by a work entitled, Der Romantiker aitf dem 
Tlir)i<- <Jt:r Cii*aren, oder JtiUnn d< r AUri'uniiije, full of direct allusions to the political 
situation of the day. His fellow-townsmen put him forward as a candidate for the 
German revolutionary parliament of 1848, but he was unable to stand against the cleri- 
cal influence brought to bear upon the country-people of the district. His speeches on 
this occasion were published under the title of Xix Theologioo-politioal Popular Addresses, 
and his native place compensated the defeat by sending him as its representative to the 
"Wutemberg diet. From this position, however, when he unexpectedly displayed con- 
servative leanings, and incurred a vote of censure from his constituents, he retired before 
the end of the year. A life of the Swabian poet Schubart (1849), and another biographi- 
cal work. Clii'ixtiiDi Ih'irkHn.ii Picture <>f Lift 1 and Character from tlie Presen t (1851), 
giving an iusisrht into his own mental development, were his next literary efforts, before 
another period of silence. His third period of activity was opened in 1858 by a remarkable 
life of the reformer, Ulrich von Hutten (Eng. trans. 1874), followed up by the publica- 

Strauss. 1 A 


tion of Hutten's Dialogues in 1860. These books, though primarily of strictly historical 
interest, were nevertheless calculated for the present state of religious affairs in Ger- 
many, and contained fiercely contemptuous denunciations of the tactics of the reaction- 
ary party in Hie church. A collection of miscellaneous Minor Writings appeared in 
1862, and a new Life of Jesus, Composed for the Gernuui people, in 1864 (Eug. trans. 1865). 
The title of the work indicates its popular cast, the peculiar features of it being a long 
critical statement of the labors of others in the same field down to the present day, and 
an attempt to construct a life out of all the positive results that have been gained. 
The mythical hypothesis is retained, but applied differently. Still later publications. 
which appeared in 1865 are ])er C/tnstus den (JUiubens u. der Jcuus der Ge&chickte (Berlin), 
a criticism of the newly published lectures of Schleiermacher on the life of Jesus, and a 
brochure, Die lliiWen u. die Ganzen, directed against Schenkcl and Hengstenherg. T he- 
polemic against Schenkel, professor of theology in Heidelberg, a leader of the liberal' 
party in the church of Baden, and author of the CkarahterUkl Jesu (1>64), arose out of an 
earlier notice of this book by Strauss. In 1872 he published his last work, Der alte 
i< ad der i/eue Glaube, in which he endeavors to prove that Christianity as a system of 
religious belief is practically dead, and that a new faith must be built up out of a scien- 
tific knowledge of nature. Strauss died in 1874. An edition of his collated works 
(Gesammelte txhriften) began to be published in 1876. The literary, critical, and polemi- 
cal powers of Strauss must be pronounced to be of the highest order. No more effect ivo 
German prose than his has been written since Lessiug. See Life of Strauss, by E. 
Zeller (Eug. trans. 1874). 

STRAUSS, JOIIANN, 1804-49, b. Vienna; was a member of Lanner's orchestra, and 
then gave concerts with a band he organized in the principal cities of Germany. His 
three sous have become known as composers of dance music. The eldest son, JOIIANN, 
b. 1825, is music director at Vienna to the emperor of Austria. He organized a band 
which played with great succsss in all the large European' cities. In 1872 he came to 
the United States to conduct an orchestra of 1000 performers in his own compositions 
at the Boston peace jubilee. He composed, besides his well-known waltzes, four 
operettas : Indigo <187l), Der Carneval in Horn (1873), Die Fledermaits (1874), and 
t'ttyliostro (1875). The second SOP, JOSEF, 1827-70, b Vienna, composed about 800 pieces 
of dance music. EDUARD, the youngest son, is the leader of an orchestra in Vienna, 
and has composed about 200 pieces. Together the four Strausses have published over 
1 100 compositions, of which those of the younger Johann have become the most popu- 

STRAWBEEEY. Fragana, a genus of plants of the natural order rosacece, suborder 
rofece, tribe potentttlidce, remarkable for the manner in which the receptacle increases 
and becomes succulent, so as to form what is popularly cslled the fruit; the proper 
fruit (botanically) being the small aclienia which it bears upon its surface. The genus 
differs from polentilla (q.v.) chiefly in having the receptacle succulent. The calyx is. 
10-cleft, the segments alternately smaller; the petals are five; the style springs from 
near the base of the carpel. All the species are perennial herbaceous plants, throwing 
out runners to form new plants; and the leaves are generally on long stalks, with three 
leaflets, deeply toothed. One South American species has simple leaves. Only one 
species, the WOOD STRAWBERRY, (F. vexed), is truly a native of Britain. It is common 
in woods and thickets. Its fruit is small, but of delicious flavor. Another species, the 
HAUTBOIS STRAWBERRY (F. elatior), is not (infrequently to be seen in woods and 
hedges, but has probably escaped from gardens. It is really a native of North America. 
The many kinds cultivated in gardens are regarded as varieties of these species, and of 
the CAROLINA STRAWBERRY (F. Carolinian a), the PIKE STRAWBERRY (F. grandifora, 
or F. ananas), and the CHILI STRAWBERRY (F. Chilensis), American species, the lea\es 
and fruit of which are larger than those of the wood strawberry. In no genus, how- 
ever, arc the species more uncertain to which the cultivated kinds arc to be referred. 
Some of these are remarkable for the large size of the fruit. New varieties are contin 
ually coming into notice, and the utmost care is necessary to keep the larger and finer 
varieties from degenerating. The cultivation of the strawberry is most extensively 
carried on in Britain and in" Belgium. New kinds are produced from seed; butplanta 
tions of strawbe v ries are generally formed of the young plants, which are abundantly 
produced by runners. The .ows are from 18 in. to two ft. apart, according to the kind. 
The finest fruit is said to be produced when the plants are kept distinct from each other 
in the rows, but this is not generally done. Tilss are sometimes placed around tho 
plants and under the fruit; and it is an old English practice to lay straw between the 
rows, to preserve the fruit from rotting on the wet ground, from which the name straw- 
berry has been supposed to be derived T although more probably it is from the wander- 
ing habit of the plant, straw being a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon strae, from which 
we have the English verb stray. Strawberry beds require "to be renewed after a few 
years. Strawberries are often forced in hot-houses, in order to produce the fruit at a 
very early season. The uses of the strawberry as a dessert fruit and for preserves are 
well-known. There is no more wholesome fruit. 

The ALPINE STRAWBERRY (F. collina), a native of Switzerland and Germany, differs- 
considerably from the other kinds in its taller stems and more erect manner of growth. 

n Strauss. 


. which is either red or white, is not very large, but is produced in great 
. (-. and unlike other strawberries, parts from its calyx almost on being touched. 
The Alpine strawberry continues to produce fruit long after the other kinds. 

The INDIAN STUAWBEKKY (F. Indicu), a native of the Himalaya, requires only a little 
protection in Britain from severe frost, and with this care grows luxuriantly and pro- 
places fruit in abundance. The llowers are yellow, not white, as in other strawberries, 
and are not produced upon common flower-stalks rising from the center of the plant as 
in the other species, but upon single-flowered stalks, which spring from the axils of 
ihc leaves upon the runners. The fruit is very beautiful, growing with its apex up 
ward. It is not, however, of good quality. 

STKAW-MANTJFACTUEES. The industrial applications of the straw of wheat are of 
great commercial importance, especially that of plaiting, which is one of the oldest arts 
practiced by mankind, many specimens having been found in the tombs of the ancient 
Egyptians, and mention being made of plaiting by Herodotus and other early writers. 
The earliest notice we have of its systematic use in Europe as. an article of clothing is in 
the records of the reign of Mary, queen of Scots, who, we are told, observed that the 
peasants of Lorraine wore hats made of straw plait, and that this manufacture was 
beneficial to them, and she consequently conceived the idea of introducing it into Scot- 
land, which was done about the year 1563, but without much success. Her son, James 
I., however, carried it into England, where it soon throve, and has been from that time 
a permanent branch of industry. It was first regularly established in Bedfordshire, 
which has ever since been the chief seat of the trade. 

At first, the phit was what is called wlwle straw; that is, the straw was cut into suit- 
.ablc lengths without knots, and merely pressed flat during the operation of plaiting, 
and so it continued until the reign of George I., when it was in great demand for ladies' 
hats, and some plait was made of split straw. Since that time, this kind has been chiefly 
used, and a much improved method has been substituted for the clumsy one of using a 
common knife for splitting it. The instrument now employed is made of steel, aud con- 
sists of a number of little square blades set in a circular manner around a stem, which 
at one end terminates in a paint, and at the other is bent and fixed into a handle. The 
point being inserted into the hollow of the straw, is pressed forward, and cuts it into as 
many strips as there are blades in the cutting-tool; these vary in number according to 
the fineness of the work to be produced. 

It is found that the fine straw-plaiting, which is now produced better in England 
than in any other country except Italy, can only be made from one or two varieties of 
wheat, that called the White Chittim being generally preferred, and next to it the Red 
Lammas, which only succeed as a straw-crop upon the light rich soils of the more 
southern of the midland counties. The harvesting is a matter of great anxiety, as tho 
straw is liable to many injuries from wet and other causes. The value of this crop can 
be best understood by the fact that an acre will yield from 25 to 40 bushs, of wheat, 
and from 15 cwts. to a ton of straw, which, when in good condition, is worth 7 or 8. 

The crop is bought up by straw-factors, who employ people to draw the straw, and 
remove the ears, which are all cut off by hand for threshing. The straws are after- 
ward cut into lengths and cleared of the outer sheath or leaf; they are then sorted into 
various thicknesses by an apparatus consisting of a series of sieves about eight inches in 
diameter; the boys who usually do this work hold a handful on end over the first sieve, 
which has the narrowest spaces, and the thinest straws only fall through it; they are 
next placed on the second, and so on to the last. As they fall through each successive 
sieve, they pass down through hollow shafts, through shoots of tin or sheet-zinc into boxes, 
from which they are removed and tied into bundles ready for the splitters, who next 
take them in hand and reduce them to strips of the sizes required. 

The plaits are made by women and children in their own cottages, nnd are collected 
by the dealers and sold in the Luton and Dunstable markets, in which the chief part of 
this business is transacted. They are very various in pattern, and are sold by the score 
of 20 yards, the prices ranging from 2d. to 3s. per score for the ordinary kinds, but very 
fine plaits have been known to fetch as high as 3 to 4 per score. 

It is computed that 70,000 persons are employed in this trade, of whom nearly 60,000 
are females and boys, and that they produce annually about 18,000,000 scores, or 
240.000,000 yards of plait. The plait is made up into bonnets and hats chiefly at Luton 
anil Dunstable, and sent up to the London warehouses for sale, whence they are sent to 
all parts of the world. A large trade is also done in the fine plaits of Tuscany; the 
Leghorn plaits are very fine, and fetch high prices. 

Besides its value for plaiting, straw is now much used in the manufacture of paper 

STRAW MANUFACTURES (ante). From a very early period in the colonial 

times, the plaiting of straw and its manufacture into suitable goods for domestic use 
was a common home industry in many New England and other northern households. 
As these goods were necessarily crude and ungraceful, the wants of the wealthier classes 
were usually supplied by importation from abroad principally from Italy. In tho 
early part of this century, however, when the prolonged European wars cut off com- 
munication with Italy, more attention began to be paid to this branch of industry, and 

Straziiicky. "I O 

Strength. - 1 - " 

various manufactories were started which supplied a limited and local trade. But it 
was not until 1825-30 that the business grew to any .real importance or covered any 
great extent of territory. About that time some of the more enterprising Xew York and 
Massachusetts houses sought to develop their facilities so as to reach those portions of 
the country where straw goods were little known, and the business soon assumed 
immense proportions. For many years goods were made largely from the straw 
raised and plaited in this country the plaiting being done chiefly by females during the 
intervals of household work but the cheapness and superiority of foreign braids, in 
some cases, again drove this form of American labor out of the market. The chief 
domestic braids now left are the "Mackinaw" straw, which is raised and plaited in Can- 
ada and in a few localities in the north-western states, and the palm-leaf, grown in Cuba 
and split and braided in New England. More than 50 per cent of all the straw goods- 
manufactured in this country are made from the Canton straw imported from China. 
The Luton straw from England, and the Leghorn from Italy, are also largely used, and 
small quantities of other varieties are imported from Switzerland, Bohemia, France, 
Malaga (Spain), Manila, and Central and South America. The total value of the impor- 
tations is estimated at about $2,000,000 annually. Straw hats and bonnets are sewn chiefly 
by the Knowlton and Bosworth sewing machines, which are run by steam and which, 
can turn out as many as 100 hats each in a day. These machines are of American 
invention and their use is gradually extending abroad. The goods are pressed and 
blocked into shape at the rate of four a minute, by another machine of American origin. 
The total value of the straw goods manufactured in the United States, was, in 1860, 
$4,395,616, and in 1870, $7,282,086. The increase in the last ten years has been even more 
rapid, but the official figures have not yet been published. More than one-half of the 
entire amount of American straw goods are manufactured in Massachusetts alone, the 
census of 1870 valuing the products of that state at $4,869,514, the remainder being 
divided among the following eight states: Connecticut, $1,026,000; New York, 
$1,006,000; Pennsylvania, $189,242; California, $60,700; New Jersey, $54,530; Rhode 
Island, $40,000; Wisconsin, $34,500; Vermont, $1,600. 

STRAZNICKY, EDWARD R, PH.D., 1820-76; b. Moravia; graduated at a uni- 
versity in Vienna, where he became an expert linguist, and took the degrees of M.D. 
and PH.D. He was made intendant of an estate belonging to a wealthy Austrian noble- 
man, but, becoming involved in the struggle of Hungary for liberty, was compelled to 
leave his country, notwithstanding the fact that one of his near relatives was a field- 
marshal in the Austrian service. He arrived in New York penniless, and was forced 
to submit to severe privations during his first years in America. His ability and educa- 
tion, however, at length secured him influential friends, and he was made secretary of 
the American geographical society, and in 1859 second assistant librarian in the Astor 
library. He rose through the different grades until, on the retirement of hon. Francis 
Schroeder, superintendent of the library, he was appointed to that position, which he 
hekl until his death. 

STREET, ALFRED BILLINGS, 1811-81 ; b. N. Y. ; studied law and practiced a few- 
years at Monticello, N. Y., but after 1838 lived at Albany. He wrote many poems of 
considerable merit, some of which have been translated into the German. Among his 
writings were: The Burning of Schenectady, and other Poems (1842), and Frontenac, a Tal& 
of the Iroquois in 1696 (1849). In prose, he wrote biographical and historical sketches, 
Forest Pictures in the Adirondacks and The Indian Pass (1869). He was for many yeara 
state librarian. 

STREET, AUGUSTUS RUSSELL, 1791-1866; b. New Haven, Conn. ; graduate of Yale 
college, 1812; studied law; inherited a large estate; gave $300,000 to Yale college, found- 
ing the Street professorship of modern languages. He erected, and partially endowed, 
the Yale school of fine arts, and left a sum of money to establish the Titus Street pro- 
fessorship. He lived in Europe, 1845-48; returned to this country and died in New 
Haven. His daughter married admiral Foote. 

STREET, GEORGE EDMTOD, b. England, 1824; educated at the collegiate school, 
Camberwell, and afterward studied architecture under G. G. Scott. Among his works 
are the theological college at Cuddesden, and the churches of St. Philip and James, at 
Oxford, and of St. Margaret, at Liverpool. Among his restorations are Jesus college 
chapel, Oxford; and Wantage church. Most of his works are in the Gothic style, upon 
which he has written much. Among his writings are The Brick and Marble Architecture 
vf Xrth Italy in the Middle Ages (1855), and Gothic Architecture in Spain (1865). 

STBELITZ, more properly streltei (arquebusiers), the ancient Russian militia-guard, 
first raised by Ivan Vassilevitch the terrible, in the second half of the 16th century. At 
that time, and for long afterward, they were the only standing army in Russia, and at 
times amounted to between 40,000 and* 50, 000 men. They were located at Moscow in 
time of peace, in a quarter of the capital which was set apart for them, and", being the 
bravest and most trustworthy troops in the army, were made objects of special favor 
and distinctions. But like all such petted corps, the Roman pretorians, the Turkish- 
janizaries, and the Egyptian memluks, their general turbulence, frequent revolts against 
the government (notably during the Demetrian insurrections), and incessant conspiracies 



rendered them more formidable to the Russian government than to external enemies.. 
The strelitz having, at the instigation of the grand-duchess Sophia and the chiefs of the 
Old Muscovite party, revolted against Peter the great, that iron-handed ruler caused 
them to be decimated (1698) in the great square of Moscow, and the remainder to be 
banished to Astrakhan. The feeble remnant still manifesting their characteristic turbu- 
lence aud disloyalty. Peter exterminated them almost completely in 1705. Few Russian 
families at pivsi-n: can claim kindred with the old streltzi, but to this the family of Orloff 
(q.v.) forms a prominent exception, being descended from a strelitz who was pardoned 
by Peter the givat while the axe was being raised over him. 

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS, The strength of materials depends upon their physi- 
cal constitution viz.. their form, texture, hardness, elasticity, and ductility. 

The resistance of materials in engineering works is tested in reference to various 
strains; such are 1. Extension or tension; 2. Compression or crushing; 3. Transverse 
or cross strain; 4. Shearing strain; 5. Torsion or twisting strain. 

1. Et't-'/itiun. When a rod is suspended vertically, and a weight attached to its end 
tending to tear it asunder, all its fibers act equally, and its strength evidently depends 
on the strength of the individual fibers and their number, that is, the area of cross-section 
of the rod. The following table gives the resistance to rupture of some of the most 
common materials: 

Per Square Inch. 

Fine sandstone 200 Ibs. 

Brick 300 

Common lime 50 

Portland cement. . , 240 

Deal (timber) 5 tons. 

Cast iron (ordinary) , 6 

" Stirling's toughened 12^ 

"Wrought iron, boiler-plate 20 to 24 

" bars 25 

Cast steel 60 

Ropes (hemp), four-fifths ton per pound weight per fathom. 

With regard to the elongation of materials under tensional strain, it has been observed 
that up to a certain limit, which is different for different substances, the elongation is 
proportional to the extending force, a physical truth the promulgation of which is due 
to Hooke (q.v.); up to this limit also the body nearly recovers its original form on the 
removal of the force : this limit is called the limit of elasticity. When this limit is passed, 
the permanent elongation or destruction rapidly increases until rupture takes place. 

The extension of wrought iron is about i0 ^ 00 of its length per ton of strain per 
square inch, and that of cast iron ^TjW- The limit of elasticity of wrought iron is 
attained under a strain of 12 tons per square inch; and in the case of American pine 1 
ton per square inch. 

2. Compression or Crushing Strain. The strength of pieces of stone, wood, or iron, 
whose height is small in proportion to their area, and which absolutely crush under the 
strain, is proportional to the area of their horizontal section. The following table gives 
the resistance to crushing of some of the more common materials: 

Cast iron 50 tons per square inch. 

Wrought iron 16 " 

Brickwork 30 tons per square foot. 

Sandstone 200 " 

Limestone 490 " 

Deal 450 " " " 

Oak 650 " 

Up to a certain strain, which is called the limit of elasticity, the diminutions in 
length of the body are proportional to the compressing force; and are practically the 
same in amount as the elongations in the case of tensional forces. In the case of 
wrought iron, the limit is 12 tons per ; after that strain, its shape and proportions 
become permanently altered ; and where these are of consequence, as in most practical 
cases, we come to tlie limit of its utility, which is reached when the load is about 16 tons 
per sq. inch. It then oozes away beneath additional strain, as a lump of lead would 
do in a vise. 

The mode of ultimate failure of cast iron is quite distinct from that of wrought iron. 
It crushes suddenly by the sliding off of the corners in wedge-shaped fragments, being 
a crystalline mass, without sufficient ductility to allow of its bulging horizontally; the 
angle of rupture at which these wedges slide off being tolerably constant, and varying 
from 48" to 58". The limit of elasticity is attained in cubes of deal under a compression 
of 100 tons per sq.ft. ; and in those of oak, 150 tons per sq. foot. 

Pillars, round or square, may be divided into three classes 1. Those whose height 
is not more than 5 times their diameter; 2. Those whose height is between J? and 25 
times their diameter; 3. Those whose height is at least 25 times their diameter. The 


first follow the same laws as cubes or pieces of small height above discussed, and are 
absolutely crushed; their strength being proportional to their cross section. The second 
are broken across, partly by crushing and partly by bending. The third give way purely 
from bending as with a transverse strain, and their strength is found by experiment to 
be directly proportional to the fourth power of their diameter, and inversely propor- 
tional to the square of their length. Thus, in the case of two long pillars of equal 
length, but of which one has its diameter double that of the other, the strength of ihe 
former will be 16 times that of the latter; from which will be apparent the advantage 
of the tubular form for pillars, as it gives a large diameter, combined with lightness. 

In the case of long columns whose length is 25 or more times their diameter, if wo 
represent the strength of a long cast-iron column of any dimensions by 1000, the strength 
of a wrought iron column of the same dimensions will be 1750; of cast steel, 2,500; of 
Danzig oak, 110; of red deal, 80. 

3. Transverse or Cross Strain. When a beam fixed at one end is loaded with a weight 
at the other, it is bent from its original form, and takes a curved shape. The fibers on 
the upper or convex side of the beam are extended, and those on the under or concave 
compressed; while at the middle of the beam, there are fibers which are neither extended 
nor compressed, where the compression ends and the extension begins: this surface of 
fibers is called the neutral surface. As long as the beam is not strained beyond the limit 
of its elasticity, the extensions and compressions for a given strain are nearly equul, and 
therefore the neutral surface passes through the center of gravity of the cross section of 
the beam. 

If we strain the bsatn beyond this limit, and approach the breaking strain, the exten- 
sions and compressions are no longer equal, and" therefore the position of the neutral 
surface is not readily determined. For example, in the cases of stone and cast-iron, the 
amount of compression is much less than that of the extension, and in the case of tim- 
ber greater. Also the extensions and compressions are no longer proportional to the 
strains. From these causes the position of the neutral axn, and the amount of strain 
on the different parts of the cross section at the moment of rupture, cannot be deter- 
mined by theory. 

Different theories have been proposed to determine tho relative strength of similar 
beams, while their absolute strength is left to experiment. That of Galileo consists \:\ 
supposing the beam incompressible, and that it gives way by extension turning round 
the lower edge, each point of the section giving an equal resistance before ruptur:>. 
That of Mariotte and Leibnitz supposes the "beam in like manner to turn round its lower 
edge, but considers that the resistance given out by each point of the section is propor- 
tional to its distance from that edge. 

The theory nowgenerally adopted consists in supposing the extensions and compres- 
sions to continue up to the point of rupture proportional to the strains, as is actual!/ 
the case up to the limit of elasticity, an:l therefore, that the beam turns round a neutral 
axis, passing through the center of gravity of the cross section, the force given out by 
each point being proportional to its distance from the neutral axis. This last theory is 
found to give the best results in the case of timber and wrought- iron, especially wrought. 
iron arranged in the forms usual in girders. The second represents nearly the method 
of failure of stone, and the first that of cast iron. 

Though none of these theories give accurate results, they yet give us means of deter- 
mining, from particular experiments, the strength of any other beam whatever. For 
example, these theories agree in giving the strength of a rectangular beam to be propor- 
tional to the area of cross section multiplied by the depth, and inversely proportional 
to the length of the beam, since the strain increases directly as the length. This, 
when expressed mathematically, is 

W = 0^ (I.) 

Where w = breaking weight in tons. 

b = breadth of beam in inches. 

d = depth of beam in inches. 
I = length of beam in inches. 

C = a constant number for beams of the same material, to be determined by 
, experiment. 

This result is borne out by experiment that is to say, the constant C being determined 
by experiment on one beam, the strength of any other is found by multiplying its 
breadth by the square of its depth and by the constant C, and then dividing by its 
length. In the case of a beam supported at each end and loaded by a weight in the 
middle, the strength is also given by the formula, 

W = c^ (II,. 

but c, in this case, is 4 times the value of C in the formula for a beam loaded at one end 


The truth of this may be seen from the consideration that the beam may be treated as 
if it were two beams, each fixed at the middle point at one end, and pressed upward by 
the reaction of the supports at their other ends. This reaction is evidently equal to 


-=-; so that the breaking weight of the whole beam, supported at both ends, resolves 

I W 

itself into that of a beam of length , acted on by the weight at one end -7-; this by 

formula (I.) is, 

W _fcP 

or, W=4C-7-=c-.-; 

I 6 

therefore, c=4C or C=i c, 

Experiments on the transverse strength of beams arc generally made by loading in the 
middle beams supported at both ends. The following table, from experiments by Mr. 
Barlow, gives the value of c for beams supported at each end and loaded in the middle: 

Cast-iron ................................ . .................... ... 13$ 

Wrought-iron .................................................... 12 

English oak ............ .............................. ......... Si- 

Red pine ....................................................... 2| 

These numbers when substituted in the formula give the breaking weight, one-third of 
this will be the safe load in practice. The transverse strength of. cast iron is considered 
so good a test of its value, that in specifications of iron work, it is generally required to 
be of such a quality that a bar of it, of certain dimensions, will bear a specified weight 
at the center; for example, " that a bar of it, 42 in. long, 2 in. deep, and 1 in. wide, set 
on bearings 86 in. apart, shall bear, without breaking, oO cwt. suspended in the middle." 
If a beam be loaded uniformly over its length, it will bear twice as much as if the load 
be condensed at the center. Also if the load be placed some distance from the center, 
the load it will bear is to the load borne at the center inversely as ihe rectangle of the 
segments into which the beam is divided by the point of application of the load are 
to one another, from which it follows that it will bear less weight at the center tliim tit 
any other point. 

Since the strength of a rectangular beam is proportional to the square of 1he depth, 
multiplied by the breadth, it is evident that by increasing the depth and diminishing 
the breadth we shall, up to a certain limit, increase the strength of a beam without 
increasing its weight; for example, let A and B be the sections of two beams, of which 
A is 2 in. broad and 2 deep, and B 4 in. deep and 1 in. broad, they are of the same sec- 
tional area viz., 4, but the strength of B is to the strength of A as 4 2 X 1 is to 
2' 2 X 2, or as 16 to 8, that is 2 to 1. that 'is to say, B is twice the strength of A. Hence 
arises the advantage of the double T forms so generally used in iron girders, the strength 
of which forms are proportional to the area of the top or bottom plates multiplied by 
the depth. For a beam of this form loaded at the center, the following formula will 
give the breaking weight : 

Where a= the area of the top or bottom flange in sq. inches. 

,_ { 4 times the destroying load per sq.iu. of the material, under direct ten- 

~~ / sinn or compression in tons. 
d= depth of the beam in feet. 
1= length between supports in feet. 
W= breaking weight at the center in tons. 

For cast-iron beams, when the area of the bottom flange is made 6 times that of the top, 
which has been found by experiment to be the best arrangement, and the strength is 
measured by the tensioual strain, supported by the bottom flange, that is, 6| tons per 
sq. inch. 

C=6|X4=26 tons. 
For vrrought-iron beams, 

C=4x20 80 tons for the lower flange, 
and C=4xl6=64 tons for the upper flange, 



Another way of throwing the great body of the material at a distance from the neutral 
axis is, to make it into the shape of a tube or hollow cylin- 
der. Let B be the section of a hollow cylinder, the thick- 
ness of whose walls is represented by the shaded ring; and A 
be the section of a solid cylinder of the same material. If 
the area of A is equal to that of the ring in B, the two cylin- 
ders will contain the same quantity of matter, but B will be 
stronger than A, nearly in proportion as eg is longer than clg. 
The principle of hollow structure prevails both in nature and art, wherever strength 
and lightness have to be combined. It is seen in the stems of plants, especially of the 
grasses; the bones of animals are also hollow, and those of birds, where great lightness 
is required, are most so. A feather, with its hollow stem, is perhaps the best instance 
of the union of strength and lightness that could be given. In art, again, we have 
hollow metal pillars; and sheet-iron for roofing and other purposes is corrugated, or bont 
into ridges and furrows, to give it depth. Each ridge or furrow is, as it were, half a tube, 
and resists bending with twice or thrice the energy it would if flat. 

The most striking application of the principle of hollow structure is seen in tubular 
bridges. The object being to resist a vertical strain, the form is made rectangular, and 
the chief mass of the material is thrown into the top and bottom. The tube may, in 
fact, be considered as an immense beam or girder constructed on the principle of the 
double T-iron girder, the top and bottom being the two flanges, and the two sides serv- 
ing to connect them instead of the one rib in the middle. As it is constructed of plate- 
iron, the top requires more metal than the bottom, in order to resist the compression; 
but instead of putting the metal into one thick plate, or into several plates, laid the one 
on the other,, it is made to form a set of minor tubes or cells, which give additional stiff- 
ness and strength to the whole tube. The floor, in like manner, contains cells. Each of 
the tubes over the Conway bridge is 24 ft. high, 14 ft. wide (outside), and 420 ft. long, 
and weighs 1,300 tons; yet these enormous hollow beams sustain not only their own 
weight, but the heaviest railway -trains without sensible deflection. 

Fig-. 2 represents an ingenious contrivance for strengthening the wooden beams sup- 
porting a bridge. An iron rod fixed to the beam AB at the 
two ends, is kept at a distance by struts c, c . The beam 
cannot now be bent downward without stretching the 
rod; which thus has to bear the tensive strain while 
the beam itself sustains only the compressive strain. 

Another way of removing part of the strain from a 
girder, is to fix a king-post and two oblique pieces on its 
upper side. The whole is now one composite girder: and 
when any weight bears upon it, the whole of the compressive strain is thrown upon the 
oblique pieces, and only the tensive strain is left for the beam to sustain. 

When a beam AB is fixed at one end, and loaded at the other, the strain is greatest 
at B, and is less at other points e, c', in proportion as Ac, Ac', the levers at which it acts, 
are less than AB. The beam may therefore be made to 
taper off toward the end, and we may determine the exact 
form the beam should have, in order to be equally strong 
at every point. For supposing the breadth uniform, the 
strength increases as the squares of the depths c'd', ccl, while 
the strain increases as the levers Ac', Ac; and thus, if Ac: 
Ac': : ccP to c'rf' 2 , the strengths are equal at those points. 
This proportion will always hold good, if the curve of the 
beam is that of a parabola; and, accordingly, this is the 
shape given to the beams of steam-engines. 

In beams supported at both ends, the strain is greatest 
in the middle ; girders are therefore made strongest in the 
middle, and taper toward the ends. 

4. Shearing Strain. This force is called into play when a plate is cut by shears, or 
when a riveted or bolted joint is torn asunder, in which case the rivets are sheared across. 
The effect of it is to cause the particles in one plane to slide over those in another; this 
is resisted by their mutual coherence, and the magnitude of the resistance depends on 
the number of the particles, that is on the area of cross-section of the body sheared. 
The following laws are the result of experiment: 1. The ultimate resistance to shearing 
is proportional to the area of section of the bar sheared. 2. The ultimate resistance of 
any bar to a shearing strain is nearly the same as the ultimate resistance of the same b:ir 
to a direct longitudinal strain. 

5. Torsion. If one end of the axle or shaft of awheel is immovably fixed, and a 
power acts at the circumference of the wheel (or at the end of a lever or wind. >. 
power maybe so increased as to twist the shaft asunder at its weakest point. If a slmi'r 
A has twice the diameter of another shaft B. there will be four times as many fibers iu 
the section of fracture of A, to resist the twist, as in that of B. But as the separation 
takes place by the one end of the fracture turning round upon the axis of the shaft. 
making the ends of the separating fibers describe circles, those fibers that are furthest 
from the center will have the greatest power of resistance, a^d the sum of their moments. 

FIG. 2. 

FIG. 3. 

i H Strepsiptera. 


or their united effect, will be in proportion to their mean distance from the center. This 
mean distance in A is twice that in B; therefore, the resistance in A is 2 X 4. or 8 times 
the resistance in B. Generally, the strength of shafts to resist torsion is as the cubes of their 
diameters. The torsive strengths of shafts 1 in. diameter, and with weights acting at 1 
ft. leverage, being found by experiment for different inateriiils; the strength of shafts of 
other dimensions is found from these " constants" by multiplying by the cube of the 
diameter, and dividing by the length of the lever. It is evident that the torsive strength 
of a hollow shaft will be greater than that of a solid one of the same quantity of material, 
on the same principle that its transverse strength is greater. The rule used by Boulton 
and Watt for calculating the diameters of their wrought-iron shafts was as follows: 

3 / 
Di-.uneter of shaft in inch. = A/ 

120 X horse-power. 
Kevolu. per minute. 

This is found to make the shafts rather too light; and the following variation gives safer 
practical results: __ 

8 /240 X horse-powerT 
Diameter of shaft in inch. = 47 =r- 

f Revolu. per minute. 

STREPSIP'TERA (Gr. twisted-wings), an order of insects called RHIPIPTERA (Gr. fan- 
winged) by Latreille, but first established by Kirby. The first-known species were 
observed by Rossi, and referred by him to the order hyinenoptera. The order strepsip- 
tera consists of a small number of species, very singular in structure and habits, appar- 
ently forming a connecting link between coleoptera and hyinenoptera. The species are 
all small, and in their larval state, live parasitically in the bodies of bees and wasps. Their 
natural history has been the subject of much attention since they were discovered; but 
much still remains obscure. The species form the two genera, stylops and xeiws. 

STRETCHING-COURSE, in masonry or brick-work, is a course in which the stones or 
bricks are placed with their longest sides along the face of the wall. The stones are 
called stretchers, as those placed at right angles to them with their end exposed are 
called lieaders. 

STRETTO (Ital. bound), in music, a term which signifies that the movement to which 
it is prefixed is to be performed with rapidity gradually accelerating toward the close. 
The term stretto is also applied to the recurrence in a fugue of the subject in one part 
before it has come to a close in another. See FUGUE. 

STRI'JE, the fillets between the flutes of columns, pilasters, etc. 

STRICKLAND, AGNES, an English authoress, the daughter of Thomas Strickland, 
esq., was b. at her father's seat, Reydoti hall, near Southwold, in Suffolk, in the year 
1806. She was the third daughter of a family of six daughters and two sons, nearly all 
of whom have contributed something to the literature of our time. Her first composi- 
tions were mostly in the poetical vein, and consisted of anonymous contributions to 
periodicals. About the year 1825, however, she published, in conjunction with her 
sister Susanna (afterward Mrs. Moodie), a volume of Patriotic Songs; which was fol- 
lowed, in 1826, by a little volume bearing her own name exclusively, and entitled 
Worcester Field, or the Cavalier; a Poem, in Four Cantos, with Historical Notes, which 
was favorably received by some of the reviews. Worcester Field was followed by The 
Secen Ages of Woman, and other Poems (Lond. 1827); and this by Demetrius, a Tale, of 
Greece, in Three Cantos (Lond. 1833), written in the meter of Byron's Corsair. In 1836 
she published a little volume entitled Floral Sketches, Fables, and other Poems; repub- 
lished in 1861. With this the list of Miss Agnes Strickland's poetical works ends. 
Among her prose works are: The Rival Crusoes, published without date; The Pilgrims of 
Wahingham, or Tales of the Middle Ages, an Historical Romance (2 vols., 1835); Tales and 
Stories from History (1836); Alda, the British Captive (1841); Historical Tales of Illustrious 
British Children (1847; new ed., 1858); Historic Scenes and Poetic Fancies (1850); Old 
Friends and New Acquaintances (2 series, 1860-61). All these, however, are but of small 
import in comparison with her well-known work, Lives of the Queens of England from the 
Norman Conquest, with Anecdotes of their Courts, in 12 vols. (Lond. 1840-48; new ed., 8 
vols., 1851-52). In this work, the materials for which she discovered by diligently ran- 
sacking among the treasures of the British museum and other great public repositories 
of historic dochmeuts, Miss Strickland was largely assisted by her sister Elizabeth, an 
assistance which she gratefully acknowledges in her preface. It was dedicated to queen 
Victoria; and as each volume successively appeared, its picturesque style and anecdoti- 
cal character made it a general favorite, especially among that class of readers whose 
object in reading history is rather amusement than philosophical instruction. At the 
same time it must be owned that in these Lives she has added materially to our stock of 
historical information. Miss Strickland's Lives of the Queens of England, concluding 
' with tlie biography of queen Anne, have been followed by the Lives of the Queens of Scot- 
land, and English Princes-es connected with the Ihf/ol S>trcf.<n/f>n of Great Britain, in 8 vols. 
(Ediii. and Lond. 1850-59); and these by her Lives <>f the Bachelor Kings of England 
(Lond. 1861), containing the lives of William Rufus, Edward V., and Edward VI. Miag 
U. K. XIV. 2 

Strickland. i o 


Strickland published a novel entitled How will it End* (1865); Lives of the Seven Bishops 
(1866). In 1871 she received a pension of 100. She died iu July, 1874. 

STRICKLAND, HUGH EDWIN, 1811-53; b. England; studied with Dr. Arnold at 
Lnlehiim; graduate of Oxford, 183:3; gave his attention to the special study of geology 
and ornithology. In 1850 he became reader in geology in the university of Oxford, 
succeeding Dr. Buckland, and retaining the post till his death. He was one of the 
founders of the geological society, and of the Kay society, which on account of his 
representations undertook the publication of Agassiz's JMblwyraphia Zoologie el Geologic, 
o vols. of which he edited. He contributed to scientific periodicals, and was associated 
v, iiii sir Roderick Q. Murchisou in his Silurian System. He was killed by a railway 
train while making investigations near Clarborough tunnel, on the Gainsborough and 
Relford railway. 

STEICTUEE is a term employed in surgery to denote an unnatural contraction, either 
congenital or acquired, of a mucous canal, such as the lire t ha, oesophagus, or intestine. 
When, however, the affected part is not mentioned, and a person is stated to suffer 
from stricture, it is always the urethral canal that is referred to. Contraction of this 
otnal may be either permanent or transitory; the lormer is due to a thickening of the walls 
of the urelhra, in consequence of organic deposit, and is hence termed organic stricture; 
while the latter may be due either to local inflammation or congestion, or to abnormal 
muscular action: the tirst of these varieties maybe termed inflammatory or congestive 
stricture; and the second, spasmodic stricture. The last-named form seldom exists 
except as a complication of the other kinds of stricture. There are two principal causes of 
organic stricture the first being inflammation of the canal, and the second injury by 
violence. Inflammation is by far the most common cause, and gonorrhoea is the com- 
mon agent by which it is excited. Not unfreqiiently, stimulating injections thrown 
into the urethra, with the view of checking the gonorrhceal discharge, excite an inflam- 
matory action, which gives rise to stricture. Fortunately, it is only in exceptional cases 
that a stricture results from inflammation of the urethra, the inflammation, in the great 
majority of cases, terminating by resolution, and leaving the canal as healthy as before 
the attack. It is when the complaint assumes a chronic character that it most com- 
monly lays the foundation of stricture. Stricture from the second cause arises from 
such cases as falling across spars, scaffolding, ladders, etc., or on some sharp object which 
punctures the perineum, as from earthenware vessels which break under the sitter. 

The earlier symptoms of stricture nre a slight urethral discharge and pain in the 
canal, behind the seat of the stricture, at the time of micturition. The stream of urine 
does not p^ss in its ordinary form, but is flattened or twisted; and as the disease 
advances, it becomes smaller, and ultimately the fluid may only be discharged in drops. 
The straining efforts to discharge urine often induce tenesmus (q.v.). 

As the case advances, the urine becomes alkaline and ropy, and deposits a precipitate 
when allowed to stand; and attacks of complete retention (q.v.) occur with increasing 
frequency. But these symptoms are not in themselves sufficient to establish the presence 
of stricture. It is necessary to examine the urethral canal with a catheter (q.v.) or 
bougie (q.v.), to ascertain whether an organic obstruction exists, whether one or more 
strictures are present (as many as eight have been recorded, although four are rare; and 
one is the most common number), and their caliber. The treatment of organic stricture 
is too purely surgical to be discussed in these pages: it is sufficient to state that its object 
is twofold, viz., first, to restore the natural caliber of the canal, so far as this can be 
safely effected'; and, secondly, to maintain this patency, after it has been established. 

Spasmodic stricture may occur from any of the following causes: The presence of 
organic stricture or of inflammation of the mucous membrane; from an acrid condition 
of the urine; from the administration of cantharides, turpentine, etc.; and from the 
vohin'i'.-y retention of urine for too long a time. The treatment consists in the removal 
of t:ie c.iuses as far as possible, and the hot bath. The inhalation of chloroform some- 
times gives immediate relief; and several cases are recorded in which, when the spasm 
occurred periodically, it was cured by quinine. Inflammatory or congestive stricture 
commonly arises when a recent purulent discharge from the u/ethra has been checked 
by external cold or wet. The patient complains of heat, fullness, and soreness in the 
perineum; the passage of the urine is extremely painful, the stream being small, and 
ceasing before the bladder empties. The treatment is much the same as that for reten- 
tion of urine (q.v.). 

STKIGAU, or STRIEGATJ, a t. of Prussia, province of Silesia, and government of 
Breslau, is situated on Strigau Water, 32 m. w.s.w. of Breslau. It has manufactures of 
woolens and linens. Pop. '75, 10,614. 

STRIGI'D^E, the family of nocturnal birds of prey, or owls (q.v.). 

STRIKE, a term borrowed by geologists from the German streicJien, to extend, and 
adopted with the technical meaning" it has in that language. It is applied to the direc 
tion of the outcrop of a stratum the line which it makes when it appears on the surface 
of the earth. This line is always at right angles to the dip of the bed. The angle of 
dip and the direction of strike are determined by a clinometer and compass. A per- 
fectly horizontal stratum can have neither dip nor strike. 

-I Q Strickland. 


STRIKES. Beginning as early as the middle of the 14th c. , the opposition 
of combined labor to the efforts of employers to regulate the price and hours of 
labor, has been prominent in economic history; though, indeed, the earliest incident re- 
corded in such history, had a peculiar origin, the reverse of what we have just indicated. 
The terrible plague of 1348 which continued during eight years, destroyed, it is believed, 
nearly two-thirds of the human race then existing. In London, 50, 000 bodies were buried 
in one grave-yard ; in Venice the number of deaths is said lo have been 100,000; in Liibeck 
90,000; in Spain the disease raged three years, and carried off two-thirds of ihe people; 
in the east 20,000,000 perished iu one year. One result of this protracted " dance of 
death" was a scarcity of labor so great that it became a question as to the possibility of 
providing for the living. Such a condition, not unnaturally, encouraged the craftsmen to 
increase the price of their services, with the increase of the demand and of the scarcity. 
In England this assertion of a claim which could not but be obnoxious, was met by par- 
liamentary enactments, "statutes of labor," and other exercise of the power of the" gov- 
erning class. It was the first "strike," and, as ever since, it was met by force, ll was 
an attempt to take unfair advantage of disaster a-ul death. Subsequent strikes for a rise 
in wages have been occasioned mostly by a preceding act of cutting them down. The 
introduction of machinery and the factory system into British labor, wfts the occasion 
of serious resistance on the part of skilled labor; as was the case also on the continent 
of Europe and in America. From this time strikes have been common, whenever 
laborers wished an increase of wages, or a lessening of the hours of labor. The organi- 
zation of trades-unions made it possible to conduct these movements on a large and 
powerful scale; and in many instances particularly in flush times, and when" prices 
were high they were successful. Not always conducted, however, with a due regard 
for existing economic conditions, they have frequently proved abortive for their pur- 
pose, and powerful only iu creating added and permanent distress among the laboring 
classes. Little record has been kept of the strikes which have oceured in America, but 
v>e know that as early as 18CO they occurred in Boston to secure shorter hours of labor; 
the trades engaged being carpenters and masons. Strikes 'nave occurred since in various 
manufacturing towns in Massachusetts about every year; sometimes lor shorter hours, 
sometimes for more pay. In some instances these were accompanied by rioting, and 
sometimes the militia were ordered out to suppress this. In 1834 several hundred 
laborers employed in building the Providence railroad, struck for higher wages, ;.i.d 
became riotous. This was probably the first railroad strike. As a rule, all the early 
strikes were unsuccessful, though the continual effort after the " ten-hour" rule for daily 
labor was eventually successful.- In Lowell, Lawrence, Fall Paver, and other coltou- 
manufacturing towns in Massachusetts, strikes have been frequent; man)- of them Icing 
accompanied by much bitterness and ill feeling; and all resulting in serious pecuniary 
loss to all concerned. In all the mrge cilies strikes have formed a prominent leatuie of 
the history of labor. Type-setters, stage-drivers, railroad hands, shoe-makers, and ner.riy 
all trades and callings have at or.e time or another in the past half-century experienced 
these unfortunate aberrr.tions. But the most import;. nt event of this nature, was the 
memorable railroad strike of 1877; when for two weeks, beginning July 14, 100,000 
railroad men and 40.000 miners were "on strike" at once; 6,000 m. of railroad, covering 
several of the trunk lines, were in the hands of an infuriated mob; the state militia and 
the U. S. army were found necessary to put down the accompanying riotous conduct, 
murder, and incendiarism; and more than 2,000 freight cars in Pittsburg alone, with 
their contents, were destroyed, the destruction of railroad property being estimated at 
$10,000,00, while in Chicago, Buffalo, Cincinnati, Albany, and other cities, the amount 
of loss has never been fully estimated. Sec COMBINATION, ante. 

STRING-COURSE, a thin projecting course of stone or brickwork in a wall, generally 
ornamented with a molding, and made to go around windows or other openings in the 

STRINGENDO, a term used in music to denote a gradual acceleration in the time. 

STRINGHALT is a peculiar catching up of the horse's limbs, usually of one or both 
hind limbs. It is most noticeable when the animal is first brought out of the stable, 
when he is excited, or made to turn suddenly round; it is a variety of chorea or St. 
Vitus's dance. Although a serious eye-sore, it does not interfere with usefulness, and is 
quite incurable. 

STRHSTGHAM, SILAS HORTON, 1798-1876; b. N. Y. ; entered the navy as midship- 
man. 1809; was in several actions in the President &nd Spark, under Decatur and Rodgers; 
and in 1819-21 as lieut. in command of the Cynne and the Horntt conveyed the first 
settlers to Liberia and captured many slavers. He was promoted to a captaincy in 1841, 
and participated in the bombardment of Vera Cruz. On the breaking out of the civil 
war he w r as made flag-officer of the Atlantic blockading squadron, and the Minnesota 
was his flag-ship. He commanded the naval force which in connection with the land 
forces of gen. Butler, captured forts Hatteras and Clark. In 1862 he was retired as 
rear-admiral. In 1871 he became port-admiral of New York, and resided in Brooklyn 
at the time of his death. 


Strombidse. QA 

Stroii jjylus. 

STROMBID.ZE, a family of gasteropodous mollusks, of the order peclinibranchiata f 
nearl v v allied to bucciitidiP. (whelks, etc.) aud mni'icidce. The shell has a canal, the 
external Up of which, as it attains maturity, becomes more or less dilated, and is marked 
with a sinus, whence the head issues when the animal comes out. The foot is narrow 
and small, but is employed in active leaping movements, during which the shell oscillates 
from side to side. The' species are numerous, and are mostly inhabitants of tropical 
seas. Some of them are among the largest of mollusks. Strombus gigas is the largest 
known univalve. It is found in the West Indies, on reefs in shallow water, and is fished 
both for the table aud on account of the shell. Great numbers of the shells are imported 
into Britain; 300, 000 have been brought to Liverpool in a year. They are .sometimes 
called fountain-shell, from their occasional use as a garden ornament. Their chief use, 
however, is by cauieo-makers, by whom they are valued for their solid and delicately 
tinted substance. A shell sometimes weighs four or five pounds. Pearls of a delicate 
pink color are sometimes found in this shell. The strombi are sometimes called wing- 
shells, from the dilated margin of the lip. 

STROM BOLI. one of the group of the Lipari islands (q.v.), the most north-easterly of 
the group, is ab'out 12 m. in circumference, circular in shape, aud contains 2,000 inhabi- 
tants. It is wholly of volcanic formation, and rises to the height of 3,100 ft. above sea- 
level. On its western side is a volcano of considerable activity. Sulphur and pumice- 
stone are gathered in large quantities, and among the chief agricultural products are 
cotton, wine, aud excellent fruits. 


STRONG, GEORGE C., 1832-63 ; b. Vt.; graduated at West Point, 1857, and held 
the position of 1st capt. of cadets there for 3 years. In 1861 he was attached to the staff 
ef gen. McDowell and acted as his aide at the battle of Bull Run. He afterward served 
with McClellan and Butler, and 1 distinguished himself at Biloxi, Tangipahoa river, aud 
in the assault on fort Wagner, where he was fatally wounded. He rose to the rank of 
capt. of ordnance and brig. gen. of vols. Gen. Strong was the author of Cadet Life at 
West Point. 

STRONG, GEORGE TEMPLETOX, 1820-75; b. New York; educated at Columbia col- 
lege, and called to the bar. He was prominent in his profession, especially in the 
department of real-property law. He was one of the founders of the Columbia school 
of mines, a trustee of Columbia college, a vestryman and the controller of Trinity 
church, New York, and treasurer of the U. S. sanitary commission during the war of the 

STRONG, JAMES, S.T.D., b. New York, 1822; graduated at Wesleyan university, 
Middletown, Conn., 1844; settled at Flushing, L. I., and taught Hebrew and Greek to 
private pupils; received, though a layman, the degree of S.T.D. from Wesleyan uni- 
versity, 1856; professor of biblical literature and acting president of Troy university, 
1858-61; professor of exegetical theology in Drew theological seminary, Madison, 
N. J., 1868; traveled in the'east, 1874. In" 1853 he became associated with the rev. Dr. 
John McClintock in the preparation of the Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Tlieological, and Eccle- 
siastical Literature, he having the department of biblical literature. Since the death 
of Dr. McClintock he has been the chief editor. He has published also Harmony and 
Exposition of the Gospel*; Greek Harmony of the Gospels; Manuals of Greek and Hebrew 
Grammar; Outlines of Theology; Appeal to Sunday-school Efforts; also, articles in the 
Methodist Quarterly Review and Christian Advocate and Journal. He prepared the trans- 
lation of the Book of Daniel for Lange's commentary, and is a member of the Anglo- 
American committee on the revision of the Bible. 

STRONG, JAMES H., b. Canandaigua, N. Y., 1814; son of judge Elisha B. ; entered 
the navy as midshipman, 1829; served in the Mexican war; commander, 1861; capt., 
1865. He commanded the steamer Mohawk, 1861; the Flag, 1862; and the steam sloop 
Monongahela, 1863-65. In 1863 he transported a division of the secret expedition of 
gen. Banks's army to Brazos, and aided the troops in taking the battery at Arkansas 
pass. He was in command of the Monongahela during her engagement with the ram 
Tennessee in the battle of Mobile bay; commodore, 1871. 

STRONG, NATEAN, D.D., 1748-1816; b. Conn.; graduated at Yale college, 1769; 
tutor there, 1772; ordained pastor of First church (Congregational), Hartford, 1774, 
where he remained till his death; was a chaplain in the army in the revolutionary war. 
He published TJie Doctr>ne of Eternal Misery Consistent with the Infinite Benevolence of 
God; Sermons, 2 vols; Ilie Hartford Selection of Hymns. He originated and edited the 
Connecticut Magazine, and was principal founder of the Connecticut missionary society. 
He held a high rank for learning and usefulness, and was noted for shrewdness and wit. 

' STRONG, THEODORE, LL.D., 1790-1869; b. Mass.; graduated at Yale in 1812, 
taking the mathematical prize; tutor in mathematics at Hamilton college, 1812-16; 
professor of mathematics at Hamilton, 1816-27. A new geometrical demonstration by 
him of the values of sines and co-sines of the sum and difference of two arcs, and a so- 
lution of a difficult problem in diophantine analysis, were' published in the American 
Journal of Science in 1818. Other important papers appeared in subsequent numbess. 

k} 1 Strombidw. 


After having mastered the Printipia of Newton and the subjects added by its com- 
mentators, lie addressed himself to the study of the more modern analysis of La Grange 
and Laplace. This required a knowledge of the French language which he did not 
possess, but he soon taught himself sufficient to be able to read mathematical works ia 
French as well as in English or Latin. In 1827, upon a second invitation from Rutgers 
college, N. J., he became professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in that in- 
stitution, and removed to New Brunswick, where he remained during the rest of his 
life, performing the duties of his chair till 1862. Prof. Strong made many important 
contributions to mathematical science, among which may be mentioned the solution of 
what is known as the irreducible case of cubic equations of Cardan, a result which had 
long been sought in vain. He also devised a method for the application of the bi- 
nomial theorem for the extraction of the roots of whole numbers. His two principal 
systematic works are: A Treatise on Elementary and Higher Algebra (1859); and A 
Treatise OK the Differential and Integral Calculus (1869). Both of these treatises contain 
much original work. In the Algebra, besides what is mentioned above, there is: 1. A 
direct investigation of the binomial theorem; 2. A simple method of finding integral 
algebraic roots; 3. A method of solving quadratic equations without completing "the 
square. 4. The doctrine of continued fractions deduced immediately from the form of 
the quotients and remainders in common division. 5. A new demonstration of the 
method used for finding the limits of the real roots of equations, including the theorem 
of Descartes. 6. A new and much more simple method than that of Sturm for finding 
the first figures of the real roots of an equation. The work on Calculus, written in his 
78th year, and without the aid of notes or books, has many original features, and is di- 
vested of technicalities and formulas which have become the accretions of time. It 
contains a solution, by a new and beautiful method, of the problem, " To find the area 
bounded by the ordiuate of a plane curve drawn through the origin of the co-ordinates 
by any other ordinate and the intercepted parts of the axis and the curve, supposing the 
ordinates to be constantly positive between the preceding limits." Prof. Strong was a 
contributor to various mathematical and scientific journals for the greater part of his 
life. To the American Journal <>f &c>'ence he contributed 22 papers between 1818 and 
1845. To the' Mathematical Diary, published at New York and edited at first by Dr. 
Robert Ackian and afterward by James Ryan, he also contributed. To the Mathematical 
Mi-"-(l ! .i<y, edited by Mr. Charles Gill at Flushing, L. I., he contributed 22 papers; to 
the Cambridge MiteeBan/y, edited by profs. Peirce and Lovering, seven papers; and to 
the MatJiematical Monthly, edited by I. D. Runkle, two papers. He also communicated 
five different papers to the National academy of sciences from 1864 to 1867 inclusive. 
Among the papers contributed to the American Journal of Science are a systematic dis- , 
cussion of the laws regulating the action of a central force, the path of the curve pro- 1 
duced thereby, and the mutual action of a system of bodies ; a discussion of the par, 
allelogram of forces, their composition and resolution, and the statical equilibrium. In 
volume xvi. of the journal, on p. 286, there is a deduction of the differential equation 
which constitutes the fundamental formula for expressing the angular velocity of a 
planet in terms of its radius vector, and thence, the force being given, the law of the 
curve of revolution, and of all curves produced by a central force, corresponding to the 
result given by Laplace in the first part of his second book of the Mechanique Celeste, 
and to that of Newton in the 41st proposition, section viii., of the Principia. He was 
one of the original members of the National academy of science, and was also a member 
of the Connecticut academy of arts and sciences at New Haven, of the American 
academy of arts and sciences at Boston, and of the American philosophical society at 

STRONG, WILLIAM, LL.D., b. Conn., 1808; graduated at Yale college, 1828. He 
studied law, and after his admission to the bar, 1832, began practice in Reading, Penn. 
In 1849 he w T as elected to congress and served two terms, after which he resumed prac- 
tice. In 1857 he was elected a judge of the Peiin. supreme court, but resigned four 
years before the full term (15 years)"had elapsed. After two years of practice in the 
higher branches of the profession, he was appointed associate justice of the U. S. 
supreme court by pres. Grant. 

STRONGYL ID2E, a family of nematode worms, possessing the following common 
characters: The body is round, and sometimes very much elongated, and almost thread- 
like. The mouth is round, oval, or triangular, and situated at the extreme anterior end 
ef the body. The tail of the male is commonly furnished with a bursa, usually emit- 
ting two spicules. The whole family is parasitic, and contains a number of genera. 
Some of the strongylidaj are parasitic in man, some in mammals, birds, reptiles, etc. 

STRONGYLTJS (from the similar Greek word signifying round) is the term applied to 
a genus of the family strongylidce (q.r.) of nematode parasitic worms. The only true 
strongylus infesting man is the 8. bronchialis of Cobbolcl, previously known asflaria 
luminw bronchiattt, haanularia eompressa, etc. The male usually measures rather more 
than half an inch, while the female is upward of an inch in length. For the general 
and specific characters of this rare entozoon, the reader is referred to Cohbold's Entozoa r 
p. 357. The worm was originally discovered by Treutter in 1790, who found several 

8*ronsa y. O Q 

Strueuaee. ^ 

individuals in the bronchial glands of an emaciated subject. In 1845 it was again found 
by Dr. Fortsitz at Klausenberg in Transylvania, in the lungs of a boy six yeura old. 
These are the only two cases recorded by Kiichenmeisier and Cobbold 'of its .occurring 
in the human subject; but closely -allied srecies, S. paradox us and & luicrurus, r.rc occa- 
sionally found, according to Cobbold, in the lungs and air-passages of the pig and the 
calf respectively, and Kuchenmeister states that he has found a. species iu the lungs of 
the sheep. 

Closely allied to strongylus is the genus custrongylus of Diesing and Cobbold, which 
contains the species E. f/'tgas, more commonly known as the strongylus gigatt of KudolpLc, 
Cuvier, and others. This is the largest nematode worm at present known to infest 
or any other animal; " the male measuring from ten inches to a foot in length, and i 
of an inch in breadth; while the female is said to attain a length of over 3 feet, its trans- 
verse diameter being fully half an inch; body cylindrical, and more or less tinged with 
redness; head obtuse, and furnished with a simple oval aperture surrounded by six 
chitinous nodules: mode of reproduction, probably viviparous; eggs broadly oval, meas- 
uring about irjy from pole to pole." Op. cit, p. 358. This worm occurs, according to 
Bremser, in the kidneys and bladder, sometimes in the abdominal cavity and the cmen- 
tum, more rarely in the lungs and liver of "martens, dogs, wolves, seals, otters, oxen, 
and horses." Fortunately it is very rare in man, and, according to Cobbold, weasels are 
the animals in which it is most commonly found. The symptoms to which it must 
give rise must be much the same as those arising from abscess and degeneration of one 
of the kidneys, or from renal calculi. The diagnosis in a suspected c;.se could only be 
established by the detection of the eggs or embryos in the urine. 

STRONSAY, one of the Orkney islands, lies 15 m. n.e. from the town of Kirkwall. It 
is ?i in. long, and 6 m. in extreme breadth. Pop. '71, 1267. 


STRONTIUM (symb. Sr, cquiv. 43.8 new system, 87.6 sp. gr. 2.54) is a ductile nnd 
malleable metal, somewhat harder than lead, and of a pale yellow color. "When heated 
in the air, it burns with a crimson flame, and bccrmes converted into its oxide, stromia. 
It is unaffected by the action of dry air. but it decomposes water at an ordinary tempera- 
ture, hydrogen being explosively developed; and it burns in chlorine gas, rnd in the 
vapor of iodine, bromine, and sulphur. ' It dissolves in dilute nitric acid, but 
acid has scarcely any effect on it. This metal does not occur in the native stale, Lut 
exists as a carbonate in the mineral strontianiie (so called from its being first found 
Strontian, in Argyleshirc), and as a sulphate in the mineral known as cclestine (so raihd 
liom its delicate blue lint). It is obtained by the voltaic decomposition of the chloride 
cf strontium. This metal bears to barium the same close relation that todium bears to 
1 (>t;^sium; find the compounds of strontium resemble those cf barium not only in their 
composition but in their properties. 

The oxide of strontium, commonly known as STROXTIA, is obtained in the s-r.ine 
way, and resembles in almost all respects the corresponding oxide of barium, except 
that it is inert when taken into the system, while baryta is poisonous. "When a sn:all 
quantity of water is poured upon it, it slakes, giving out heat. 

The salts of strontia resemble those of baryta in their general characters, and in their 
being precipitated from their solutions by sulphuric acid and the soluble sulphates; but 
they differ from them in not being thrown down by silico-fluoric acid or hyposulphite 
of soda, and in their communicating to the flame of the spirit-lamp and to burning sub 
stances generally, a brilliant purple-red color. The salts of strontia occur only in the 
mineral kingdom, and arc never (bund as normal ingredients of organic bodies. Ctirlon- 
ate of strontia (SrO,CO 2 ) occurs native both in a massive and crystalline form, and ii.ny 
be obtained artificially as awhile powder by precipitating a soluble saltoi' strontium with 
carbonate of soda. Sulphate of strontia occurs native in celestine, a mineral which is 
found in beautiful rhombic prisms in Sicily. Hit-rate of strontia (SrO,NO t ) separates 
from a hot concentrated solution in large colorless transparent anhydrous cdahcdral 
ery.-taK which dissolve freely in water. By the addition of nitric acid, it is precipitated 
from its aqueous solution. This salt is insoluble in alcohol; but when finely pow<ii-;cd, 
and mixed with it, it communicates to the alcoholic flame a -beautiful red or crimson 
color. In consequence of this property, it is employed by the makers of fireworks. A 
mixture of 40 parts of nitrate of strontia with 10 of chlorate of potash, 13 of sulphur, 
anel 4 of sulphide of antimony, deflagrates with a magnificent red color, and constitutes 
what is popularly known as red Bengal fire; but the mixture is dangerous both to prepare 
and to preserve, having more than once been the e>ccasion of frightful accidents to the 
manufacturers from its becoming ignited spontaneously. 

The most important of the haloid salts of strontium is the cltloridc (SrCl), which may 
be obtained in crystals containing six equivalents of water. The water is expelled at a 
moderate- heat, leaving the chloride anhydrous. The chloriele is the only salt from 
which the metal has hitherto been obtained. 

Regarding the history of this metal, it may be observed that strontia wns discovered 
as an independent substance almost simultaneously by Hope and Klaproth in 1793. In 
1807 Davy obtained barium and strontium from their oxides, but not in a pure state. 

Q q Stronsay. 

*** Stvueiisee. 

and it was not till 1853 that Bunscn and Mattliicssca succeeded in procuring perfectly 
pure specimens of the metal. 


GTROSSMAYER, JOSEPH GEORGE, b. Eszek, 1815. After being educated at Pesth, 
Vienna, and Padua, ho became Roman Catholic bishop of the united sees of Bosnia and 
Bir;ni:i in 1S50. lie attended the Vatican council of 1869, and the text of a violent 
ppcech, opposed to the introduction of the question of pap;:l infallibility, was published 
in several journals as having been made by bishop Strossmayer. In 1872, however, ha 
wrote a letter to the Franyais, in which he" denied having made such a speech. He has 
been for 30 years a zealous promoter of Slavic interests. 

STROTII'ER, DAVID HUNTER, b. Ya., 1810; came to New York iu 1845 and studied 
art for several years. In 1853 he first became known to the public as "Porte Crayon," 
the author of a series of very amusing papers illustrative of travel, scenery, and manners 
iu the south and elsewhere, some of which were afterward collected in Virginia lllus- 
trtifc-J (1857). He catered the union army as cupt., iu 1864, resigned, and iu 1867 was 
brevet ted brig.gen. After tlu war ho published in Harper's Monthly (where all his writ- 
ings had appeared) a series of Personal llsminiscenccs of the War. Iu 1879 he was 
appointed consul-general- to Mexico. 

STROTJD, a parliamentary borough and market t. of Gloucestershire, 9 m. s.s.e. of the 
city of Gloucester, stands in a beautiful and extensive valley, at the confluence of the 
Frome and Slide, which unite to form the Stroud water or Frame It is the center of the- 
woolen manufactures of Gloucestershire, and contains a number of woolen and silk-mills. 
The wa'er of the Frome is peculiarly adapted for use in dyeing scarlet and other grain, 
c >1 ors; anil on this account cloth-factories and dyeworkshave been built along its banks 
for the distance of 20 miles. The borough of Stroud forms part of the great west of 
England cloth districts. Pop. of parliamentary borough, which sends two members ta 
the house of commons, '71, 33,610. 

STROUSBERG, BETHEL HENRY (DR.), b. Prussia, 1823; of Jewish parentage; orig- 
inal name Baruch Hirseh Straushergi; in early life converted to Christianity; entered 
the oilice of his uncles, commission merchants, in London, 1835; married an English 
woman; failed in the insurance business in 1847; became a teacher of languages in New 
Orleans. 1848; speculated in damaged goods to such advantage that lie was able to return 
to London in 1849, and assist in publishing The G liens Player and other magazines. 
In 1855 he went to Berlin on insurance business, and negotiated for the East Prussian 
railway, lie became a railroad magnate, building railroads in Germany, Hungary, an I 
Romania, and owning immense factories for manufacturing railroad materials. Ha 
established beet-sugar and porcelain factories, and was the proprietor of the Berlin cattlo 
yard, the citadel grounds at Antwerp, and an immense estate in Bohemia. He engaged 
in vast speculations, employed 100,000 persons at one time, and has been known in Ber- 
lin as Der Wanderdoctor. In the war of 1870-71 he met with enormous losses; failed iu 
1875 in consequence of some transactions with the Romanian government, and was 
vjued at .Moscow in the same year for certain irregularities connected with a bank. 

STBTTENSSE, JOHANX FRIEDRTCH, Count of, a man who, in last century, attracted 
the attention aad excited the sympathy of the whole of Europe, by his elevation and 
downfall at the Danish court. Struensee was born Aug. 5, 1737, at Halle on the Salle, 
where his father, Adam Struensee, the author of the old Halle Hymn-book, was pastor 
of the Ulricuskirche. Young Struensee studied medicine, and when scarcely 19 years old 
passed as doctor. Early alienated from positive Christianity, he zealously embraced tho 
philosophy which had then arisen in France, and became a disciple of Helvetius and 
Voltaire. Whea his father removed to Altona ho accompanied him, and was soon after- 
ward appointed traveling physician to the young king, Charles VII. of Denmark; and on 
their return from a tour, physician in ordinary. At first the young queen, Caroline 
Matilda, sister of George III. of England, looked upifn him with mistrust; and it was 
not till 1770, when Struensee successfully managed the inoculation of the two-year old 
crown-prince, afterward king Frederick VI., that she came round to him, intrusted him 
with the education of the prince, and by degrees made him the confidant of her unhappy 
position. Struensee removed the estrangement between the royal pair, which was the 
work of the favorite Hoick, and, in consequence, rose still higher in favor with both. 
He was appointed reader to the king, and private secretary to the queen. Since the rev- 
olution of 1660, Denmark had been under the domination of the nobility, who, as a coun- 
cil of state, governed the country. Struensee saw the disadvantages of this government 
of the nobles, and formed the ambitious resolve to come forward in this land of his adop- 
tion as an enlightened reformer after the model of Frederick II. To begin with, he 
effected the downfall of the favorite Hoick, in whose stead his friend Brandt was appointed 
royal companion and director of the court amusements. In order to gain the love of the 
people. Struensee proclaimed the freedom of the press. The council was dissolved, and 
a proclamation issued -to the effect that the royal power in all its purity, as it had been 
handed down from olden times, was to be re-established. These measures amounted in 
reality to a revolution, and to a declaration of war against the aristocracy. The queen and 
Struensee, in whose hands the whole power now was, chose new ministers, and excluded 

Struthionidaj. f)A 

Stuart. "* 

the feeble Christian entirely from the management of affairs. In July, 1771, Struense* 
received the title of cabinet minister, along with unlimited power, lie brought .several. 
men from Germany, whom he appointed to different offices. This introduction of 
strangers caused great dissatisfaction among the people. In opposition to the politics of 
his predecesMirs, Strucn.-ee endeavored to free Denmark from Russian influence, and to 
find a natural ally in Sweden. The changes which he undertook in the internal affairs 
were directed to the advancement of the prosperity of the country, of civil liberty, and 
enlightenment. He put the finances in order, reduced the expenditure, loosened the fet 
t<-rs in which industry and trade had been bound, encouraged education, mitigated the 
penal laws, and brought order into the administration. An act passed in 1771 to a cer 
tain extent abolished serfage. All these reforms, which are in operation in the Danish 
dominions at the present day, were excellent; but the haste and want of statesmanlike 
skill with which they were carried out made them appear as the acts of the most vexa- 
tious tyranny. Struensec committed a great mistake, too, in recklessly obtruding his 
philosophy of enlightenment in the face of the strict orthodox clergy and the pious preju- 
dices of the people. 

Strueusce had scarcely been in power a year when the symptoms of reaction appeared 
in all quarters. The queen gave birth to a daughter in 1771, which, in the condition of 
the king, gave rise to most scandalous reports. The British ambassador, lord Keith, who 
.saw the catastrophe approaching, proposed to Strueusee, by the advice of George III., to 
take refuge in England; but Struensee declined doing so. At the head of the hostile 
party was Christian VII.'s step-mother, Juliana Maria, princess of Braunschweig- Wolfen- 
biittel, who was impatient of the domination of the queen and Struensee. A bold stroke 
was to precipitate Struensee and ruin the queen, and the night when a court ball was to 
take place was fixed upon for carrying out the plot. The conspirators assembled at the 
king's stepmother's, and by a secret door entered the bedroom of the king, and obliged 
him to make out 15 warrants of arrest, among others for Struensee. Christian was pre- 
vailed upon, but with much difficulty, to write out orders to arrest and convey his con- 
sort the queen to Kroneuburg. Struensee and the queen were then taken prisoners, and 
the former was treated with extreme harshness, put in chains, and brought to the citadel. 
He was accused of an assault on the person of the king; of the intention to compel Chris- 
tian to abdicate the throne; of criminal intercourse with the queen; of using a fatal sys- 
tem in the education of the crown-prince; and of the usurpation and abuse of supremo 
power. Xot one of these points could be legally proved. In a second examination, how- 
ever, Struensee, with tears, confessed to having had improper intercourse with the queen; 
but some of his contemporaries affirm that he made the confession under threat of torture. 
On this important confession, a second commission was sent to the queen at Kronen 
burg, from whom, however, not the slightest confession of guilt could be extorted. When 
one of the commissioners at last remarked that if she made Struensee guilty of falsehood 
he would be put to a disgraceful death for slandering majesty, the queen seized a pen, 
and began to sign a paper which contained the confession of her guilt. She had not fin- 
ished when she sunk in a swoon in her chair; and it is said that some one put the pen in 
her hand, and guiding it, finished the name, <; Caroline Matilda." Struensee was found 
guilty of a great and capital crime, and was sentenced to a cruel death. It was wished 
by some to proceed further against the queen; but the commissioners were satisfied with 
the simple separation of the royal pair, especially as the British ambassador threatened 
the appearance of a British fleet. After the king had confirmed the sentence, not wiih- 
out being urged by the Russian ambassador, it was carried into execution, April 28, 1772, 
amid the rejoicings of the multitude. In the prospect of death, Struensee is said to have 
returned to the Christian faith. There is no doubt that he did not deserve his fate, but 
that he fell a sacrifice to the party of the nobles. The execution of his friend Brandt, 
which took place at the same time, was a still clearer case of legal murder, as he never 
took any part in the affairs of government. Struensee's brother would have shared the 
same fate had not Frederick II. claimed him in a menacing manner as a Prussian sub- 
ject. Queen Caroline Matilda left Denmark in May, 1772, and died of grief in 1775, in 
the castle of Celle in Hanover. * 

In recent times Struensee's history has been recalled to memory in a tragedy by Mich. 
Beer and Heinr. Laube. See Host, O/ -/ n t Struensee and his Ministry (1824 ; Germ. Copenh. 
1826); Falkenkeold, Memmres (Paris, 1826). 


STRUTS, straining pieces of timber in a roof, used to strengthen the principal trusses 


STRUTT, JOSEPH, 1742-1802; b. England; studied painting, but afterward devoted 

himself to antiquarian researches. Amon<r his works are Tlie Rt>/nl. nn>l Errfrftiitxtinil, 

liti?* of Kuril r,tl(\ 773); The Chronicle of England (ITTJ-IB); Complete Vmn of the 

Divx* and Habit* <>f tlir People of England from the Establishment f 11,? '.?.<? in J! 

i<> th, Pr,--*cni lime (1796-99); and The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England (1830). 

STRTJVE, FRiEDRiCH-GEORo-WiLiiKiAr, a celebrated astronomer, was b. at Al- 
tona. April 15, 1793. educated at the university of Dorpat (Russia), and appointed to a 
post in the observatory of that place in ISio. He became director of the. Dorpat 

OK Stnithionidaa. 


observatory in 1817, and continued with the utmost assiduity his observations and re- 
searches respecting double and multiple stars, adding immensely to our knowledge of 
these systems; and earning for himself the reputation of being one of the most skillful of 
practical astronomers. The instrument with which he observed was a Frauuhofer'a 
(q.v.) refractor, of 10 in. aperture, and 13 ft. focal length; and with this telescope, in 
gleaning from the depths of space the materials for his three important works on 
double stars (1822 and 1828, 1837 and 1840, 1852), he examined no fewer than 120,000 of 
these twinkling luminaries. His investigations have led him to the conclusion, that the 
number of true double stars is much larger than was previously supposed (see STARS). 
Struve also executed a number of important geodetic operatic .s, such as the triangula- 
tion of Livonia, in 1816-19, and the measurement of an arc of "the meridian in the 
Baltic Provinces, in 1822-27; which was subsequently (1828-56) extended by him in 
conjunction with Hausteen (q.v.) and Selander, to the iNorth Cape; and by gen. Tenner 
southward to Ismail in Turkey. This latter undertaking, the most extensive trigono- 
metrical operation ever performed, when completed, gave the length of a meridian arc 
of 20, and enabled geometers to determine with increased accuracy the exact form of 
the earth. Meanwhile, Struve had been appointed, in 1839, director of the best organ- 
ized observatory in the world, that of Pulkova (q.v.), and also chosen correcpondant in 
the astronomical section of the academy of sciences of Paris. He died at St. Peters- 
burg Nov. 23, 1864. His son, OTTO-WILHELM STRUVE, also an eminent astronomer, 
was born at Dorpat, May 7, 1819, was educated under his father's direction, became his 
chief assistant at Pulkova, and the director of the observatory after his death. He has 
made numerous astronomical discoveries, among which are more than 500 new double 
stars, and (1847) a satellite of Uranus, and has written numerous important papers, the 
most noticeable of which set forth his researches on the inner or dusky ring, and 
on the variation in breadth of the bright rings of Saturn, and on the periodic" motions of 
double stars. 


STRYCHNOS, a genus of trees of the natural order loganiacea, having a five-lobed 
calyx, a tubular funnel-shaped or salver-shaped corolla, with a five-partite limb, five 
stamens, a filiform style, numerous ovules, and a one-celled berry, with a leathery rind, 
many-seeded, or, by abortion, one-seeded, the seeds discoidal and compressed. To this 
genus belongs the S. nux vomica, a tree of middling size, with ovate-stalked leaves, a 
native of India, the fruit of which is produced in great abundance, and is about the size 
of a small orange; the seeds are the nux wmica of commerce, and yield strychnine'. The 
bark partakes of the poisonous quality of the seeds. The wood of the tree is very hard 
and durable. The clearing-nut (q.v.), and St. Ignatius' (q.v.) beau are produced by 
species of this genus, to which also belongs the tree (S. toxifera) which produces the 
woorali or curare (q.v.) poison of South America. Another species is the UPAS TIEUTB 
(8. Tieute) of Java, a large climbing shrub, the bark of which is extremely poisonous, 
containing a very large quantity of strychnine. The wood of a species found in the 
north of India (S. colubrina), which is also a climber, is an imaginary cure for snake- 
bites. The bark of 8. pseudo-quina, a Brazilian species, is used as a substitute for 

STBYPE, Eev. JOHX, a voluminous ecclesiastical historian, was b. in London in 
1643. He studied at Cambridge, entered the church, and held for many years, with 
other smaller livings, the rectory of Low Leyton, in Essex. He died at Hackney in 
1737, having reached the great age of 94. His works fill thirteen large folio volumes. 
The most important are Memorials of Arclibishop Cranmer (1694) ; Life of Sir Thomas 
Smirh. secretary of state to Edward VI. and Elizabeth (1698); Lives of Bishop Aylmer 
(1701), Sir John Cfake (1705), Archbishop Grindal (1710), Archbishop Parker (1711), and 
Archbishop WJiitgift (1718); Annals of the Reformation (vol. i. 1709, vol. ii. 1723, vol. iii. 
1728, and vol. iv. 1731); Ecclesiastical Memorials, relating to religion and the church of 
England under Henry VIII., Edward yi., and queen Mary, in 3 vols. folio, published 
in 1721. This is his best work, forming, with Burnet's more readable History of the 
Reformation, a consecutive and full account of the reformed Anglican church. Strype 
also published an enlarged edition of Stow's Survey of London, with several sermons 
and pamphlets. As a writer, he is heavy, but honest and plodding, and he was a faith- 
ful transcriber of the ancient papers he published, which, he says, were all copied 
with his own hand. 

STUART, Lady ARABELLA, or ARBELLA, 1575-1615, b. England, daughter of 
Charles Stuart, earl of Lennox, and cousin of James I. Her relationship to Elizabeth 
gave rise to a number of plots to put her on the throne. Several schemes to marry her 
were defeated by Elizabeth. In 1803 sir Walter Raleigh was charged with a plot to 
place her on the throne. In 1610 it was discovered that she had made a secret marriage 
with William Seymour, grandson of the earl of Hertford. Seymour was imprisoned in 
the Tower, and she was put in the custody of the bishop of Durham, but escaped to a 
French vessel, in which her husband, who had escaped from the Tower, was also to sail. 
He did not reach it, and it sailed and was captured. He escaped, however, in another 
Vessel. Arabella spent the rest of her life in the Tower, and finally became insane. 

Stuart. 26 

STUABT, CHARLES EDWARD LEWIS CASIMIR, often called the younger pretender, 
tho eldest son of James Francis Edward, prince of Wales, known as the elder pretender, 
or chevalier St. George (see STEWAKT, FAMILY OF), and his wife Clementina Sobieski, 
granddaughter of the celebrated Polish monarch, John Sobieski. He was bom at Rome, 
on Dec. 31, 1720, and bore among the Jacobites the title of prince of Wales. He served 
under dou Carlos in Spain, and in his youth is described as having been handsome, 
affable, and engaging in manners. In 1743 28 years after his father's unsuccessful 
attempt to regain the crown, a scheme \vas contrived in France, with the support of the 
Jacobites in England, by which Charles Edward was to recover the throne of Great 
Britain for his family. The first contrived project was lo land an army in Kent, where 
were many adherents of the exiled house; and troops to the number of 15, 000 were 
assembled, and transports provided at Boulogne, Dunkirk, and Calais to carry them to 
England. But the squadron which was to have convoyed the transports fled before the 
British fleet under sir John Eorris; a storm destroyed the transports, and most of the 
troops were drowned. Charles, however, only awaited a favoraule opportunity to make 
a fresh attempt. In July, 1743, when George II. was in Hanover, and Scotland almost 
without military, he sailed from Nantes, in company with the marquis of Tullibardme, 
and a few other devoted followers, and lauded in the bay of Lochuauuagh, whence he 
proceeded to Kinlochmoidart, where the Highland clans attached to his cause were 
summoned to rise. Tea days later, Charles's standard was set up at Glenfinnan; and he 
marched southward at the head of a large body of hardy mountaineers. Government 
offered a reward of 30,000 for the apprehension of the pretender's son, who retaliated by 
offering a like reward for the apprehension of the elector of Hanover. At Perth, the 
insurgents were joined by the duke of Perth and lord Strathallan, with a numerous 
retinue of followers; and on their approach, Edinburgh surrendered without resistance, 
the castle, which was in possession of the king's troops, still holding out. Charles took up 
his resilience at Holyrood palace, where he proclaimed his father king of Great Britain, 
and himself regent. 

Meanwhile, sir John Cope, the commander- in-chief of the king's troops in Scotland, 
having collected some re-enforcements in the n., came from Aberdeen to Dunbar by sea, 
and encamped at Prestonpans. He was there unexpectedly attacked by tho High- 
landers, and ignominiously routed, leaving baggage, cannon, and camp equipage on the 
field. Contrary to the advice of his council, Charles, who could not bear opposition, 
resolved to advance into England, though his force hardly exceeded 0,500 men. Carlisle 
surrendered at his approach, and he proceeded unmolested as far as. Derby. In the 
me:m time, three English armies, each larger than his own, were preparing to meet him. 
Being unable to raise any recruits in England, he found it necessary to retreat into 
Scotland, where he hoped to meet a re-enforcement under lord John Drummond. Oa 
their way n., the Highlanders were pursued by the duke of Cumberland, whom they 
defeated near Penritli. Finding that Edinburgh was now in possession of the king's 
troops, Charles, joined by lord John Drummond and lord Strathallan, made his way to 
Stirling. That town surrendered to him, and he laid siege to the castle. Gen. Hawley. 
in endeavoring to raise the siege, was utterly routed by lord George Murray, at the head 
of the Macdonalds of Keppoch. But the advance of the duke of Cumberland obliged 
tho rebels to retreat further n., and for a time they carried on a desultory Avar with the 
king's troops in the neighborhood of Inverness. On April 16, 1746, the duke of Cum- 
berland encountered Charles's army on Culloien moor, and opened a heavy cannonade 
on tiiem. The Highlanders at first rushed boldly forward; but on the advance of the 
royal infantry, they gave way; the battle s >ou became a rout, and the fugitives were 
pursued and slaughtered by the dragoons, who gave no quarter, and spread carnage and 
desolation over the country. The rebels lost that day at least 1000 men of the bravest 
and most devoted to the cause. Charles escaped to the Hebrides, hunted by the kind's 
troops; disguised in female attire, he was conveyed to Skye in an open boat by Flora 
Macdouald, daughter of Macdonald of Milton. For months he wandered in concealment 
among the mountains of Skye and the mainland, where he had many hairbreadth 
escapes; and though his secret was known to hundreds of the poorest of the people, no 
one was tempted by the 30,000 reward to betray him. He eventually escaped to France, 
and no further attempts were made to reinstate the exiled family. 

Charles Edward remained in France till the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748). It was 
made a condition of that treaty that France should abandon the cause of the Stuarts; 
and Charles, refusing to quit France voluntarily, was conducted with a guard out of the 
kingdom, and retired to Rome. 

He married on April 17. 1772, Louisa Maximiliana de Stolberg-Guedern, daughter of 
Gustavus Adolphus, prince of Stolberg Guedern. The union did not prove a happy 
one, and the princess withdrew herself from him. See ALBANY, COUNTESS OF. In the 
latter years of his life, the prince was addicted to intoxication. When his claims ceased 
to be supported by any foreign power, he dropped the title of prince of Wales, and 
assumed that of count of Albany. He died at Rome, Jan. 31, 1788, and was buried at 
Frascati. There was no issue of his marriage, but he left a natural daughter, on whom 
he bestowed the title of duchess of Albany, and to whom he bequeathed considerable 

Two brothers, generally known as John Sobieski Stuart and Charles Edward Stuart, 



endeavored, some years ago, to persuade the world that Ihcy were legitimate grandsons 
of Charles Edward. In point of. fact, they were sons of captain Thomas Allen, R.N., 
and grandsons of admiral John Carter Allen, who died in 1800. Their story, as set forth, 
\sith some slight mystifications, in a work called Tales of the Century, or Sketches of the 
Romance of History between Hie Yearn 1746 and 1846, was to the effect that their father, in 
place of being admiral Allen's sou, was a son of prince Charles and the princess Louisa, 
whose birth was kept secret, from fear of the Hanoverian family, and who was intrusted 
to admiral Allen, and passed off by him for his own son. The life of Charles Stuart is 
detailed in History of the Rebellion, 1745-46, by R. Chambers. 

STUART, GEORGE HAY, b. Ireland, 1816; educated at Bainbridge, emigrated to the 
United States, and engaged in business at Philadelphia; is distinguished as an active 
Christian philanthropist ; during the rebellion was president of the U. S. Christian com- 
mission, and afterward of the Indian commission; is president of the Philadelphia branch 
of the evangelical alliance; a vice-president of the American Sunday-school union, Bible 
and tract societies. For many years he was very prosperous in 'business, and is now 
president of a national bank in Philadelphia. 

STUART, GILEEKT CIIAULES, American painter, was b. at Narragansett, Rhode Island, 
in 1756. In his boyhood, he went to Edinburgh with a Scotch painter named Alexander, 
with whom he studied his art; but his master dying, he worked his passage home, and 
began to paint portraits at Newport. In 1778 he made his way to London, where he led 
for two years a wild Bohemian life; but his talent was recognized by his countryman, 
Benjamin We>t, president of the royal academy, who took him into his family, and 
whose full-length portrait he painted for the national gallery. In 1781 he opened his 
studio in London, and painted the portraits of his majesty George III., the 
prince of Wales, the duko of Northumberland, sir Joshua Reynolds, John Keinble, col. 
Barre, and many other celebrated characters. He also made a professional visit to Dub- 
lin, and m Paris painted a portrait of Louis XVI. In 1793 in the fullness of his powers 
and fame, he returned to America, and painted portraits of Washington, Jefferson, and 
many of the distinguished men of the period, and commenced a portrait of John Quiucy 
Adaaij, v. inch i:t hio de~.ii wuj liiiiaiicd by bully, lie died at Boston, July, 1823. 

STUART. JAMZSE. B., 1S3'3-G4; b. Ya. ; graduated at the U. S. military academy. 
West Point, 1834. Ho was engaged on the frontier lighting Indians, under Sumuer and 
Joseph E. Johnston, and became noted for his daring. In 1857 he was severely wounded 
while fighting a party of Cheyennes. In May, 1801, president Lincoln appointed him a 
capt. in the U. S. cavalry, but he declined the appointment to accept from the confederates 
that of col. of a. Virginia cavalry regiment. He commanded the confederate cavalry at 
the battle of first Bull Run; and in September was appointed brig gen., and given 
command of all the Virginia cavalry. He made several successful raids on the union 
positions, and was appointed maj.gen. in the confederate army, and placed in command 
of a division of cavalry. On Au^22. 1862, lie made his famous dash at the right flank 
of gen. Pope's army, at Catlett's station. During a heavy storm hc.penetrated to Pope's 
headquarters, where he succeeded in capturing important papers, besides obtaining the 
private effects and dress uniform of gen. Pope, and of several of his efficers. He made 
important raidsafter Antietam; in the Chancellorsville campaign; and during Lee's inva- 
sion of Pennsylvania; and covered the confederate retreat after. the battle of Gettysburg. 
He was defeated by Sheridan's cavalry in the Wilderness; and on May 12, 1864. wasmor- 
tallv wounded in an engagement with them near Richmond; to which city he was taken, 
and where he died on the evening of the same day. 

STUART. MOSES, American divine and author, was born at "Wilton, Conn., Mar. 26, 
1780, and educated at Yale, where he remained for some time as a tutor. He began the 
study of law, but abandoned it for theology; was ordained as pastor of a Congregational 
church at Xew Haven in 1^06; and in 1809 was appointed professor of sacred litera- 
ture at the theological school at Andover, a position he filled till 1848. During this 
period, in addition to his professorial duties, he wrote a Grammar of the Hebrew 
Ismf/unf/?, without points; Letters to the Rev. W. E. Channing; Hebrew Grammar, with 
points (based on Gesenius); Commentaries on t'/tc Epistle to the Hebrews, and the Epistle to 
the Romans; on the books of Ecclesiastes, Proverbs, Daniel, and the Apocalypse; Hebrew 
Chrestomathy ; Essay on the Liquor Traffic; Essay on Christian Baptism; Hints on the 
Prophfcks; Conscience and the Constitution manifesting in all acuteness, vigor, and 
versatility. He died at Andover, Mass., Jan. 4, lSc3. 

STUART. MOSES (ante), has been called the father of biblical science in this country. 
While his own contributions to it are of great value, he accomplished still more by the 
impulse which he gave to others. Studying the Hebrew language with enthusiasm, he 
infused the same spirit into his classes. He quieted apprehensions concerning the 
" various critical readings" by announcing that almost all related to unimportant matters, 
and that the rest, while they change the sense of some particular passages and omit 
phrases and words, disprove no doctrine, take away no precept, and alter no impor- 
tant fact. To him belongs the honor of opening the treasures of German literature to 
American minds. His great work was *o redeem theology from iron handed meta- 
physics and call it back to the Scriptures. 

Stucco. 052 

Stuttgart. ^ 

STUCCO, a composition used for the finer parts of plaster-work, such as cornioea, 
^enrichments, etc. Gypsum (q.v.), or plaster of Paris, is used for this purpose. A. 
coarser kind of stucco is also used for making floors, and for plastering the exterior of 

STUFFING, in cookery, means force-meat used for filling the bodies of small animals, 
such as poultry, or for stuffing openings made for the purpose in large joints. It usually 
consists of bread-crumbs, savory herbs, and other seasonings, minced very fine, and mad 
into a paste. 

STUHLWEIS SENBURG (Hung. Szekes Fejermr, Slav. Bielihrad or Bialigrad, Lat. 
Alba Regalia or Alba EC <j in), a royal free town of Hungary, and scat of a bishop, lies in a 
swampy plain in the neighborhood of the marshes of Sar-Ret, 16m. n.e. of lake Balaton. 
The principal buildings are the splendid cathedral of the Virgin Mary, the church of St. 
John, and the bishop's palace. It has several Catholic schools, a military academy, and 
a theater. The inhabitants manufacture cotton cloths, flannels, leather, silk, and knives 
("Stuhlweisseuburg clasp-knives"), and extract soda from the swamps, which are, 
moreover, rich in fish, crabs, tortoises, and water-fowl. Pop. '70, 22,683. Stuhlweissen- 
burg is built on the site of the Roman Flonana, and from 1027 to 1527 was the place 
where the kings of Hungary were crowned and buried, 14 of whom repose here. In 
later times it suffered much from the ravages of war, and was for some years in the 
hands of the Turks. 


STURDY, or the GID, affects sheep, and occasionally cattle, and is caused by the 
presence within the brain of a hydatid, reaching sometimes the size of a hazel-nut, and 
floating in a watery fluid inclosed in a membranous sac. This hydatid, when given to 
dogs, is known to produce tape-worms, and conversely itself originates from the ova of 
the tape-worm ejected on the pastures by dogs, rabbits, or even by sheep themselves. 
In the state of ova, or in some of its earlier minuter transitional forms, the hydatid 
embryo is picked up along with the grass, passes into the blood, and is thence laid down 
in the soft loose textures of the brain. It is most common in low damp pastures, and 
amongst sheep from six to twenty months old. The animal cannot properly seek its 
food, loses condition, staggers w T hen moved, turns stupidly round almost in one spot, 
and usually toward the side on which the hydatid lies. The parasite and its sac may 
generally be safely removed by placing the sheep, with its feet tied, on a table or bench, 
searching for the softened portion of the skull, which generally overlies the hydatid, 
laying back a flap of skin, and introducing the trochar and canula, and when the sac is 
deep-seated, cautiously withdrawing it with the help of a small syringe. Protected by 
a leather cap and simple water-dressings, the wound speedily heals. 

STURGE, JOSEPH, 1793-1859; b. England; began business in 1820 as a corn-factor 
in Birmingham, where he amassed a large fortune. He belonged to the society of 
Friends, and was deeply interested in securing the abolition of slavery. He visited the 
"West Indies and the TJnited States for the purpose of studying the slavery question. 
He wrote The West Indies in 1837, and Visit to the United States in 1841. 

STURGEON, Accipenser, a Linnrean genus of cartilaginous fishes, now forming the 
family sturionidce, and placed by Milller in the order of ganoids, distinguished by the 
ganoid (q.v.) scales or bony shields which form the external covering. The gills are 
free, as in the osseous fis'hes. The vertebral column is soft; and there are no evident 
sutures in the skull. Reproduction is by roe, as in osseous fishes. The form of sturgeons 
is elongated and angular; the plates are arranged in regular rows; the head is cuirassed; 
the snout long and conical; the mouth is on the under surface of the head, tubular, pro- 
tractile, and without teeth. The upper lobe of the tail is much larger than the under. 
The dorsal and anal fins are opposite to one another, behind the ventrals. The air- 
bladder is very large, and communicates with the gullet by a large hole. The species of 
sturgeon are numerous, and inhabit both the sea and fresh water, ascending deep 
muddy rivers at certain seasons, and temporarily inhabiting lakes. Numerous species 
are found in the northern parts of the world, although there' are none in the Arctic 
ocean, or the rivers which flow tsto it, but the s. of Siberia and North America particu- 
larly abound in them. They are plentiful in the Caspian and Black seas, and in the 
rivers connected with them, where the sturgeon fishery is of great importance, supplying 
the inhabitants of large districts with their chief article of subsistence, and producing 
great quantities of caviare (q.v.), or preserved sturgeon roe, and of isinglass (see GELA 
TINE), for sale. The COMMON STURGEON (A. sturio) is sometimes caught in the mouths 
of British rivers, most frequently in salmon-nets; and is a large fish, 6 or 8 ft. in length, 
with five rows of flattened plates; the muzzle long and pointed. Another species (A. 
latirostris), with broader muzzle, also visits the British coasts, but they are not popularly 
distinguished. The sturgeon is more abundant on the northern coast of Europe. It 
is also found in the more southern parts, and was in very high repute for the table 
among the Greeks and Romans. At their banquets it was introduced with particular 
ceremonies. In England, when caught in the Thames, within the jurisdiction of the 
lord mayor of London, it is a royal fish, reserved for the sovereign. Its flesh is white, 
delicate, and firm. It is used both fresh, gen'erally stewed, and pickled or salted. The 

9Q Stucco. 


largest species of sturgeon is the BIELAGA, or Hrso (A. huso) of the Black and Caspian 
seas, and their rivers. It attains the length of 20 or 25 ft., and has been known to 
weigh nearly 3,000 Ibs. It enters the rivers in winter, while they are still covered with 
ice. Great part of the caviare of commerce is made'from. it, and much isinglass, which 
is merely the air-bladder washed, cut into strips and dried. The STERLET (A. Ruthenus) 
is a comparatively small species, only about 3 ft. in length, found in the same regions, 
and particularly esteemed for the delicacy of its flesh, and of the caviare obtained from 
it. There are several other European and Asiatic species; and some of the North 
American rivers and lakes abound at certain seasons in species of sturgeon which are 
peculiar to them. Sturgeons spawn in fresh water, but the young are seldom seen there, 
and are supposed to descend very early to the sea. 

STURGES, JONATHAN, 1802-74; b. Conn., 1821; became a clerk in a New York 
mercantile firm, of which he became the senior partner in 1836, and with which he 
remained until 1868, when he retired w r ith large wealth. He was noted for his support 
of the course of the government during the war, and for his activity in the cause of 
reform in city government, as well as for his liberal contributions for benevolent 

STURGIS, SAMTTEL DAVIS, b. Penn., 1822; graduate of West Point, 1846; served 
through the Mexican war; taken prisoner during the operations before Buena Vista; 
exchanged after a short confinement. He was on duty in California, New Mexico, and 
the w. frontier; capt., 1855. In the war of the rebellion he was obliged to abandon fort 
Smith, Arkansas (his officers having resigned to join the confederate army), taking with 
him his command and saving the government property. As maj. 4th cavalry, 1861, he 
served under Lyon, and succeeded to his command at Wilson's creek. In 1862 he was 
assigned to the command of the fortifications at Washington. He was prominent at 
South mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, and in the operations in Kentucky and 
Ohio, 1863-64, joining in the expedition against gen. Forrest; col. 7th cavalry, 1869; maj.- 
gen., 1865. 

STURT, Sir CHAKLES. 1806-69 ; b. England; entered the British army, and in 1825 
tvas stationed in New South Wales, then holding the rank of capt. In 1828 he headed 
in exploring expedition which penetrated the interior of Australia and discovered the 
Marquarie, Castlereagh, and Darling rivers, and in 1830, the Murray river, which he 
descended to lake Alexaudrina. Another expedition in 1844 reached the desert in the 
center of the continent. For these explorations he was honored with high colonial 
positions and on his return to England was knighted. He published two books describ- 
ing his explorations. 

STURTEVANT, JULIAN M., D.D., b. Conn. 1805; became professor of mathematics 
In Illinois college, and in 1844 was elected its president, still retaining the professorship. 
He published a lecture on The Present Attitude of England toward the United States, and 
has contributed to the New Englander, Biblical Repository, and other religious periodi- 
cals. He is original and vigorous as a thinker. 

STUTSMAN, a co. in n. Dakota, drained by the Dakota river and Pine Stem creek; 
3,304 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 1007694 of American birth, 3 colored. It is intersected by the 
Northern Pacific railroad. It contains the fort Seward military reservation. The sur- 
face in the vicinity of its co. seat is much diversified, in other portions stretching into 
level fertile prairies for miles on either side of the railroad track. Co. seat, Jamestown. 

STUTTGART, the royal residence and metropolis of Wurtemberg, is beautifully 
situated in a widening of the Neseubach valley, the hills forming a semicircle of emi- 
nences clothed with vineyards, orchards, and gardens. The basin in which Stuttgart 
nestles is 897 ft. above the sea-level, and enjoys a mild and healthy climate. 

Except the very oldest part of the city, the streets are broad, and the buildings 
handsome. The schloss, or palace, is a fine modern building. The royal park and 
gardens extend from the n.e. side of the palace for 2 m. in the direction of Canstatt, 
have an area of 560 acres, arc adorned by fine groups of trees, and intersected by shady 
avenues, in which all classes may freely walk. The cathedral, built in the 15th c., was 
gifted by the king, in 1852, with several beautiful painted windows. Other principal 
buildings are the royal theater, public library, mint, museum of art, polytechnic school, 
erected in 1860-65, the royal stables for 300 horses, etc. A fine statute of Schiller has 
been erected in the palace place. The royal library contains 300,000 volumes, 3,600 
MSS., 9,000 Bibles in 80 languages, aud 2.400 specimens of early printing. 

Stuttgart has many benevolent institutions and societies. There is direct railway- 
communication with the leading cities of Germany, Switzerland, France, Belgium, and 
the Netherlands. Pop. in 1871. 91,623; of whom 78,624 were Protestants, 10,708 
Roman Catholics, and 1817 Jews; in 1875, 107,273. Since 1866, and especially since 
the Franco-Prussian war, trade has increased in a remarkable degree. The principal 
industries are the manufacture of cotton and half-wool fabrics, iron and tin work, gold 
and silver articles, chemicals, tobacco, beer-brewing, etc. The export of Stuttgart 
manufactures to North America alone, averaged in late years 4,000,000 to 5,000,000 
thalers. Stuttgart has a high position in the book-trade, and is the place of meeting of 
the booksellers' union of southern Germany. Stuttgart was the birth-place of Hegel; 

Stuyvesant. OA 


here, also, Schiller's youth was spent. The name of the city occurs for the first time in 
1:229. It was besieged by king Rudolph of Hnpsburg, 1286-87, and appears then to have 
been a place of strength. Between 1634-38, nearly 9,000 people died of the plague; 
and during the wars of Louis XIV., Stuttgart was thrice taken; and again in 1796, IttOO, 
and 1801. 

STUYVESANT, PETER, 1602-83, b. Holland; in early manhood entered the mili- 
tary service of the Dutch in the West Indies, and in 1634 was made director of the 
colony of Curacao. In 1647 the Dutch West India company appointed him director- 
gi-ueral of their American colonies. He soon gained the confidence of the colonists, and 
reconciled the Indian tribes who had been made hostile by former unjust treatment. 
He also succeeded in arranging with the English commissioners, in 1650, the boundaries 
between their respective territories. A convention of delegated colonists in 1653 de- 
manded for the people, among other things, a confirming voice in the appointmen of local 
officers. Stuyvesant, with characteristic boldness, ordered them to disperse forthwith, 
claiming that his authority was not from the people, but from God and the Dutch West 
India company. The people submitted, but with mingled feelings of chagrin and dis- 
content. The protracted contentions of the Dutch and the Swedes, dwelling near the 
Delaware river, about governmental jurisdiction, became more critical in 1654 when tho 
Swedish governor seized the fort built by the Dutch, where Newcastle now stands. To 
end this trouble, Stuyvesant witli 600 men sailed up the Delaware, re-captured the 
fort, and established the Dutch authority over the entire territory. After ten years 
of undisturbed quiet, in 1664 an English vessel arrived with an armed force under col. 
Nicholls, who demanded a surrender of the government, on the ground that the whole 
territory was given by royal charter to the duke of York. Stuyvesant at first refused, 
but finding the people anxious to exchange rulers, he yielded to the English demand. 
Thus abruptly terminated the Dutch control over the New Netherlands, and both the 
town and the territory was thenceforth called New York. Stuyvcsant reported personally 
to tho authorities in Holland, but soon returned to New York for the remainder of his 
life. He cultivated an extensive farm called the Bouwcrij, giving its name to ouo of 
Ihe busy streets of the city. A pear tree in his garden, which he brought from Holland, 
bore fruit more than 200 years. As an interesting relic of the past and of the man eo 
highly and so justly honored, the city authorities for many years .protected this pear 
tree by a tall iron railing. Stuyvesant died in 1682, aged 80 years. He was buried 
where St. Mark's church now stands, and the elaborately inscribed stone that covered 
lib grave is built into the eastern wall of the church. 

C77E, or STY, is (he popular name for a minute boil occurring at the edge of the 
eyelid, and known to surgeons under the term liordeolum. It begins as a small, red, 
tense swelling, accompanied with considerable itching, and a feeling of stiffness. As 
the inflammation goes on, the lid may become so swollen as to keep the eye closed. In 
a few days, matter forms, a white point appears at the apex of the swelling; and when 
the cuticle gives way, pus and a small slough of connective tissue escape, after which, 
there is a general remission of the symptoms, and the eyelid soon resumes its uatcMtil. 

This common affection is chiefly confined to scrofulous and deMcatc children, but it 
is sometimes observed in persons of more advanced age. The best local treatment con- 
sists in the application of warm-water dressings with lint and oiled silk; and if any hard- 
ness remains after the discharge of the matter, dilute nitrate of mercury ointment may- 
be applied. The stye should never be rubbed (notwithstanding the common prejudice in 
favor of rubbing it with a gold rinff), nor, in general, is it necessary to puncture it. To 
prevent the recurrence of these little boils, attention should be paid to the diet, which, 
should be abundant and nourishing, !o the state of the bowels, and to the general health; 
and tonics may usually be prescribed with advantage. The old form of the word was 
stian. See Holland's Plinie, book xxviii. ch. xi. 


STY'LOBATE, the substructure of a temple beneath the columns. It is sometimes, 
continuous all round the peristyle in the form of three high steps; sometimes it resem- 
bles a continuous pedestal along each side, with flights of steps at cither end. 

STYPTICS (Gr. styptikos, astringent) are agents employed in purgery for the purpose 
of checking the flow of blood by application to the bleeding orifice or surface. See 

STYRAX. See STORAX, ante. 

STYE IA (Ger. Steiermnrk}, a duchy forming one of the German crown-lands of Aus- 
tria, is bounded on the n. by upper and lower Austria, e. by Hungary and Croatia, s. and 
w. by Carniola, Carinthia, and Salzburg. Its area is 8,671 English "sq.m., and pop. '70, 
1,137,990, who are partly of German and partly of Slavic origin. Styria is a mountain- 
ous country, being traversed in the w. and center by branches of the Noric Alps, which 
spread out into numerous ramifications: while the southern portion between the Drare- 

O1 Stuyvesant. 


and the Save is occupied by branches of the Carnic Alps. The climate of Styrin, liko 
that of most mountainous countries, is variable, but is generally raw and cold in tho 
northern and more mountainous portion, and mild in the south. But in spite of its 
physical character, agriculture is so zealously prosecuted that of the country are under 
cultivation, producing rye, wheat, oats, and maize. Vines are largely cultivated in 
various parts, and orchards are numerous. The chief wealth of the country, however, 
lies in its mineral products, which include, besides immense quantities of iron, lead, cop- 
per, gold, silver, marble, limestone, and slate, with abundance of salt and coal. Tho 
chief industries are thus necessarily in connection with the production of iron and- steel, 
and their manufacture into articles of such excellent quality as to be in great demand in 
other countries. There are also manufactures of brass and lead articles, earthenware, 
paper, tobacco, glass, white-lead, copper, hammers, and of cotton, linen, cloth, etc. 
btyriawas anciently divided between JSioricum andPannonia, and has generally followed 
the fortunes of the two provinces of Upper aud Lower Austria. 

STYX (Gr. star/-, to hate, abhor), a water-fall in Greece, near the town of Nonacris, 
in the n.c. of Arcadia, descends perpendicularly over lofty and precipitous rocks, and 
forms a small torrent, which falls into the Crathis. The scenery around it is weird and 
desolate, so that the Greeks regarded the Styx with superstitious awe; the water being 
supposed to be poisonous, and to break every vessel into which it was put, except those 
made of the hoof of a horse or an ass. It was reported that Alexander the great had 
been poisoned by it. It is now called ta Nauraneria (the black waters), and also ta 
Drakoiieria (the terrible waters), the belief in its poisonous qualities still surviving. 
In mythology the Styx was a river of Hades, round which it flowed seven times, and 
over which Charon (q.v.) conveyed the shades of the departed. As a goddess Styx was 
the daughter of Oceanus and Tcthys, dwelling in a grotto at the entrance of Hades. Shfl 
was the confirmer of the most solemn oaths of the gods. 


SITAKIN, a sea-port belonging to Turkey, on a small rocky island in the Bed sea, off 
the w. coast of Africa, but near "the shore, in lat. about 19 10' north. It has a good har- 
bor, and a considerable trade, especially in gums; and it is a station for pilgrims passing 
to and from Africa. Population estimated at 8,000. 

SHAKES, FRANCISCO, the most celebrated of the modern scholastic and polemical 
divines of the Roman Catholic church, was born at Granada in 1548. His early studies 
were singularly unpromising; and it is remarkable, in the history of a man afterward so 
eminent, that 'it was not. without great difficulty, and after repeated trials, that he 
obtained admission into the society of the Jesuits. His later career, however, was brill 
in nt, quite in proportion to the dullness of his first beginnings; and he taught philoso- 
phy and theology with remarkable success, first at Alcala, and afterward at Salamanca, 
Rome, and Coimbra. The accounts given of hishabitsof application to study are almost 
beyond belief. He is said to have habitually devoted seventeen hours a day to study. 
Of his power of memory, the marvels related are scarcely less prodigious. He is said to 
have been able to repeat at will any portion of the whole 23 folio volumes of his own 
works, even to the quotations from the fathers and other theological writers with which 
they abound. Snares may truly be described as the ablest and greatest of the modern 
scholastics; but in his works scholasticism appears in its best form; for although they 
abound in discussions uninteresting, and indeed unintelligible, to persons unacquainted 
with scholastic terminology, yet they may also be truly said on each subject to exhaust 
the whole of the learning, ancient and modern, which existed relating to that subject at 
the date of their publication. On the philosophy of the ancients, Snares is especially 
copious and accurate; and of most of the modern German philosophy we may find tho 
germ in the pages which he devotes to the account of the opinions of the ancients. 

In the scholastic controversies on grace and free will, Suares was strongly opposed 
to the Thomistic doctrine; but he also rejected the opposite system of Molina. See 
MOLINISM. The scheme of reconciling the freedom of the will with the efik-acy of 
grace, and of saving at the same time, the doctrine of "special election," devised by 
Suares, is called congrmsm. and is explained under the head MOLINA. The works of 
Suares are entirely theologienl, or ascetic, and were printed in 23 volumes folio at Lyons, 
Mainz, and Venice. An edition in 28 volumes 4to was completed at Paris in 1861. 
His treatise De Leffibus is much esteemed, and has been reprinted in England. * Suares 
died at Lisbon in 1617. See DCS Champs, Vie de Suares (4to, Pcrpignan, 1671). 

SUBAHDAR was, under the mogul government, the title of a governor of a province. 
It now designates a native officer, holding a rank equivalent to that of captain under the 
European officers. 

SUBALTERN, in the army, or rather in a regiment, is a company officer below the 
rank of captain; i.e., a lieut. orsub.lieut. 

SUBDOM'INANT. in music, the fifth below the tonic; the note whose dominant is the 
tonic. Thus F is the subdominant of C. and C of G. One of the ke\s most nearly 
related to any key is its subdominnnt; and the easiest of all modulations is that from a 
k:-y to its sub;loniinant, which is effected by aildin- the dominant seventh tc the com- 

Subiaco. 09 


mon chord, and the resolution of this chord is the common chord of the subdominant ; 
e.g., in modulating from the key of C to the key of its subdominant F, we have 

% 5- : See DOMINANT. 

SUBIA'CO (anc. Sublaqueum), a city of the province of Rome, on a hill bj the Teverone, 
80 m. from Rome. Subiaco possesses a fine cathedral, and many monuments of antiquity. 
There was a famous Benedictine monastery in Subiaco, and here, in the 15th c., one of 
the earliest printing-presses in Italy was established. Pop. 7,000. 


SUB-KINGDOMS, ANIMAL, a term applied to the great primary divisions of the ani- 
mal world. The sub-kingdoms are also named "morphological types," and this latt'-r 
term serves to indicate their constitution more definitely than the name "sub-kingdom." 
As au example of the manner in which a "sub-kingdom" of animals is constituted, we 
may select that of the Annulosa or Articulata, a group of animals which was clearly 
defined by Cuvier himself, and which has remained since his day, with few alterations, 
as one of the most distinctive groups of the animal creation. A lobster may be selected. 
as a typical example of this group. In the detailed examination of this animal, we may 
note that the jointed nature of the tail is perceptible in the fore part of the body., not- 
withstanding that the latter region consists apparently of a single piece. A further 
examination of the lobster's body would reveal the fact that each joint and its append- 
ages the latter being " paired" agrees in essential or fundamental structure with every 
other joint of the body. The investigation of the plan of structure of the lobster's frame 
would show a very typical arrangement of parts. The Jieart lies dorsally, or on the 
back. The digestive system occupies a median position ; and the nervous system lies ven- 
trally, or on the floor of the body. The nerve-axis of the lobster further consists, typ- 
ically, of a double chain of nervous masses (or ganglia) united by nervous cords, and 
from which branches proceed to the various parts of the body. The ideas we may gain 
regarding the general type of structure of the lobster's body, or plan on which that body 
is built up, may be thus summarized: (1.) The body is jointed: (2) the joints and their 
appendages are fundamentally similar or homologous; (3) the heart lies dorsally, the 
nervous system ventrally, while the digestive system occupies the median position; (4) 
the appendages are in pairs. Now, if we examine the body of any insect, we shall find 
it to essentially resemble that of the lobster in the general arrangement of its parts. 
The body of a spider or a scorpion exhibits a similar disposition of organs to that of the 
lobster, and shows a fundamentally similar structure beneath variations in appearance 
and form; and a centipede's body would be found to be also constructed on the lobster- 
type. The barnacles, water-fleas, crabs, and a whole host of animals more or less nearly 
allied to the lobster, and belonging to the lobster's class (that of the Crustacea), exhibit a 
near relationship with the typical animal; while worms generally (leeches, earth worms, 
etc.,) would present a fundamental similarity in their characters to those described as 
existing in the lobster. We thus discover uniformity of type beneath variations in form 
and appearance, and it is exactly this uniformity or broad structural likeness between 
apparently different animals which enables us to group them together to form "sub- 
kingdoms" or " types." A sub-kingdom or type of animals may therefore be defined as 
consisting of a number of animals whose bodies are constructed on the same fundamental 
plan. Lobsters, crabs, barnacles, etc., insects, spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and 
worms thus form the "sub-kingdom" Annulosa, on account of their agreement in fun- 
damental structure, and in the essential characters just described as being typically 
exhibited by the lobster. The animal world is thus divided into five or six sub-king- 
doms. Between some of these groups recent research altogether unfavorable to the con- 
struction of defined sub-kingdoms or types has demonstrated connecting links to exist, 
But by the great majority of zoologists, the following divisions are recognized: 

I. PROTOZOA Ex. : Sponges, infusoria, amoebae, and other animalcular forms. 

II. CCELENTERATA Ex. : Sea-anemones, corals, zoophytes, jelly-fishes, etc. 

III. ECHINOZOA Ex. : Sea-urchins, star fishes, crinoids, sea-cucumbers, tape-worms, 
flukes, etc. 

IV. ANNTJLOSA Ex. : Worms, insects, centipedes, spiders, Crustacea. 

V. MOLLTJSCA Ex. : Sea- mats, sea-squirts, lamp-shells, shell-fish, cuttle-fishes. 

VI. VERTEBRATA Ex. : Fishes, amphibia, reptiles, birds, mammals. 

SUBLAPSA'BIAN (Lat. sub-lapsum, after the fall), the name given to one section of the 
school of divines, who maintain the doctrine of absolute decrees of election and repro- 
bation. It is possible to conceive God making such a decree in two different ways, 
either on the hypothesis of his foresight of the fall of Adam, and thus of original sin, 
or independently of such foresight on his part, and without any reference to suck fore- 
sight, and entirely out of his own free will and determination. The sublapsarian sys- 
tem supposes the former ; and thus refers the eternal election or reprobation of men by 
God to his foreseeing that all men would fall in Adam, and thus would deserve eternal 
reprobation. Out of the entire mass of mankind thus fallen, he freely pre-elects some 

QO Subiaco. 


to life, and equally freely predooms others to death. This distinction is not confined t 
the Calvinistic schools; it is also found among the Roman Catholics. See SUFRALAP- 

SUB-LIEUTENANT is the junior combatant commissioned officer in the royal navy. 
When a midshipman has served six years, and can pass in seamanship and certain other 
subjects, he becomes a sub-lieutenant, and is eligible for promotion to lieutenant on 
opportunity occurring. The pay of a sub-lieutenant is 91 5s. a year, and the half -pay, 
45 12s. 6d. An officer usually 'serves but a short time in this rank; and, if not pro- 
moted earlier, he must retire at 40 years of age. Until within a few years, the sub-lieu- 
tenant was called a mate (q.v.). Tlie establishment is in process of reduction to 250 as 
a fixed number. In the army cornets and ensigns are now sub-lieutenants. 

SUBLIMATION is a chemical process similar to distillation, but differing from it in 
the nature of the substances to which it is applied. While in distillation liquids are con- 
verted by the agency of heat into vapor, which is condensed in the liquid form usually 
by the cooling action of water; in sublimation, solid bodies are reduced by heat to the 
state of vapor, which reassumes the solid form on cooling. Sublimation is usually con- 
ducted in a single vessel of glass or iron, the product being deposited in the upper part 
of it in a solid state, while the impure residue remains at the bottom ; but in the case of 
sulphur, the vapor is condensed on the walls of a large chamber. Iodine affords a good 
example of sublimation. On gently heating the lower part of a Florence flask con- 
taining a little of this substance, a purple vapor rises, which almost immediately con- 
denses in small brilliant dark purple crystals in the upper parts of the flask, while any 
impurity that may be present remains at the bottom. Among the substances obtained 
by this process, and employed in the pharmacopoeia, are arsenious acid, benzoic acid, 
corrosive sublimate, and sublimed sulphur. 

SUBLIME. Objects indicating great power, vast expanse, or lofty elevation, excite 
in the beholder a feeling of pleasurable elation; and the name " sublime" is applied both 
to the objects and to the feeling. 

The precise quality in things that arouse this mode of pleasurable excitement has 
been variously assigned. According to Burke, terror is, in all cases whatsoever, either 
more openly or more latently the ruling principle, or, at all events, one of the chief 
sources of sublimity: Blair suggested that mighty power or force is the cause; Payn 
Knight ascribed it to mental energy; Kaimes considers it due to height or elevation; Du- 
gald~Stewart, in an elaborate essay, affirms that elevation is the leading characteristic, 
and that expanse and power are sublime by suggesting or implying great height; sir W. 
Hamilton says that sublimity requires magnitude as its condition, and exists in thre 
forms space, time, and power. 

The feeling itself has also been described variously. If this could be fixed, we should 
have a key to the objective quality. Longinus characterized it, in reference to literary 
composition, as "filling the reader with a glorying and a sense of inward greatness." 
Some would call it a "sense of security" in circumstances of terror or danger. Ham- 
ilton describes it as "a mingled feeling of pleasure and pain pleasure in the conscious- 
ness of the strong energy, pain in the consciousness that this energy is vain. " The con- 
nection with the sentiment of power is generally admitted ; but as the comparison of the 
object with self suggests our own littleness at the same time, there may be a doubt as to 
whether the emotion is due to the power, to the littleness, orto the combination of 

Referring to the generic sentiment of power, which is evidently at the foundation, w 
find that the feeling of superior might in ourselves is cheering, elating, stimulating ; and that 
the sense of littleness or inferiority is a depressing and enfeebling state of mind, a state 
of pure pain, redeemable in certain circumstances by other feelings, as when our infe- 
riority is only in the comparison with an object of love or veneration, or when it is the 
condition of some compensating superiority "the courtier stoops to rise." The pre- 
sumption, therefore, is that the elation of the sublime is connected with the notion of 
power. It may be felt although the power is not actually possessed, but imagined, bor- 
rowed, or conceived, through a sort of sympathy with the appearances of great power or 
might. If this account of the feeling be correct, power must be a principal quality in 
its objects; and if with this we combine voluminous sensation (and the corresponding 
ideas, vastness of expanse and greatness of time), we shall probably be able to explain 
the sublime in all its forms. 

SUBMARINE FORESTS occur at several places around the shores of Britain and Ire- 
land. They consist of beds of impure peat, containing the stools of trees which occupy 
the sites on which they grew ; but by change of level, the ancient forest surfaces are 
now covered by the tide even at low water. No kind of tree has been found in these 
forests which does not exist at the present day in the country, and the underwood and 
herbaceous plants, so far as determined, agree specifically with those found now in 
similar localities. Submarine forests belong to the recent or quaternary period, and 
occur above the boulder clay. 

SUBMARINE NAVIGATION. When the diving-bell (q.v.) had shown that air for 
Jespir&tion can be supplied to persons placed in adequately arranged vessels ua4er 
TJ. K. XIV. 3 

Vabmaxillarr. n A 

tabctitation. 04 

water, ingenious men began to speculate on the possibility of navigating closed ships or 
boats in similarly exceptional circumstances. Cornelius Drebell made a vessel to be 
rowed under water in the time of James I. In 1774 an inventor named Day lost his life 
during an experimental descent in Plymouth sound, in a vessel of about 50 tons burden. 
Mr. Bushnell, of Connecticut, in 1775, and Robert Fulton, about 1796, contrived sub- 
marine vessels, intended to be used in warfare. The vessel patented in 1859 by Mr. 
Delaney, of Chicago, was egg-shaped in transverse section, and diminished nearly to a 
point at each end. It had two iron tanks in the interior; one had air forced into it by 
an air-pump; the second contained water. The engineer of the boat, by pumping 
water into or out of the second tank, through the action of the air in the first, coula 
raise or lower the boat to different depths in the water. 

SUBMAXILLARY GANGLION, one of the four sympathetic ganglia lying in the 
cephalic region, sometimes called cranial ganglia; but the latter term is rather mislead- 
ing, as none of the ganglia are within the cranial cavity. The submaxillary ganglion is 
situated above the deep portion of the submaxillary gland. See SALIVARY GLANDS, 
ante. It is connected by filaments with the lower border of the gustatory nerve (nerve 
of taste, supplying the tongue). It also receives motor filaments from the chorda tympani 
nerve, a branch of the facial. It is small, rounded, and of a reddish-gray color; its fila- 
ments of distribution, five or six in number, arise from the lower part of the ganglion, 
and supply the mucous membrane of the mouth and Wharton's duct, some being lost in 
the submaxillary gland. 

SUBORDINARY, or SUBORDINATE ORDINARY, in heraldry, a name given to a certain 
class of charges mostly formed of straight or curved lines. Heralds vary a little in their 
enumeration, but the following are generally held to come within this category : the 
bordure, the orle, the tressure, the flanche, the pile, the pall, the quarter, the canton, 
the gyron, the fret, the inescutcheon, the lozenge, the fusil, and the mascle. See these 
heads; also ORDINARIES. 

SUBORNA'TION OF PERJURY is the offense of procuring another to take such a false 
oath as constitutes perjury (q. v.) in that other. It is a misdemeanor, punishable anciently 
by death: afterward banishment, or cutting out of the tongue; then, forfeiture of goods; 
and latterly, as at present, by fine and imprisonment. 

SUBP(ENA, in English law practice, means the writ or process by which the attend- 
ance of a witness in a court of justice is compelled. It is a writ in the queen's name, 
commanding him to lay aside his business and all excuses, and attend at the time and 
place indicated, under a penalty of 100. If the witness is required to produce a docu- 
ment, the writ is called a subpoena duces tecum. If the witness do not attend, and has 
not a good legal excuse, such as dangerous illness, he may be sued in an action of 
damages or committed to prison. 

SUBROGATION, in law, the substitution of another person in the place of the origi- 
nal creditor. The person thus taking the creditor's place succeeds to all the rights of 
the latter. Subrogation is taken from the Roman law, and belongs to equity rather than 
to common law jurisprudence. It may be conventional, where it takes place from the 
agreement of the parties ; or may result from the action of the law, as where it takes 
place for the benefit of co- promisors and for the benefit of sureties against their princi- 
pals. When a second mortgagee pays the first mortgagee's claim, he at once becomes 
the equitable assignee of the first and can compel actual assignment, and so in all cases 
where a prior creditor is paid by a subsequent one. If an entire debt be paid by one of 
several joint debtors, he is entitled to contribution from the others and subrogation takes 

SUB RO'SA, "under the rose" i.e., between ourselves, or in secrecy. It was cus- 
tomary among the ancient Germans, on occasions of festivity, to suspend a rose from 
the ceiling above the table, as a symbol that whatever was said during the feast by those 
present would be afteisvard forgotten, or at least be kept as a secret among themselves. 

SUBSCRIPTION, in law, a written contract by which a person agrees to contribute 
a sum of money for a specified purpose; as a subscription for a college or a newspaper. 
If the contract be legal and grounded on good consideration a subscriber may be sued 
for his subscription as soon as the condition upon which he made the promise is fulfilled. 
It has even been held that subscribers for a common purpose may be regarded as con- 
tractors with each other, and the consideration of each subscription the promises of all 
the other subscribers, so that each subscriber may be sued by all the others. This seems 
to be scarcely tenable, and it is customary to make subscriptions payable to a treasurer. 
Wherever action has been taken upon the subscription by the expenditure of moneys or 
otherwise, before notice received of the withdrawal of a subscription, there is a con- 
sideration sufficient to support the promise, which may then be enforced. 

SUBSIDIES, a term in politics, used in two different senses: 1. It is applied in Eng- 
lish political history to taxes levied not immediately on property, but on persons, in 
respect of their reputed estates in lands or goods ; or customs imposed on any of th 
taple commodities in addition to the costuma magna et antiqua. Thus 30,000 sacks of 
wool were granted to Edward III. in 1340, in aid of the war with France, Subsidies 
granted on various occasions to Jaints I. and Charles II. 2. The same word k 

o K Submaxillary. 


uged to denote money paid by one state to another, in order to procure a limited succor 
f auxiliary troops, ships of war, or provisions. In the time of the war with the revo- 
lutionists of Prance and Napoleon L, Great Britain furnished subsidies to foreign power* 
to a large extent, in order to engage them to resist the progress of the French. In ques- 
tions regarding subsidies, it is held that the state furnishing the succor does not thereby 
become the enemy of the opposite belligerent ; it may remain neutral in all respects, 
except as regards the auxiliary forces supplied, Such, for example, was long the atti- 
tude maintained by the confederate cantons of Switzerland: while granting troops to 
the various European powers, they were in the habit, at the same time, of preserving a 
rigorous neutrality. The service of Swiss regiments abroad is no longer sanctioned. 
The federal constitution of Switzerland, of Sept. 12, 1848, prohibited the conclusion of 
military capitulations; and on July 30, 1859, a proclamation was issued by the federal 
council, forbidding any Swiss subjects from taking service under a foreign power, with" 
out the authorization of the council. 

SUBSTANCE, a word connected with certain discussions in logic and metaphysics. 
Substance is correlative with quality or attribute. Every substance must have attri- 
butes, and every attribute must be the attribute of some substance. The substance gold 
has the attributes weight, color, etc. But as every power or property of a thing, every 
way that the thing affects us, may be called an attribute or quality, if all the attributes 
are counted off, there is nothing left; and the question then arises : What is the substance f 
To avoid this seeming inconsistency, it was assumed that everything whatsoever posses- 
ses, besides its attributes, an unknown substratum that they rest upon, or inhere in a 
mystical and inscrutable bond, that holds the attributes together, without being itself an 
attribute. This gratuitous assumption of what is, after all, a nonentity, was repudiated 
by Locke and others, who found a meaning for substance without departing from th 
knowable. Every object has some essential or fundamental quality, which being pres- 
ent, it preserves its identity ; and which being removed, it is no longer the same object, 
but another. Thus the substance of body or matter is not the remnant after all the 
qualities are substracted ; it is the two fundamental and inerasable qualities, extension 
and resistance; size, shape, color, heat, odor, etc., may all be varied; but so long as 
extension and resistance in any degree are found, we have a piece of matter. On the 
same view, the substance of mind is whatever we regard as its fundamental essence, or 
distinguishing marks. We may adopt feeling, or volition, or intellect, or require a share 
of all three, according to our mode of denning the mind. It would, then, be a mere 
confusion of language to talk of feeling, volition, and intellect as inhering in mind; they 
are mind, and there is nothing besides. 

Notwithstanding the obviousness of this explanation, the employment of the words 
substance and attribute has led to such an inveterate demand for something that shall 
underlie all attributes a substance of body, and a substance of mind distinct from 
anything meant by the names, that many philosophers have considered it necessary to 
preserve the phantom as a thing of belief, if not of knowledge. The doctrine of an 
unknowable substance in the abstract very early allied itself with the popular theory of 
the perception of a material world (see PERCEPTION), and the same arguments are good, 
for or against both. Other names for expressing the same contrast are noumenon and 
phenomenon. The phenomenon is what shows itself to our senses, or is conceived by 
our intelligence the qualities of extension and resistancedn body ; and of feeling, etc., in 
mind. The noumenon is something apart and beyond, something inconceivable and 
unknowable, but which, say some, we are instinctively led to believe in. Thus, in 
the great question above alluded to the belief of an independent material world 
the phenomenal manifestations are inextricably involved with our mental powers 
of conceiving, and woxild vary, if these were to vary; consequently, they cannot be the 
absolute, independent, self-existent reality ; which drives one school of philosophy upon 
the expedient of believing in such a reality, although it must be for ever incomprehen- 
sible to us. 

SUBSTITUTE, MILITARY. In nations where conscription is resorted to for the sup- 
ply of soldiers for the army, the lot often falls on those unwilling to serve in person. 
In such a case the state sometimes agrees to accept the services of a substitute who is 
of equally good physique. Unless the levy be very extensive, or the term of military 
service very long, substitutes are readily found among military men who have already 
served their prescribed period. Of course, the substitute must be paid for the risk he 
runs. His price depends, like all other saleable articles, on the demand and supply. 
Happily, in Great Britain, few of those now living have tver known when substitutes 
were necessary. It is, however, to be remembered that the act for a milita-ballot hangs 
continually over us, and is only suspended by a special act of parliament from year to 

SUBSTITUTION is one of the three principal methods employed in examining the 
chemical composition of organic bodies, and in tracing their relation to other com- 
pounds; the two other methods being those of oxidation and of reduction. Although the 
term is restricted to organic chemistry, the ordinary method of preparing insoluble inor- 
ganic compounds by double decomposition is in reality a case of substitution of on 
base or one acid for another. If, for instance, solutions of nitrate of lime and sulphate 

Subtraction. o/> 


f soda are mixed together, the resulting compounds are sulphate of lime and nitrate of 
oda, in which the lime is substituted for the soda, and the soda for the lime. In some 
cases an element may be replaced (or, more correctly, displaced) by a compound 
group; thus, cyanogen, C a N, may take the place of oxygen, as, for example, in the 
reaction that ensues between hydrocyanic acid and red oxide of mercury, when cyanide 
of mercury and water are formed, us shown in the equation H(C 2 Is) -}- HgO = Hg 
(C,N) + HO. Similarly, the groups NO 4 , SO,, and NH 2 may often be substituted for 
hydrogen. In various organic bodies, one or more atoms of hydrogen may be displaced 
by one or more atoms of chlorine, a fact, which was originally observed by Gay-Lussac 
in noticing the action of chlorine on wax. The new product thus formed is almost 
always analogous in its nature to the compound from which it is produced ; thus, accord- 
ing as the substance acted on by the chlorine is an acid or a base, the resulting product 
is an acid or a base, and the number of atoms is always the same in the original substance 
and the product. The following examples will elucidate the above remarks : If acetic 
acid, C 4 H 4 O 4 , be exposed to the action of chlorine, we obtain, according to the duration 
and modifications of the action, the two compounds, monochloracetic acid,C 4 H 3 ClO 4 , 
and trichloracetic acid, C 4 HC1 3 O 4 , in the former of which, one atom, and in the latter, 
three atoms of hydrogen, are displaced by a corresponding number of atoms of chlorine. 
Hydrochloric ether, C 4 H 5 C1, may be made to yield the following succession of com- 
pounds, in which a gradually increasing amount of the hydrogen is displaced by chlo- 
rine, until, in the final result, the hydrogen has altogether disappeared. The consecu- 
tive compounds thus resulting from hydrochloric ether, C 4 H 5 C1, are (1) chlorinated 
ether, C 4 (H 4 C1)C1; (2) dichlorinated ether, C 4 (H 3 C1 2 )C1; (3) trichlorinated ether, C 4 (H 2 C1 3 ) 
Cl; (4) tetrachlorinated ether, C 4 (HC1 4 )C1; and (5) sesquichloride of carbon, C 4 (CU)C1. 
"The chlorine," says prof. Miller, "appears to have taken the place of hydrogen in 
the group without disturbing the relative position of the other elements which enter into 
its formation ; just as a brick in an edifice may be conceived to admit of being removed, 
while its place- is supplied by a block of wood or of stone, without altering the form or 
symmetry of the building." Substitutions of bromine and iodine for hydrogen may be 
effected in the same way as has been shown to occur in the case of chlorine. The study 
of the artificial formation of organic bases has led to the discovery of many remarkable 
instances of substitution products. If, for example, bromide of ethyl, C 4 H 5 Br, is heated 
in a sealed tube with a solution of ammonia in alcohol, hydrobromate of ethylia (or 
ethylamine) is formed, and on distilling this vapor with hydrate of potash, one of the 
products is a new base, ethylia, C 4 H 7 N, which may be regarded as ammonia, NH 3 , in 
which one atom of hydrogen has been displaced by one atom of ethyl, C 4 H S . By a sim- 
ilar proceeding, we may successively displace the second and the third atoms of th 
hydrogen in the ammonia; and we thus obtain two more complex bases, diethylia, C 8 H jN, 
and triethylia, CuHuN. 

STTBTBACTION, one of the four fundamental processes of arithmetic, is the dim- 
inution of a quantity by the removal of a certain portion of it. It is consequently the 
reverse of addition, and determines how much of any quantity remains after a certain 
quantity has been taken from it. In cases where the digits of the number to be sub- 
tracted are greater than the corresponding ones of the number to be diminished, two 
methods of operation may be adopted. 

(i) (2) (3) 

7324 7 (13) (12) 4 6 (12) (12) 4 

1843 (2) (9) 4 3 1842 

5482 5 4 8~2~ 5483 

For example, in subtracting 1843 from 7324, the numbers are written as in form (1). The 
method of operation usually followed is to make an addition mentally to the upper figure 
when necessary, and then compensate for this by an equivalent addition to the next un- 
der figure, as represented in form (2). Thus 10 " tens " are added to 2 " tens," to en- 
able 4 "tens" to be subtracted; and this addition is compensated for by an equal 
increase of the under line by 1 " hundred," through the change of 8 " hundreds" into 9 
"hundreds." The more simple and directly intelligible plan, shown in form (3), is to 
borrow a unit of the next higher degree in the upper line, care being taken to remember 
in the partial subtraction immediately succeeding, that the upper digit must be consid- 
ered as less by unity than it appears. 

SUBWAYS. The system of engineering beneath the public streets has not by any 
means yet reached its full development. Subways for foot passengers are occasionally 
constructed in connection with railway termini : one such connects the Bishopsgate street 
tation of the Metropolitan railway with the Liverpool street station of the Great Eastern ; 
another connects two Victoria stations at Pimlico, belonging to different lines and com- 
panies. The Tower Subway is a remarkable instance of a passage under the Thames for 
foot-passengers. The Metropolitan or underground railway, opened in 1863, was the 
first example of its kind ; the passengers going down stairs from the side-pavements to 
tations underneath the carriage-way. The pneumatic propulsion of mail-bags (see 
PWEUKATIC DISPATCH) has given rise to projects for a similar mode of propelling rail- 
train* beneath streets and roads. One such, the Waterloo and Whitehall railway, 

0*7 Subtract!**. 


was commenced about 1865, to pass under the Thames; want of funds led to its aban- 
donment after shafts had been sunk. The term subways is usually applied, not to sucl> 
tunneled passages for traveling, but to roomy archways that will contain sewer-pipea, 
water-pipes, and gas-pipes. It has been long consided a defective system that whenever 
such pipes need repair, the surface of the street has to be broken up to get at them, 
thereby causing great expense and great interruption to traffic. When the metropolitan 
board of works commenced their series of improvements, they resolved on the trial of 
subways for this useful purpose. They began with a new street, extending from Covent 
Garden market to St. Martin's lane, opened in 1861. Underneath the carriage-way of 
this street, there is a subway, a central arched passage or tunnel 12 ft. wide by 6 ft. 
high; with arched side-openings for house service-pipes connected with the cellarage of 
the several dwellings. In this subway are water-pipes, gas-pipes, and electro-telegraphic 
wires, all 'easy of access by side entrances to the subway, of sufficient size to admit 
workmen, pipes, etc. In this instance, the main sewer is not in the subway itself, but 
underneath it, provided with man-holes, gullies, ventilating shafts, etc. A second ex- 
ample is afforded by Southwark street, lately formed from Blackfriars road to the 
southern foot of London bridge. Underneath this street extends a subway, excellently 
planned for the purposes above mentioned. Two street lamp-posts, of unusually elegant 
design, one at each end of the street, act as ventilating shafts for the subway, and there 
are other ventilators along the route, besides side entrances for workmen. A curious 
proof has been furnished, however, of the anomalies which so frequently mar our pub- 
lic works. In 1865, a gas company broke up the roadway, and broke through the well- 
built crown of the arch of the subway, to get at their gas-pipes for purposes of repair or 
adjustment. It was found, on investigation, that no one had power to prevent them. 
The act empowered the metropolitan board of works to make a subway for the use of 
gas companies, water companies etc. ; the gas company, on the other hand, were em- 
powered by their act to break up the public roadways to get at their pipes; the board 
could not compel the company to adopt the new plan, because the powers were only per- 
missive, not obligatory. The water companies and gas companies fear incurring addi- 
tional expense; and there is known to be a difference of opinion among engineers con- 
cerning the danger from leakage and explosion when the two sets of pipes are inclosed 
in the same archway. 

The subway system, after overcoming these and other difficulties, has made a great 
advance within a recent period. Queen Victoria street, and several other new streets, 
have been provided with subways similar to that under Southwark street. The Victoria 
or northern Thames embankment presents some fine examples of subway engineering. 
Between the masonry of the river-wall and the former line of high water, there arc no 
less than three tunnels or arched passages under the surface of the ground parallel to the 
course of the river. One is the metropolitan district railway ; another is the low-level 
sewer of the Great Main Drainage system; while a third is a subway to contain gas and 
water-pipes, telegraph wires, etc. The most extraordinary plan, perhaps, ever seriously 
proposed in subway engineering is connected with the spot where Tottenham Court 
road, Eustpn road, and Hampstead road join. The Metropolitan railway is here flanked 
on either side by sewers; above it, but below the level of the street, are several gas and 
water pipes, drains, and ventilating shafts; while crossing immediately over the Metro- 
politan railway, at right angles, is the tube of the (still abortive, 1879) pneumatic dis- 
patch (q.v.). Beneath all this is the section of another tunnel, intended to join the Mid- 
land and North-western railways with the South-eastern. Civil engineers and contrac- 
tors are ready to grapple with the difficulties of this extraordinary work whenever finan- 
cial circumstances are favorable. 

SUCCESSION is a legal term used in Scotland, but not used technically in England, 
where the same subject is spoken of under the name of next of kin (q.v.), and descent; 
Scotland the term is used to denote the taking of property by one party in place of 
another. Where the devolution takes place in consequence of a conveyance from the 
proprietor, the acquirer is termed a singular successor, as the conveyance is the single 
title under which he acquires. Where, however, the person dies intestate, his heir suc- 
ceeds to the whole of the heritage, and is called the universal successor. Where no will 
or disposition by the owner is executed, the law makes a disposition for him, and distrib- 
utes the property according to certain rules of relationship by blood. 1. In the case of 
heritable succession, primogeniture (q.v.) is the rule, the eldest son and his issue taking 
the property; and after that stock is exhausted, the next eldest son; and so on. When 
males fail, then the succession opens to the daughters, who take not in order of 
seniority, but all together, and are called heirs-portioners (q.v.). When descendants 
fail, then the succession goes to collaterals ; thus, brothers and sisters succeed first the 
brothers according to a certain priority, and, failing them, the sisters all together as 
heirs-portioners. When the descendants and collaterals are exhausted, the succession 
then goes to ascendants (the mother, however, being entirely excluded), the father first, 
nd then uncles and aunts, etc. In heritable succession, the right of representation 
exists, i.e., when an heir is dead, his children represent him, and take that share which, 
if alive, lie would have taken. Brothers and_sisters consanguinean, i.e., by the same 



father, but not by the same mother, succeed after brothers and sisters gennan (I.e., by 
the same father and mother), before the remoter line of the full blood. The English law 
of descent or succession differs considerably from the above. See INTESTACY, and Pat- 
erson's Comp. of English and Scotch Law (3d ed.), s. 751, et seq. 2. As to succession ia 
movables, or to the personal property of the intestate, see KIN, NEXT OF. There are 
taxes called succession duties, which are payable to the revenue on all property, real and 
personal, acquired by succession. The duty payable on lineal issue or lineal ancestors is 
1 per cent; by brothers and sisters and their descendants, 3 per cent; and so on, the 
duty increasing as the relationship is more distant. The husband or wife of the pro- 
prietor is exempted from the duty. 

SUCCESSION ACTS. From a comparatively early period in English history, parliament 
occasionally exercised the power of limiting or modifying the hereditary succession to 
the throne. The first instance of such interference occurred in the reign of Henry IV., 
who possessed himself of the crown, to the prejudice of the descendants of Lionel, 
duke of Clarence, second son of Edward III. Act 7 Henry IV. c. 2 confirmed the title 
of that monarch, and declared prince Henry heir-apparent of England and France, with 
remainders to Henry IV. 's other children. Parliamentary interposition was subse- 
quently exercised in the case of Henry VII. and in regard to the immediate successors 
of Henry VIII. The respective rights of James I., Charles I., and Charles II. were 
acknowledged by parliament; and in the case of Charles II. the crown was held to have 
devolved on him immediately on the death of his father. 

The revolution of 1688 was founded on the so-called abdication of the government by 
James II. See ABDICATION. The convention bestowed the crown on William and 
Mary for life, and regulated the claims of Anne. On the impending extinction of the 
Protestant descendants of Charles I., the crown was settled by 12 and 13 Will. III. c. 2, 
in the event of the death of William and Anne without issue, on the next Protestant 
line, according to the regular order of succession viz., the descendants of the electress 
Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James I. ; and it was at the same time enacted, that 
whoever should hereafter come to possession of the crown, should join the communion, 
of the church of England as by law established. This is the latest parliamentary limita- 
tion of the crown; but the right of parliament to limit the succession has been secured by 
6 Anne. c. 7, which attaches the penalties of treason to the " maliciously, advisedly, and 
directly" maintaining, by writing or printing, that the king and parliament cannot make 
laws to bind the succession to the crown, and the penalties of a prcemunire (q.v.) to 
maintaining the same doctrine by preaching, teaching, or advised speaking. 

SUCCESSION WARS were of frequent occurrence in Europe, between the middle of 
the 17th and the middle of the 18th centuries, on the occasion of the failure of a sover- 
eign house. The most important of these wars was that of the Orleans succession to the 
Palatinate (1686-97), closed by the peace of Ryswick; of the Spanish succession (1700-13); 
f the Polish succession (1733-38), closed by the peace of Vienna; of the Austrian suc- 
cession (1740^48); and of the Bavarian succession (1777-79), called, in ridicule, th 
potato-war. Of these, the second and fourth were by far the most important, and a- 
brief notice of their course and conclusion is subjoined. 

SUCCESSION, WAR OP THE SPANISH, arose on the death, without issue or collateral 
male heirs, of Charles II., king of Spain, Nov. 3, 1700. The nearest natural heir to th 
throne was of the royal line of France, Charles's elder sister having married Louis XIV. ; 
but to prevent any possible union of the two crowns, a solemn renunciation had been 
exacted both from Louis and his queen, for themselves and their heirs; and this renun- 
ciation having been ratified by the king and cortes of Spain, was made as binding as 
legal forms could make it. Failing the Bourbons, the next heirs were the descendant* 
of the younger sister of Charles, who had married the emperor Leopold I. , and from 
whom no renunciation had been exacted; and the only issue being a daughter, who had 
married the elector of Bavaria, and borne a son, Joseph Ferdinand, this prince was dur- 
ing his lifetime regarded both by Charles II. and the Spanish people as the rightful heir. 
Buydying in 1699 without issue, the question of succession was reopened, Louis XIV., 
failing his wife's rights, claiming for himself, as the son of Philip IV. 's elder sister (being, 
however, again legally barred here by another solemn renunciation) ; while the emperor 
Leopold, maintaining with justice that the Bourbons were by these two renunciations 
wholly deprived of all their rights of heirship, claimed the throne as the son of Philip 
IV. 's younger sister. The other powers of Europe, especially Britain, Holland, and 
Germany, warmly interested themselves in the matter, as a question of policy, and with 
^ood reason ; for not only was the crown of Spain a valuable prize in itself, carrying with 
it the sovereignty of the Netherlands, the Milanese, Naples, and Sicily, and immense 
possessions in America, but its union with France or Austria would of a certaintj 
endanger the independence of every other sovereignty in Europe. Both claimants bad* 
for the support of the maritime powers, the one by renouncing his claims in favor of his 
second grandson, Philip of Anjou, the other by putting forward his second son, Charles, 
as his substitute, while both solemnly promised never to undertake the union of the two 
crowns. The Austrian party at first preponderated in Spain ; bnt Louis, by able and 
unscrupulous policy, succeeded in undermining the Austrian influence at Madrid, and in 
having Philip declared the heir (Oct. 2, 1700). On the death of king Charles, a monti 

39 Su< 

after, Philip appeared in Spain, and was well received by all classes, and at once recog- 
nized as monarch, an example gradually and unwillingly followed by all the European 
powers excepting the emperor; for at that time the dread of Louis XI V.'s power pressed 
like an incubus on the nations of Europe. However, the French monarch, by various 
ill-advised acts, chiefly by his support of the elder pretender (the son of James II.), 
whom he recognized as sovereign of Britain, and by occupation of the Netherlands and 
menacing treatment of Holland, stirred up such general resentment, that William III. 
was enabled to revive the grand alliance, and his successor, Anne, to join with Holland 
and Austria in declaring war against France and the " Spanish usurper," May 15, 1702. 
Hostilities at once commenced; a combined British-Dutch-German army under 
llarlborough attacked the French in Belgium, and captured one by one their fortresses 
on the Maes, while the Reichs army (Germany having declared for Austria), under the 
Markgraf of Baden, crossed the Rhine, and took Landau. Austria herself had, how- 
ever, commenced the contest in the previous year by sending into Italy prince Eugene 
(q.v.) of Savoy-Carignan at the head of a veteran army of 32,000 men, who did a good 
deal of hard fighting, with no adequate result. Meanwhile, the elector of Bavaria 
raised an army and declared for France, and a French army under Villars marched to 
join him. Both were kept in check by the Markgraf for some time; but, in the summer 
of 1703, Villars burst through the Black Forest, and joined the elector, with the view of 
penetrating through Bavaria into Austria, but his obstinate ally, the elector, was deter- 
mined to invade the Tyrol instead, and join Vendome in northern Italy a scheme 
which ended most disastrously; and Villars returned in disgust to France. In the Low 
Countries, Marlborough employed himself in gradually depriving the French of their 
strongholds: in Italy the Austrians were driven from point to point, till nothing 
remained to them but a few districts on the Po; they were, however, relieved toward 
the close of the year by the defection from France of the duke of Savoy, who joined 
the grand alliance Oct. 25, 1703, an event which compelled Vendome to return to Pied- 
mont. The first great blow was struck in the following year, when the combined 
Austrian-Germau-British army, under Marlborough, totally defeated the French and the 
elector at Blenheim (q.v.), driving the debris of their forces almost to the foot of the 
Vosges. After this the French never obtained a permanent footing in Germany. The 
campaigns of Marlborough in Germany, and of Eugene in Italy, in 1705, were successful 
but not very important. The year 1706 was another great epoch in this protracted con- 
test; the British and Dutch having freed the valley of the Maes, had forced the French 
into South Brabant, and Marlborough having, by a stratagem, caused them to march 
toward Namur, suddenly attacked them at Ramillies (q.v.), and, after a brief combat, 
put them completely to rout with great slaughter, the elector and Villeroy, the joint 
commanders, narrowly escaping capture. Louis hastily re enforced his army, and re- 
called Vendome from Italy to take the command, a step which, however necessary, cleared 
the way for Eugene who completely out-generaled his opponent Marsin, and after a 
memorable march of 34 days, appeared before Turin, and united with the duke of 
Savoy. The battle of Turin, in which the gallant Marsin was slain, was one of the 
most obstinate of the whole war, but its result was as decisive, and from this period 
the French power in northern Italy was shattered: and the following year saw the coun- 
try completely cleared of both French and Spaniards. From 1706 the war in Germany 
was purely defensive, and no battle worthy of notice was fought. In Italy also the 
contest on the whole languished, though the Austrian arms were for the most part suc- 
cessful, Mantua and Naples (1708) being subdued, and the pope compelled to preserve 
neutrality by dread of another sack of Rome. But since the commencement of 1704, 
another theater of war had been established by the landing of the archduke Charles at 
Lisbon with 8,000 British and 6,000 Dutch troops, who were joined by the Portuguese 
(their king having acceded to the alliance against France), and invaded Spain from the 
west; but nothing of consequence was accomplished till a landing had been effected by the 
earl of Peterborough (q.v.), with a small body of troops, in Catalonia. Then attacked 
both from the w. and e., the Bourbon forces were beaten and driven across the Pyr- 
enees, and it was only after the departure of Peterborough that Berwick (q.v.) made 
head against his antagonists. By his victory at Almanza (April 25, 1707), he recovered 
the whole of Spain except Catalonia. In 1710 Berwick finally left Spain; and the Car- 
lists under Stanhope and Starhemberg again got the upper hand, repossessing them- 
selves of the e. of Spain, and of Madrid (Sept. 28). But the arrival of Vendome 
peedily changed the face of affairs. Stanhope was defeated and captured (Dec. 9) at 
Brihuega, and Starhemberg was forced to retreat on the following day. The war 
was thenceforth confined to Catalonia, and was distinguished by no noteworthy inci- 
dents. The most important part of the struggle had been meanwhile taking place in the 
Netherlands, where Marlborough (1707) drew up in concert with Eugene a secret plan of 
operations which affected a division of the Moselle army under the elector and Berwick 
from that of the north under Vendome ; whereupon the British and Germans swiftly 
uniting fell upon Vendome's army at Oudenarde (q.v.) (1708), and before Berwick 
could come up to its aid, inflicted upon it a severe defeat. The capture of Lille, Ghent, 
and Bruges necessarily followed. France now began to show symptoms of exhaustion, 
and made overtures of peace, but these being chiefly illusory, were rejected ; and th 
emperor having largely re-enforced Eugene, the allies took the field with 110,000 men. 

Suoo i ilia. 4f\ 


while the French, equal in strength, were now directed by Villars, the most enterpris- 
ing and fortunate of their generals; but his star, which had hitherto been constantly in the 
ascendant, fell before that of Marlborough at Malplaquet (q.v.) (Sept., 1709). After some 
further campaigning, besieging, and negotiating, the opportune death of the emperor 
(April 17, 1711) rescued France from the brink of destruction; for Britain became imme- 
diately lukewarm in support of a cause which would effect the reunion of Austria and 
Spain; and the tories having come into power, private preliminaries of peace were 
signed between Britain and France, Oct. 8, 1711. Eugene, however, continued the war, 
aided by Holland, and captured Quesnoy; but the defeat and capture of the earl of 
Albermarle and the British contingent at Denain (July, 1712) so weakened his force, 
that he was compelled to give way; and in the following spring the Dutch joined the 
British as parties to the peace of Ltrecht (q.v.). The emperor Charles was also forced 
to conclude a treaty of peace at Baden, Sept. 7, 1714, which ended the struggle, leaving 
Philip in possession of the Spanish throne (see UTRECHT. PEACE OF); while Austria 
obtained the Spanish Netherlands and the Milanese. 

SUCCESSION, WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN. The death of the emperor Charles VI. (Oct. 
20, 1740), by which the male line of the house of Hapsburg became extinct, was the 
signal for a general uprising of the powers of Europe, some to prey OR the Austrian pos- 
sessions, and others to aid the eldest daughter and heir of the deceased emperor. The 
probability of such a contingency had long been foreseen by Charles VI., for as early as 
1713 he had published a. Pragmatic Sanction (q.v.), stipulating that, in default of male 
heirs, the whole of his dominions should descend undivided to his eldest daughter, Maria 
Theresa (q.v.); and it was almost his sole aim, during his subsequent reign,"to gain the 
consent of all parties having proximate claims to any of the Austrian domains, and of 
the principal powers of Europe, to this arrangement. The elector of Bavaria, Charles 
Albert, alone refused to resign his pretensions. On the death of her father, Maria 
Theresa intimated her accession to the various European powers, and from all of them, 
except France and Bavaria, received assurances of good-will and support; but notwith- 
standing, two months did not elapse till Frederick II. of Prussia, without a declaration 
of war, invaded Silesia. The Austrian treasury was at this time exhausted, and the 
army much disorganized; so that little or no effective resistance could be made to the 
Prussians; while the state of alarm into which this sudden attack had thrown the court 
of Vienna was increased by doubts as to the intentions of France. These doubts were 
soon resolved by the latter, in the spring of 1741, forming a confederacy of all the claim- 
ants to the Austrian dominions the electors of Bavaria and Saxony, sons-in-law of the 
emperor Joseph I. ; Philip V. of Spain ; Charles Emmanuel of Sardinia, who claimed 
the Milanese; and Frederick II. of Prussia, who now demanded almost the whole of 
Silesia. On the other hand, Britain granted Maria Theresa an annual subsidy of 
300,000; the Dutch were willing to aid her when opportunity offered; and Hungary 
gallantly responded to her pathetic appeal by sending in thousands her motley popula- 
tion, Magyars, Croats, Slavs, and Tolpatches, to fight in defense of their heroic queen. 
Meantime the Bavarians, in conjunction with the French under Belleisle, overran the 
greater part of Bohemia. This invasion compelled the queen to buy off her most for- 
midable opponent, Prussia, by the surrender cf Silesia and Glatz; and then, while prince 
Charles of Lorraine kept the French at bay in Bohemia, Khevenhuller, the most enter- 
prising of the Austrian generals, advanced up the valley of the Danube, captured 12,000 
French in Lintz, overran Bavaria, and on the very day of the elector's coronation as the 
emperor Charles VII., took Munich his capital (Feb. 12, 1742). But this great success 
alarmed Frederick II. for the security of his new possessions, and abruptly breaking the 
treaty, he poured his forces into Bohemia and upper Austria, and gained the battle of 
Chotusitz (May 17). The same year witnessed increased activity on the part of Britain 
(the Walpole administration being now in power) and Holland on behalf of Austria; the 
expulsion of the French and Bavarians from Bohemia; the severance of the king of 
Sardinia from the coalition against Austria, produced by the bribe of some districts of 
the Milanese, which, however, he did not obtain till some time afterward ; the enforce- 
ment of neutrality upon Naples by the threatening attitude of a British fleet off the 
capital; and, on the other hand, the recovery of Bavaria by the elector. 

In May, 1743, Bavaria again fell into the hands of prince Charles and Khevenhuller; 
count Saxe was driven with great loss from the Palatinate; the "emperor" Charles 
Albert and the Swedes, disgusted at their ill-success in the war, retired from the contest, 
o that France and Spain now remained the sole representatives of the once mighty- 
coalition. In 1744, France and Britain, which had hitherto engaged in the conflict only 
as allies, declared war on each other ; and the latter proceeded to destroy piecemeal th 
French and Spanish shipping en the high seas, and to attack their colonial possessions. 
For this, however, the successes of Saxe in the Netherlands were a compensation. 
However, the great successes of Austria on the Rhine, and the ill-concealed ambitious 
projects of Maria Theresa, again alarmed Frederick II. for Silesia; and he resolved 
on another attempt to rivet his hold on the much- coveted province before it was too late. 
Accordingly, he concluded at Frankfurt (May 13, 1744), a secret convention with France, 
the emperor, the elector-palatine, and the king of Sweden. Bursting into Bohemia with 
his usual celerity, Frederick II. forced the Austrians at once to return from Alsace, thu* 
enabling the elector to recapture Bavaria ; but before prince Charles had time to reack 

A~l Suceinlc. 


Bohemia, a fresh levy of 44,000 men, which had been raised by the chivalrous and 
patriotic Hungarians, "joined by 6,000 Saxons, had reached the Prussians, and by cutting 
off their supplies, and capturing their stragglers and foraging parties, compelled them 
to evacuate the kingdom with considerable loss. In Italy, the Spaniards, who were 
now joined by the Neapolitans, were defeated repeatedly, and compelled to retreat down 
the peninsula; and the king of Sardinia succeeded in preventing the French from effect- 
ing a permanent lodgment in n.w. Italy. In January, 1745, the emperor-elector died, 
and his son, Maximilian Joseph, profiting from his father's misfortunes, declined to 
take part in the contest, or to allow himself to be nominated emperor, and made peace 
with Austria. Frederick II., displeased with the meddling and overbearing conduct of 
France with respect to the approaching imperial election, also sought to come to terms 
with Austria, by the mediation of Britain, and the peace of Dresden (Dec. 25, 1745) 
finally withdrew Prussia from the. conflict. In Flanders, the fortunes of Austria also 
declined; and after the victory of Fontenoy (May 11, 1745) she could not prevent Saxe 
from capturing the chief Belgian fortresses in succession. In Italy, also, fortune 
declared for the coalition ; for the Spanish-Neapolitan army, now re-enforced by the Geno- 
ese and Modenese 70,000 men in all defied all opposition, overran the whole of Lom- 
banly and much of the Sardinian territories, driving the king under the walls of his capital. 
Similar reverses befell the allies in Flanders during the campaign of 1746; but these were 
more than counterbalanced by the great successes obtained in Italy, where all the lost 
fortresses of Lombardy, Parma, and Guastalla, were recaptured, the coalition army 
totally routed in a great battle near Placentia(June 16), and Genoa overrun and occupied. 
Another of fortune's favors to Austria was the death of Philip V. of Spain (July 9), 
which, by depriving that arch-plotter, his queen, of the supreme power, considerably 
diminished the zeal of the Spanish court in the prosecution of the war. In 1747, the 
Dutch, who had hitherto escaped the ravages of war, were made practically acquainted 
with them by Saxe, who, having completely subdued the Austrian Netherlands, invaded 
and overran Dutch Flanders, routed the unfortunate duke of Cumberland at Laffeldt 
(July 2), while his celebrated chief of engineers, count Lowendal, after a two months' 
siege, took Bergen-op-Zoom, Cohorn's masterpiece, a fortress believed by the Dutch to 
be impregnable. At the commencement of 1748, Britain, France, and Holland sought 
to bring aboiit a peace, and agreed among themselves to certain preliminaries, which 
were submitted to Austria and Sardinia; but as one of them was the surrender of Parma 
and Placentia to don Philip of Spain, the former refused her consent; and her twcxallies, 
disgusted at her disregard of the sacrifices they had made on her behalf, at once signed 
the preliminaries (April 30), and Austria sullenly followed suit on May 18. Much dis- 
cussion followed, but on Oct. 18, 1748, the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (q.v.) put an end to 
this most disastrous war, which left the Hapsburgs in possession of their hereditary 
dominions, with the exception of Silesia and some of their Italian provinces. See AIX- 

SUCCIN'IC ACID (C 8 H4O 6 ,2HO) derives its name from its having been originally 
found in amber (Lat. succinum), and is one of the group of dibasic acids of the oxalic 
acid series, whose general formula is C-mHm-4O 8 ,2HO. Succinic acid occurs as a natu- 
ral constituent not only in amber, but also in the resins of many of the pine tribe, in the 
leaves of the lettuce and wormwood; and, in the animal kingdom, it has been detected 
in the fluids of hydatid cysts and hydrocele, in the parenchymatous juices of the thymus 
gland of the calf, and of the pancreas and thyroid gland of the ox. 

One of the most important points in connection, with succinic acid is its convertibility 
into tartaric acid, while tartaric acid may in its turn be reconverted into succinic acid. 


SUCCULENT PLANTS are those plants remarkable for the thick and fleshy or succu- 
lent character of their stems and leaves. This character prevails in the natural orders 
cactacece, mesembryacea, and crassulacea, but frequently appears also in genera of other 
natural orders, as in aloes and some other liliacew. It consists in a peculiar develop- 
ment of cellular tissue. Succulent plants are remarkable for the small number of 
stomata (q.v.) on the green surface. They are generally found in dry climates, often 
as almost the only vegetation of the most arid places ; although some of them occur in situ- 
ations where moisture is often abundant; their peculiar structure, however, being appar- 
ently intended to adapt them for enduring occasional droughts. Thus, there are not 
only succulent plants in the Sahara and other deserts, but in Britain, and some of them 
form a conspicuous feature of the flora of the mountains of Europe as species of sedum, 
rhodiola, rosea, etc. where they are found in situations sometimes abounding in moisture, 
but occasionally parched on bare rooks, steep slopes with scanty soil, and the like. 
By the want of stomata and the store of moisture in their own cellular tissue, they ar 
adapted for the endurance of long droughts. Yet they live in great part by nourish- 
ment derived from the atmosphere, rather than from the soil ; a fact which may easily 
be proved by suspending a specimen of the common yellow stoaecrop (sedum acre) by 
means of a string, when it will be found to flourish for a considerable time, and some- 
times to preserve its vitality as long as those planted in the ground. In dry tropical 
countries, succulent plants perform in part the same office which lichens and mosses d 
in colder regions, in preparing the first mold for future vegetation. 

Sachet. AC) 


STJCHET, LOUIS-GABRIEL, Duke of Albufera, and marshal of France, was descended 
from an honorable family, and b. at Lyons, Mar. 2, 1770. He volunteered as a private 
into the cavalry of the Lyons national guard in 1792, and subsequently became attached 
to the army of Italy. His rare intelligence and brilliant valor, displayed at Lodi, Rivoli, 
Castiglione, Arcola, and in numerous battles of less note, laid the foundation of his 
military reputation, and in 1798 he became gen. of brigade. The able manner in which 
he, with a force not one-sixth of that of the Austrians, kept Melas in check (1800), pre 
venting the invasion of the s. of France, and ultimately capturing 15,000 prisoners, is 
one of the most brilliant military feats on record. Suchet also took a distinguished part 
in the campaigns against Austria (1805) and Prussia (1806), and was subsequently (April, 
1809) appointed generalissimo of the French army in Aragon, where, for the first time, 
he appears as holding an independent command. The part of Spain committed to his 
charge, though inhabited by a people distinguished by their obstinacy and patriotism 
above all others in Spain, was completely subdued, more, however, through his just and 
able administration, and the strict discipline which he maintained, than by military 
talent. The latter quality he was only called upon to exercise against Spanish troops, 
which he had little difficulty in annihilating. In the first few days of 1812 he con- 
quered Valencia, and obtained in addition to his dignity of marshal (July 8, 1811) that 
of duke of Albufera, and the grant of a magnificent domain. The five campaigns 
which he made in the peninsula are considered perfect models of the kind of service he 
had to perform viz., to rivet the chains of a foreign domination on the necks of a 
patriotic and high-spirited people. The details have been well given by him in his 
Memoires sur ses Campagnes en Espayne (Paris, 1829-34, 2 vols. with atlas). But the 
misfortunes of the other French armies in Spain compelled Suchet gradually to relin- 
quish all his conquests. He was created a peer by Louis XVIII. , but took service under 
his old master after his return from Elba, and was charged with the defense of the s.w. 
frontier. Deprived of his peerage at the second restoration, he did not return to court 
till 1819, when it was restored, and he soon rose high in royal favor. He died at the 
chfiteau of Saint Joseph, near Marseilles, Jan. 3, 1826. Napoleon's high opinion of 
Suchet's military talents is recorded by O'Meara and Las Casas, and, according to his 
classification, Suchet ranked second, Masseua being first. His son and successor in the 
dukedom of Albufera wa* a member of the corps legislatif, and a supporter of the 
Napoleonist policy under the emperor Napoleon III. 

SUCKING-FISH, a name sometimes given to the remora (q.v.), and to fishes of the 
family discoboli (q.v.), which have a sucker formed by the union of the ventral fins, and 
are capable of attaching themselves by it to stones or other substances. The best known 
of the British species, and the only one which is of any value as an article of food, is the 
lumpsucker (q.v.). Several other species occur on the British coasts, to which the name 
SUCKER is generally given, as the CORNISH SUCKER (Upidogaster Cornubiensis), and the 
UNCTUOUS SUCKER or sea-snail (liparis vulgaris). They are small fishes, destitute of scales. 

SUCKLING, Sir JOHN, one of the brilliant cavalier poets of the court of Charles I., 
was born at Whitton, in Middlesex, and baptized Feb. 10, 1608-9. His father, also a 
knight, held office as a secretary of state, and comptroller of the household, but died in, 
1627, when the poet was in his eighteenth year. The latter inherited large estates; and 
having completed his education at Trinity college, Cambridge, he went abroad, .and. 
served for some time in Germany under Gustavus Adolphus. He returned about 1632, 
and was soon distinguished for his wit, gallantry, and lavish expenditure. To aid the 
king against the Scots he raised a troop of 100 horsemen, whom he ckd in a rich and 
gaudy uniform of white and red, with plumes of red feathers in their caps. This loyal 
corps is said to have cost the poet about 12,000. They rode n. ; but no sooner had the 
cavalry come within sight of the Scots' army at Dunse than they turned and fled without 
aiming a blow ! This disgrace gave occasion to numerous lampoons, and to a clever 
though coarse ballad against Suckling's gay horsemen ; but in reality they behaved no- 
worse than the rest of the English army. Their loyal commander next joined in a 
scheme to rescue Strafford from the Tower, and this being discovered, he fled for safety 
to the continent. He died, while yet in the flower of his life and genius, in 1641 or 1642. 
Various accounts are given of the circumstances attending his death, but the most pain- 
ful of these, viz., that he poisoned himself in Paris, is confirmed by family tradition. 
See the memoir by the rev. Alfred Suckling (1836), prefixed to a volume of Selection* 
from the Works of Sir John Suckling. He had probably run through his fortune, and 
dreaded want, as well as despaired of the success of the royal arms. The works of 
Suckling consist of four plays, now utterly forgotten, a prose treatise entitled An Account 
of Religion by Reason; a collection of Letters, written in a stiff, artificial style ; and a series 
of miscellaneous poems, beginning with A Session of the Poets, published in 1637, which 
Is original in style, and happily descriptive of the author's contemporaries. But the fame 
of Suckling rests on his songs and ballads, which are inimitable for their ease, gayety, 
and pure poetic diction. His ballad of The Wedding is still unsurpassed, and one simile 
in his description of the bride 

Her feet beneath her petticoat, 
Like little mice, stole in and out, 
As if they feared the light 

lias had the honor of being copied by Herrick^aad Congreve. 

JQ Suchet. 



SUCRE, ANTONIO JOSE DE, 1793-1830; b. Venezuela; educated at Caraccas. When 
18 years old he entered the patriot array, and in 1822 held a command at Pichincha. In 
1823 he became the chief of the Peruvian patriots, and the next year won the battle of 
Ayacucho, which brought about the independence of Peru. By the legislature of 
Bolivia he was chosen president for life in return for his efforts in rendering that repub- 
lic free. In 1827 an insurrection took place in which Sucre was wounded. He then 
resigned, engaged in the war between Colombia and Peru, and defeated the Peruvian 
army under Lamar at Tarqui, 1829. He was chosen president of the first congress of the 
republics which met in Bogota, 1830, and on his return was assassinated, it was said, by 
order of Obando. 

SUCTO RIA, an order of insects, containing only those forming the Linnsean genus 
pulex. See FLEA. 

SUDAM INA, or MILIARY ERUPTION, is one of the diseases of the skin belonging to 
the class xesiculx, or resides. The former name is derived from the fact that the disorder 
is always accompanied with profuse sweating; while the latter has reference to the size 
of vesicles, which do not exceed those- of a millet-seed. The vesicles are most abundant 
on the neck and trunk, and are sometimes, but not always, attended with itching. They 
almost always occur in association with febrile disorders, which, however, do not seem 
in any way modified by these occurrences. The only known condition that favors their 
production is copious and prolonged sweating. They sometimes appear in health during 
the summer heat, when strong exercise has induced copious sweating. Pathologically 
this disease is of so little importance that it is unnecessary to notice its treatment. It is, 
however, sometimes useful as a sign in diagnosis, especially in typhus and typhoid 

SUDAN. See SOODAN, ante. 

SUDBURY, a municipal borough of Suffolk, 16 m. s. of Bury St. Edmunds, on the left 
bank of the Stour, across which a bridge connects the town with the suburb of Balingdon in 
Essex. The silk and bunting manufactures are the most important branches of industry. 
There are also brick-works, in which the white clay used is notable for its purity. 
Malting is carried on. Sudbury was one of the first towns into which the woolen manu- 
facture was introduced by the Flemings. Pop. '71, 6,908. 

SUDDEN DEATH may be induced by natural or by violent causes, and the detection 
of the true cause is obviously of very great importance, since the acquittal or conviction 
of a suspected person may depend upon it. Sudden death may occur naturally from 
syncope (fainting or swooning), from asphyxia (literally pulselessness), or, more correctly, 
apnaea (privation of breath), or from coma (insensibility). Syncope, or sudden cessation 
of the heart's action, may occur, as Dr. C. J. B. "Williams points out in his Principles of 
Medicine, in two ways; (1.) By the heart losing its irritability (or becoming paralyzed), 
so that it ceases to contract; and (2.) by its being affected with tonic spasm, in which it 
remains rigidly contracted, losing its usual alternation of relaxation. Sudden death from 
asphyxia, or, more correctly, from apna?a, occurs when, from any cause, the entrance of 
air into the lungs is prevented. It is not so often witnessed as a result of disease as of 
accident. It is sometimes caused by a spasmodic closure of the chink of the glottis (see 
LARYNX). Sudden death from coma is liable to occur in apoplexy and injuries of the 

In all cases of sudden death there is a strong tendency on the part of the public to 
suspect the poisoning. It is very hard to make them understand that persons may die a 
natural death suddenly as well as slowly; or conversely, that death may really take place 
slowly, and yet be the result of poison. "One of the means," says Dr. Taylor, "recom- 
mended for distinguishing narcotic poisoning from apoplexy or disease of the heart is the 
difference in the rapidity with which death takes place. Thus apoplexy, or disease of the 
heart may prove fatal either instantly or within an hour. The only poisons likely to 
operate with such fatal rapidity are prussic acid or nicotina. Poisoning by opium is com- 
monly protracted for five or six hours. This poison has never been known to destroy 
life instantaneously or within a few minutes. Thus, then, it may happen that death 
will occur with such rapidity as to render it impossible, under the circumstances, to 
.attribute it to narcotic poison." Op. tit., p. 145. 

In its relations to medicine and medical jusisprudence the subject of this article has 
been fully discussed by Herrick and Popp, Der plotzliche Tod am inneren Ursachen, 1848. 

SUDETENGEBIRGE, the most important mountain-range of Germany, dividing Prus- 
sian Silesia and Lausitz from Bohemia and Moravia, and connecting the Carpathians with 
the mountains of Franconia. It does not form a continuous chain except in the middle, 
where it is known under the names of Riesengebirge (q.v.) and Isergebirge; the ends, 
both toward the n.w. and s.e., broadening out into great rugged hilly plateaus, with 
broken chains and isolated peaks. The Sudetengebirge are composed chiefly of granite, 
gneiss, mica-schist, and porphyry, with superimposed beds of basalt and coal, and are 
clothed with pines to a height of between 2,000 and 3,000 feet. They are rich in miner- 
als, especially in the metals, iron, lead, copper, zinc, tin, cobalt, with some silver and 
gold. Schneekoppe (Snow-peak) in the Riesengebirge, about 5,000 ft. high, is the cul- 

Sudra. A 


initiating point in the whole range. The name Sudetengebirge is applied in a narrower 
sense to the s.e. portion of the range separating Silesia from Moravia. 

SU DRA is the name of the fourth caste of the Hindus. See CASTE. 

SUE, MAIUE-JOSEPII- EUGENE, a well-known French novelist, was born at Paris Dec. 
10, 1S04. His father, Jean-Joseph Sue, was one of the household physicians of Napoleon, 
and he educated his son for his own profession. At the age of twenty the young man 
became an army-surgeon. In this capacity he served in the French expedition to bpain, 
under the duke of AngoulSme, in 1823. Subsequently he transferred himself to the navy ; 
and in 1828 was present at the battle of Navarino. In 1829 his father died, leaving him. 
a handsome fortune, on the acquisition of which he ceased to practice his profession. 
After coquetting a little with art he betook himself seriously to literature, and very soon, 
in the department of fiction, he achieved a considerable popularity. His earlier efforts 
were sea-stories, somewhat after the manner of Cooper, or romances in imitation of 
Scott ; and though in both fields he displayed talent, his true power was scarcely as yet 
developed. Something of it may, however, be traced in his MathUde, ou ks Nemoires 
d'une Jeune Femme, published in 1841; but it was first decisively made manifest in 
the^famous Mysteres de Pans, which began to appear the year after in the columns of the 
Journal des Debate. The furor of excitement occasioned by this work and its successor 
Le Juif Errant which appeared in the Constitutionnel, not only in France but else- 
where, has seldom, perhaps, been exceeded; and for both the writer received large sums 
of money. In 1846 his Martin, V Enfant Trouve was issued; in 1847-8 appeared Les Sept 
PecMes Capitaux; and in 1852 he published Les Mysteres du Peupk, his last work of any 
importance. Throughout Sue's latest works there runs a vein of socialism ; and at the 
revolution of 1848 he allied himself with the extremes! sect of the republicans. On 
April 28, 1850, he was elected deputy to the legislative assembly for the department of 
the Seine, and was assiduous in his duties as such till the coup d'etat of Dec., 1852, by 
which he was driven into exile. He retired to Savoy; and at Annecy he died July 3, 

In the writings of Sue great power is displayed ; but it is rather of the unhealthy kind, 
and depends for much of its effect on vicious sources of interest. His books are read 
once with a fever-heat of curiosity, and scarcely bear reperusal. 

SUE C A, a t. of Spain, in Valencia, and 23 m. s. of the city of that name, on the Jucar, 
about 4 m. from the Mediterranean. Brick and tile works are in operation, and there 
are several flour and rice mills. Pop. 9,100. 

STTET is a variety of solid fatty tissue, which accumulates in considerable quantity 
about the kidneys and the omentum of several domestic animals, especially the ox and 
sheep. Beef suet is extensively used in cookery, while purified mutton-suet under the 
name of Sevum Prceparatum occurs in the Pharmacopoeia, and is obtained by melting 
and straining the internal abdominal fat. It consists of a mixture of ordinary animal 
fats with a great preponderance of the most solid of them, viz., stearin, which consti- 
tutes about three-fourths of the whole. The pure suet of the Pharmacopoeia is "white, 
soft, smooth, almost scentless; and is fusible at 103." It is used as an ingredient in 
cerates, plasters, and ointments. Ordinary melted suet is frequently employed in the 
same manner as lard, to preserve potted meats or fish and similar articles from the 
action of the air. 

SUETO'NIUS, CAITJS TRANQTJILLUS, son of Suetonius Lenis, a tribune of the 13th 
legion under Otho, was born probably a few years after the death of Nero. He is known 
to us chiefly as a Roman historian and miscellaneous writer, for his merits as which he 
is highly praised by the younger Pliny. He was also, it is supposed, a teacher of gram- 
marjand rhetoric, and a composer of exercises in pleading; nay, from a letter of Pliny's 
to him, it may be gathered that he sometimes pleaded causes in person. Pliny procured 
him the dignity of military tribune, which, by Suetonius's desire, he got transferred to 
another. Though childless, Suetonius was, through the same friendly agency, pre- 
sented by. Trajan with the jus trium liberorum, which, in that reign, was only to be 
had by great interest. He was afterward secretary of the emperor Adrian, whose favor 
he had secured. The date of his death is unknown. All his works (among which, ag 
we learn from Suidas, there were several on topics usually treated by grammarians) 
have been lost, except his Lives of the Gcesars, his Lives of Eminent Grammarians, and 
(in part only) his Lives of Eminent Rhetoricians. It is by the first of these works that he 
is most favorably known, replete as it is with information about the twelve Caesars, from. 
C. Julius to Domitian, which is to be had nowhere else, and abounding with anecdotes 
which, while they too often prove the profligacy of his heroes, testify to the impartiality 
of their chronicler. From a period long before the renaissance to the present, these 
" Lives" have always been favorite reading, and have found numerous editors, the best 
of whom is still Burmann (Amsterdam, 1736), and numerous translators into nearly 
every European language. 

SUE'VI, first mentioned by Caesar, in whose history (De bello Gallico) the name i 
employed as the collective designation of a great number of Germanic peoples. They 
occupied a district of indefinite extent on the eastern side of the Rhine, and may have 
been the same tribes as those subsequently .known as Chatti, Longobardi, etc. Caesar 

AX Sudra. 


tales that their territory comprised 100 cantons, and was densely wooded, that they had 
towns (oppida), but no strongholds, and that every year a part of the population left 
their homes to seek employment in war. The Suevi of whom Tacitus speaks (Germania, 
38, etc.) seem to have dwelt n. and e. of the Suevi of Caesar, extending as far as the 
Elbe and the Baltic, which Tacitus calls the " Suevic sea." The peoples united under 
the rule of Maroboduus, the Marcomannic chief, were Suevic, and hence the Marco- 
man iii and Quadi, who figure in the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Aurelian, are often 
called Suevi. After the name had fallen into disuse as a collective designation, it re-ap- 
peared (second half of the 3d c., Amm. Marc., etc.) as the name of a people occupying 
the same territory as the Suevi of Caesar, who appear, however, to have been a mixed 
race made up of adventurers from different parts of Germany, and who probably took 
the name of Suevi after possessing themselves of the country. We find them in alliance 
with the Burguudiaus, Alemanni, Alani, Vandals, etc. They are among the most nota- 
ble of the barbaric peoples that broke up the Roman empire in the n.w. and west 
Bursting through the passes of the Pyrenees (409 A.D. ), they along with the Vandals, 
overran and wasted Spain (q.v.). Those who remained at home in Germany seem to 
have spread during the 5th c. e. to the Neckar and the Rauhe Alps, and s.'as far as 
Switzerland. The mediaeval Swabians were their direct descendants. 

SUEZ, until recently, a small, ill-built, wretched-looking town, on an angle of land 
near the northern extremity of the.gulf of Suez, 76 m. e. of Cairo, with which it is con- 
nected by railway. The pop. was officially returned, in 1872, as 13,498. It is walled on 
all sides but that toward the sea, has an indifferent harbor, but a tolerably good quay. 
Suez of late has been greatly improved. English and French houses, offices, and ware- 
houses have been erected in every direction, and the bazaars are assuming a respectable 
appearance. These bazaars are provided with clarified butter from Sinai, with fowls, 
grain, and vegetables from the Egyptian province of Sharkijeh, and with wood, dates, 
and cotton. Rain falls but seldom, sometimes not once in three years. All around 
stretches a burning waste of sands. Suez owes its modern prosperity to the establish- 
ment of what is known as the overland route (q.v.) to India, in consequence of which a 
large portion of the traffic between England (and other European countries) and the. east 
passes through the place; and to the opening of the Suez canal in 1869. For a long time 
previous to the establishment of the overland route, Suez had been in a state of complete 
decay, although, at a yet earlier period previous, in fact, to the discovery of the sea- 
route to India by the cape of Good Hope it was a flourishing emporium of the prod- 
ucts of east and west. A salt manufactory was recently established here by the Egypt- 
ian government, and from May to July, 1875, six thousand tons of salt were sent to 

The GULF OP SUEZ is the western and larger of the two branches into which the Red 
sea divides toward its northern extremity, and washes on the w. the coasts of Egypt, on 
the e. those of the Sinaitic peninsula. Extreme length, 200 m. ; average breadth, about 
20 miles. The shores are sometimes low, barren, and sandy wastes, sometimes bold and 
rocky headlands. 

The ISTHMUS OF SUEZ is a neck of land 72 m. in width at its narrowest part, extend* 
ing from the gulf of Suez on the s. to the Mediterranean on the n., and connecting the 
continents of Asia and Africa. It embraces within its limits (according to the com- 
mo_nly received opinion) the fertile Goshen (q.v.) of antiquity; but it is now a wretched 
uninhabitable waste, consisting of mingled sand and sandstone, interrupted here and 
there with salt swamps or lakes, but almost entirely destitute of fresh water. The main 
interest that attached to this region, in recent times, was, whether or not since Egypt 
was on the great highway to India and China it was practicable to cut a ship-canal 
through the isthmus. "We shall here briefly indicate the main steps that were taken to 
have this important question solved in a satisfactory manner. 

It is certain that, in ancient times, a canal connecting (indirectly) the two seas did 
exist. At what period it was constructed is not so certain. Herodotus ascribes its pro- 
jection and partial execution to Pharaoh Necho (about 600 years B.C.); Aristotle, Strabo, 
and Pliny less felicitously fix on the half-mythical Sesostris as its originator. The honor 
of its completion is assigned by some to Darius, king of Persia, by others to the Ptole- 
mies. It began at about a mile and a half from Suez, and was carried in a north-west- 
erly direction, through a remarkable series of natural depressions, to Bubastis, on the 
Pelusiac or eastern branch of the Nile. Its entire length was 92 m. (of which upward 
f 60 were cut by human labor) its width from 108 to 165 ft., and its depth 15 (Pliny 
says 30) feet. How long it continued to be used, we cannot tell; but at length it became 
choked up with sand, was restored by Trajan early in the 3d c. A.D., but again became 
unusable from the same cause, and so remained till the conquest of Egypt by Amrou, 
the Arab general of the calif Omar, who caused it to be reopened, and named it the 
"Canal of the Prince of the Faithful," under which designation it continued to be 
employed for upward of a century, but was finally blocked up by the imconquerable 
ands, 767 A.D. In this condition it has ever since remained. The attention of Europe 
was first turned to it in modern times during the invasion of Egypt by Bonaparte, who 
caused the isthmus to be surveyed by a body of engineers, who arrived at the opinion 
that the level of the Mediterranean is 30 ft. below that of the Red sea at Suez, an opinion 


which a subsequent survey proved to be erroneous. From this time, the question coa- 
tinued to be agitated at intervals, especially by the French, and various plans were pro- 
posed, but nothing definite was arrived at till 1847, when France, England, and Austria 
ent out a commission to measure accurately the levels of the two seas. The commis- 
sioners, M. Talabot, Mr. Robert Stephenson, and signor Nigrelli, ascertained that, 
instead of a difference of 30 ft., the two seas have exactly the same mean level. The only 
noticeable difference was, that there is a tide of 6i ft. at the one end and l ft. at the 
other. Another examination leading to similar results was made in 1853. Mr. Stephen- 
son expressed himself very strongly against the feasibility of a canal, that is to say, a 
canal of such dimensions as would suit the requirements of modern commerce, and 
planned, instead, a railway from Cairo to Suez, which was opened (1858), and which 
now conveys overland all our Indian and Australian mails. The French, however, were 
not satisfied with Mr. Stephenson's conclusions, and M. Talabot, on his return to Europe, 
published in the Revue des Deux Mondes a plan for connecting the two seas by way of 
Alexandria and Suez (or rather a point 6 m. below Suez), for a description of which we 
have not space. In 1854 a new experimenter appeared in the person of M. de Lesseps, 
a member of the French diplomatic service in Egypt, who (1856) obtained from the pasha 
the "concession," i.e., the exclusive privilege of forming a ship-canal from Tyneh (near 
the ruins of ancient Pelusium) to Suez. The peculiarity of M. de Lesseps's plan lay in 
this, that, instead of following an oblique course, and uniting his canal with the Nile, as 
the ancients had done, and as all the modern engineers had thought of doing, he pro- 
posed to cut a canal right through the isthmus in a straight line to Suez. This canal 
was to have a minimum width at the surface of 262 ft., and at the bottom of 144 ft., with 
a depth of 22| ft. ; and at each end there was to be a sluice-lock formed, 330 ft. long by 
70 wide. By taking advantage of the tides at Suez, it was hoped that an additional depth 
of 3 or 4 ft. might be obtained. But the colossal feature of M. de Lesseps's plan was the 
artificial harbors which he proposed to execute at the two ends, Tyneh and Suez. That 
at the Mediterranean end was to be carried out 5 m. in order to obtain a permanent depth 
of water for a ship drawing 23 ft., on account of the enormous quantity of mud-sand 
which the Nile annually pours out (30,000,000 cubic yards, it is said), and which the 
prevalent wind drives eastward along the shore toward the southern coast of Palestine. 
The quantity of stone required to construct this harbor has been calculated variously at 
from 3 to 12 million cubic yards, and there are no stone quarries except at a great dis- 
tance from Tyneh ! The pier at Suez was to be carried out 3 m. , and in other respects 
the difficulties, though great, were not, as on the Mediterranean coast, almost insur- 
mountable. The English for political, perhaps, as well as for practical reasons, looked 
with aversion on M. de Lesseps's scheme ; but in 1855, the question was again taken up 
in an international spirit, a new European commission was appointed, which reported 
that M. de Lesseps's scheme, somewhat modified, was practicable, and that a canal might 
profitably be constructed. The result of the report was the formation of a joint-stock 
company, with a subscribed capital of 8,000,000 (afterward increased), in which Said, 
the pasha of Egypt, took a large number of shares, and made large concessions of land; 
and the work was accordingly begun. The canal was to be dredged through lake Men- 
zaleh, which runs far into the land directly toward Suez, to be connected with lake 
Temsah, the Bitter lake, and other marshy swamps, and so with Suez. Only a third of 
the way required to be excavated through the sands and rocks of the desert. As early 
as Dec.", 1864, the Mediterranean and the Red sea had been connected. The communi- 
cation, however, was not throughout by the permanent maritime canal, but simply by 
a fresh-water canal of no great width or depth. In April, 1865, the works, at the request 
of M. de Lesseps, were visited by another scientific commission, who reported more 
favorably of the scheme than was expected in England. They stated that the " construc- 
tion of a ship-canal across the isthmus is only a question of time and money," and they 
added that three years would suffice for the completion Of the various contracts con- 
nected with the undertaking. 

The canal was formally opened in Nov., 1869. An account of the opening, and a 
description of the canal in its completed state, is given under SUEZ CANAL. 

The hostility of the British nation to the canal faded away with its successful completion 
and the advantages which it afforded to British commerce. The fears expressed at the 
opening of the canal, that the trade of the east would be diverted from Great Britain as 
a center, were found by statistics to be as groundless. In 1875 the British government 
purchased, for 4,000,000, the khedive of Egypt's shares in the canal, which amounted 
to 176,602 out of 400,000. These shares give no returns to their owner till 1894, th* 
khedive having alienated the dividends till that period in favor of the company. 

SUEZ CANAL. In the former article on this subject, the nature of the scheme wa 
briefly described, and illustrated by a small map ; and the progress of the works noticed 
down to the year 1865. In this place, some of the features will receive a little further 
explanation, now that the canal is finished and in operation. The canal is 85 m. long. 

The Pbrt Said Entrance. Port Said or Said, a t. now containing 10,000 inhabitants; 
had no existence in 1860. It became the depot of the company, the metropolis of vasl 
bodies of laborers and other persons employed on the works of the canal. As the Medi 
terranean sea is very shallow near this point, an artificial deep channel had to be made, 


bounded e. and w. by piers stretching far out into the sea. Stone for these piers was, in 
the first instance, brought from a long distance; but afterward artificial stone was made 
on the spot, consisting of two parts of sand and one part of hydraulic lime ground into 
a paste, and poured into wooden boxes or moulds. When the mixture solidified, the 
mould-boards were removed, and the solid blocks of artificial stone were left from three 
to six months in the open air to dry and harden. The blocks contain 10 cubic meterg 
each, weigh 20 tons, and were made at a contract price of 42 francs per metre cube. The 
western pier has a length of 7,000 ft., and the eastern of 6,000 ft.; they are 4,600 ft. 
apart at the shore, but gradually approacli toward each other, so that their outer ends 
are only 2,300 ft. apart. The western pier is continued in an arc of 1100 yds. extent, 
BO as, with the eastern pier, to shelter the harbor from all winds. Within this outer 
harbor is an inner port, 870 yds. by 500, which is kept at a uniform depth of 30 ft., by 
means of steam-dredging. The lighthouse, with its electric light, is 180 ft. high. 

From Port Said to Temsah Lake. From Port Said, the canal crosses about 20 m. of 
Menzaleb. lake, a salt-water shallow, closely resembling the lagoons of Venice, having 
from 1 to 10 ft. depth of water. The canal through this lagoon is 112 yds. wide at the 
surface. 26yds. at the bottom, and 26 ft. deep. An artificial bank rises 15 ft. on each 
side of this channel. Beyond Meuzaleh lake, heavier works begin. The distance thence 
to Abu Ballah lake is 11 m., with a height of ground above the level of the sea varying 
from 15 to 30 ft. Crossing the last-named lake, there is another land distance of 11 
m. to Temsah lake, cutting through ground to a depth varying from 30 to 70 or 80 ft. ; 
and then 3 m. further across this little lake itself. At El Guisr, or Girsch, occurs the 
deepest cutting in the whole line, no less than 85 ft. below the surface; at the water- 
level it is 112 yds. wide, at the summit-level 173 yds., from which the vastness of the 
gap may be estimated. Ismailia (pop. 5,000) on Temsah lake, is regarded as the central 
point of the canal. While the canal was being made, it grew up rapidly from an Arab 
village to a French town, with the houses of engineers and managers, hotels, shop* 
cafes, a theater, and a central railway station, from which railways stretch to Alexan- 
dria and Suez. 

The Fresh-water Canal. This extends from the Nile to Temsah lake, and was con- 
structed purposely to supply with water the population accumulating at various points 
on the line of the canal; but is also used by small sailing-vessels. This fresh- water or 
"sweet-water" canal comprises three portions or sections: (1) from the Nile e. or n.e. to 
Ismailia, on Temsah lake; (2) from Ismailia, nearly s. to Suez, on the western side of 
the great ship or maritime canal ; (3) from Ismailia nearly n. to Port Said, also on the w. 
side of the ship canal. The first and second of these sections are really canals, large 
enough to accommodate small steamer and barge traffic ; but the third section consists 
simply of a large iron pipe, through which the water is conveyed to the several stations. 
Plugs are inserted in the pipe wherever needed, to allow water to be drawn off for every- 
day wants. 

From Temsah Lake to Suez. The route crosses Temsah lake to Toussoum and the 
Serapeum cutting, through a plateau 46 ft. above the sea, where the waters were let in 
by the prince and princess of Wales, Feb. 28, 1869. There is a space of 8 m. from 
Temsah lake to the commencement of the Bitter lakes, which had to be dug to a depth 
varying from 30 to 62 ft. , according to the undulations of the surface. In these deep 
cuttings, owing to the great width of the canal, the quantity of sand to be dug out (for it 
is nearly all saiid, though sometimes agglomerated with clay) was enormous, requiring 
the constant labor of a large number of powerful dredging machines and elevators. In 
passing through the Bitter lakes, there was more embanking than excavating to be done, 
seeing that the bottom of this region is only two or three yards above the intended bottom 
of the great canal. From the southern end of the Bitter lakes to Suez, a distance of about 
13m., there is another series of heavy cuttings through the stony plateau of Chalouf, 
varying from 30 to 56 ft. in depth. Where cutting is thus difficult, the surface width is 
reduced considerably from the regular width of 327 feet. The canal is intended through- 
out to be 72 ft. wide at the bottom, and 26 ft. deep. 

On Nov. 16, 1869, the Suez canal was opened in form, with a procession of English 
and foreign steamers, in presence of the Khedive, the empress of the French, the em- 
peror of Austria, the crown-prince of Prussia, and others. On Nov. 27, the Brazilian 
went through ; a ship of 1809 tons, 380 ft. long, 30 ft, broad, and drawing from 17-J to 
30i ft. of water. Since then, the canal has continued in successful operation, and pas- 
sages have been made almost daily, chiefly by British vessels. The tost of construction 
of the canal was said to have reached, in Dec. 1869, the total of 11,627,000. In 1870, 
491 ships, of 436,618 tons, passed through; and in 1874, 1264 ships, of 2,424,000 tons. 
About 70 per cent of the shipping and tonnage belongs to Great Britain. . The great 
advantage of the canal is, of course, the shortening of the distance between Europe and 
India. From London or Hamburg to Bombay is by the cape about 11,220 m., but by 
Suez only 6,332; that is. the voyage is shortened by 24 days. From Marseilles or Genoa 
there is a saving of 30 days; fromTriest, of 37. The rate at which steamers are allowed 
to pass through, is from 5 to 6 knots an hour. The canal charges are, 10 francs per ton, 
smd 10 francs per head for passengers. The receipts for 1873 amounted to 22,755,863 
francs, or 911,032; for 1875 (when 1494 ships passed through), to 28,879,735 francs, or 
1,155,185; for 1876 (1457 ships passed), 31,143,762 francs (1,245,750). 

Suffocation. JQ 



SUFFOLK, a co. in e. Mass., on Massachusetts bay, containing the cities of Boston 
and Chelsea, the townships of Revere and Winthrop, and some small islands in Boston 
harbor and Massachusetts bay; 44 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 387,626. Its manufactories num- 
bered, in 1870, 2,546, requiring $48,000,000 capital, giving employment to 43,557 per- 
sons; the raw material used amounted to $60,000,000, and produced $112,000,000 in 
value. The county is one of the smallest in the state, and the second in population. Co. 
seat, Boston. 

SUFFOLK, a co. in s.e. New York, bounded on the n. by Long Island sound, on 
the s. by the Atlantic ocean, watered by the Peconic and other rivers, traversed by the 
Long Island and the Southside railroads; about 850 sq.m.; pop. '80, 53,926 48,319 of 
American birth. It includes the central and e. portions of Long Island. The surface 
is level except in the north. The soil is sandy, but yields well by the use of fertilizers. 
The principal productions are corn, oats, wheat, wool, grass, and dairy products. The 
coast is indented by numerous bays, which make good harbors. There are ship-yards, 
flour-mills, and manufactories of cottons and woolens, paper, bricks, etc. Co. seat, 

SUFFOLK, a maritime co. of England, bounded on the e. by the German ocean, on 
the n. by Norfolk, and on the s. by Essex. Area, 947,681 acres; pop. '71, 348,475. The 
surface is for the most part flat, falling away into marshes on the u.w. and n.e. borders. 
The coast-line, which is low and marshy, or lined with cliffs of shingle or gravel and 
red loam, is about 50 m. in length, and is, on the whole, regular, being unbroken by 
any considerable indentation, and comprising no headland worthy of notice except 
Lowestoft Ness, the most easterly point in Great Britain. The tributaries of the Wave- 
ney, which separate Suffolk from Norfolk on the n., and those of the Stour, which 
form the boundary-line on the s., together with the river Lark, an affluent of the Great 
Ouse, and the Gipping, which, after it begins to broaden into an estuary, is called the 
Orwell, are the chief streams. The climate is cold in spring, but is drier than that of 
the western counties. The soil is of various kinds, some of which are very productive. 
770,000 acres are under cultivation, and the most improved system of agriculture has 
been introduced, together with the best and newest agricultural implements. A polled 
breed of cattle, of which the cows are deservedly held in high esteem, is peculiar to the 
county. The Suffolk pigs are a famous and most profitable breed. There are in the 
co. about 430,000 head of cheep, chiefly Southdowns and crosses of this breed. The 
ordinary crops are raised. The co. sends four members to parliament. Capital, Bury 
St. Edmunds. 

SUF'FRAGAN (Lat. suffraganeus, from suffragium, a suffrage or vote), the name given 
to a bishop is a province, in his relation of dependence or subordination to the arch- 
bishop, or rather metropolitan, of the province. See METROPOLITAN. In some conti- 
nental churches, the name is applied to coadjutor-bishops appointed as in the case of 
prince-bishops in the German empire to assist the bishop in his own diocese. 

SUFFRAGE (Lat. suffragium, derivation uncertain), a right to vote, and more par- 
ticularly the right possessed by the citizen of a state where representative government 
exists to vote for a member of the legislative body. 

The idea that the universal enjoyment of political suffrage is a right by natural law, 
is grounded on the fiction that the obligations of municipal law arise out of a social con- 
tract express or implied. In opposition to this notion it is argued that the true purpose 
for which government exists is the general welfare of the nation; and it is the duty of 
state to consider whether the suffrage may be more beneficially exercised by the many 
or the few. Infants, minors, idiots, and insane persons have everywhere been excluded 
from the suffrage, on the ground that sound judgment is necessary for its exercise. 
Persons convicted of crimes have been excluded, as a security to society; and also 
almost universally women, for reasons based on their relation to society and to the oppo- 
site sex. Like considerations of expediency, it is argued, are a ground for withholding 
the suffrage from those whose circumstances and station in life render it unlikely that 
they should form a sound judgment on political questions. It is the intelligence and 
enlightenment of the country that an elective legislature should represent; and in any 
large extension of the suffrage there is obviously a risk of the intelligence of a constitu- 
ency being swamped by its mere numerical majority. A widely extended suffrage has, 
however, been advocated as a valuable means of educating the people to self-dependence; 
and several philosophical politicians of the present day, who are favorable to a large 
extension of the electoral qualification, propose to obviate what they regard as its other- 
wise inevitable evils by graduating the suffrage, so as to give each individual elector a 
number of votes corresponding as much as possible to his property, education, or social 
position. Schemes for this end, differing in detail, have been proposed by Mr. J. Stuart 
Mill, in his Considerations on Representative Government (1851); and by prof. Lorimer in 
his Political Progress not necessarily Democratic (1857), and Constitutionalism of the Future 

SUFISM (from sufi or soft, the Greek sophos, a sage ; erroneously also derived from 
Arab, sof or suf, wool, and thus designating an individual who wears nothing but 

iii Suflfocatiom. 


woolen garments) designates a certain mystic system of philosophical theology within 
Islam. Its devotees form a kind of ecclesiastical order somewhat similar to that of the fakirs 
(q.v.), or dervishes, but they are mostly of a far superior stamp; and some of the greaW 
est Persian poets, philosophers, historians, and even kings belonged to their ranks. 
They assume four principal degrees of human perfection or sanctity. The first or lowest 
is that of the shariat i.e., of the strict obedience to all the ritual laws of Mohammedan- 
ism, such as prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, almsgiving, ablutions, etc., and the ethical pre- 
cepts of honesty, love of truth, and the like. The second degree (tarikat) is not attainable 
by all, but only by those higher minds that, while strictly adhering to the outward or 
ceremonial injunctions of religion, rise to an inward perception of the mental power 
and virtue necessary for the nearer approach to the divinity, the necessity of, and the 
yearning for, which they feel. The third (hakikal = truth) is the degree of those who, 
by continuous contemplation and inner devotion, have risen to the true perception of 
the nature of the visible and the invisible who, in fact, have recognized the Godhead, and 
through this knowledge of it have succeeded in establishing an ecstatic relation to it. 
This state is finally sublimated into that highest and last degree (maarifal), in which 
man communicates directly with the Deity. Practically, the great mass of the people 
take the lowest degree; the second stage is reached by the "murides," who do not ful- 
fill the behests of the ceremonial law because they are behests, but because they are 
good iii themselves, knowing that virtue is good; and because it leads to truth, they 
adhere to it for its own sake. They give alms because the sight of poverty grieves 
them ; their ablutions are as much due to their desire of physical purity as to that of 
obeying a religious injunction. The third stage is that of the naibs, to whom all this 
spiritualizing of faith applies in a still more eminent degree. And the highest stage of 
attainable perfection is that of the murshid, whose words are God's words, pure and 
simple, because he is in direct and constant communion with God. He is the "sun of 
faith," by whose reflected light shine the naibs, its "moons." All Sufistic poetry and 
parlance is to be taken allegorically and symbolically. They represent the highest 
things by human emblems and human passions; and religion being with them identical 
with love, erotic terminology is chiefly used to illustrate the relation of man to God. 
Thus the beloved one's curls indicate the mysteries of the Deity; sensuous pleasures 
and chiefly intoxication, indicate the highest degree of divine love as ecstatic contem- 
plation ; while the wine-house, of which constant mention is made, merely indicates the 
state in consequence of which our human qualities merge in or are exalted into those of 
the Deity. Founded in the 9th c. by Kan-Mullah, this peculiar mysticism has princi 
pally struck root in Persia, and chiefly among men of genius, e.g., Hafiz (q.v.). 
Recently, it has been revived, with slight modifications, by Shamil, the renowned and 
once formidable antagonist of the Russians, who undertook to enlist even the common 
soldiers, if not in the ranks of the initiated for Sufism, in its real meaning, is very 
exclusive at least of its votaries; and the very lowest among them even had a sentence 
given him indicative of his forming part of the sect and of the gradations that form its 
main characteristic. In conclusion, it may be observed that Sufism mixes up all religions 
and all their prophets indiscriminately in one class; and the words idolatry, unbelief, 
licentiousness, and the like are generally used in their reverse sense by its votaries. 
Their principal religious writer is Jalaleddin Rumi. 

SUFFRAGE (ante), under the U. S. constitution is exercised by such electors in 
each state as have the qualifications necessary for electors of the most numerous branch 
of the state legislature (art. 1, sec. 2). By the XIV. and XV. amendments the states are 
forbidden to abridge the privileges or immunities of United States citizens (see 
PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES), or to deny or abridge the right of suffrage on account of 
"race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It seems clear that the states retain 
the right to impose conditions on suffrage other than those specifically prohibited in the 
amendments. The age of 21 is universally fixed on as that when suffrage may be exer- 
cised by male citizens; conviction for crime, insanity, and pauperism everywhere 
excludes. In a few states ability to read and write is required, while Rhode Island has 
a small property qualification. Wyoming territory allows women to vote in all local 
matters, "and Massachusetts in 1879 passed a law allowing women to take part in the 
town election of school officers; some other states have similar provisions. 

SUGAR (Lat. and Gr. sacchar-, Sans, sarlcara, Pers. schakar, Arab, sokkar or assokkar, 
Sp. azucar, It. zucchero, Fr. were, Ger. zitcker) is a general term applied by chemists to 
a number of neutral carbo-hydrates, possessing a more or less sweet taste, for the most 
part crystallizable, and produced by the vital processes going on in certain plants and 
animals. They are divisible into two groups, the first embracing such sugars as are 
capable of undergoing fermentation, and of being resolved, under the action of yeast, 
either directly or indirectly into alcohol and carbonic acid gas; and the second including 
those sugars which are not capable of being broken up by fermentation into the above- 
named products. The first group contains cane-sugar or sucrose, fructose or inverted 
sugar, trehalose, mycose, melezitose, melitose, grape-sugar or glucose (q.v.), and milk- 
sugar or lactose while the second group includes inosite or inosin, sorbite or sor bin, and 
scyllite or scyllin. 

Cane-sugar or sucrose (CuHuOn), the ordinary sugar of commerce, is by far the moflt 
U. K. XIV. 4 

important of this class of compounds; and in so far as its sweetening properties are coa- 
cerued, it exceeds grape-sugar in the ratio of 5 to 2, and milk-sugar in a still higher 
ratio. It has a specific gravity of 1.6. It dissolves in about one-third of its own weight 
of cold water, producing a thick viscid syrup, and in all proportions in hot water ; it is 
slightly soluble in absolute alcohol, but spirit of wine of specific gravity 0.830 dissolve* 
about one-fourth of its weight. By the spontaneous evaporation of its watery solution 
it is deposited in four-sided rhomboidal prisms. Common loaf-sugar and sugar-candy 
are two well-known forms of crystallized sugar; the former consisting of a mass of. 
small transparent crystals, and owing its dazzling whiteness to the numerous reflec- 
tions and refractions which the rays of light undergo within the interior from the num- 
berless crystals of which it is composed ; while the brown color which the latter usually 
possesses is due to the coloring matter not having been removed from the syrup previous * 
to crystallization. The crystals of sugar-candy are larger than those of loaf-sugar, in 
consequence of the slower evaporation in the former case. When crystals of sugar 
as, for example, two pieces of loaf-sugar are rubbed together in the dark, a pale phos- 
phorescent light is evolved. If a solution of sugar be boiled for a long time it acquires 
an acid reaction and loses its power of crystallizing a change which is attended by the 
assimilation of additional water, and the formation of the uncrystallizable inverted 
sugar which will be presently described. If the boiling be further prolonged the inverted 
sugar (CiaHiaOja) assimilates more water, and is converted into grape-sugar (Ci a Hi 2 
Oiu -(- 2Aq), while a little formic acid and ulrnin (a brown, nearly insoluble substance 
belonging to the humus group) are produced. The crystallization of sugar is also pre- 
vented by the addition of a little oxalic, citric, malic, or any of the stronger acids to its 
solution; and in order to check the bad effects of an acid, a small quantity of lime is 
usually added to the cane-juice before it is heated. 

The action of different degrees of heat on sugar has been carefully studied. At 
about 320 sucrose fuses, and on cooling forms the transparent amber-colored solid 
known as barley-sugar, which, if kept for a long time, assumes a crystalline state, and 
becomes opaque. If the application of heat be continued until about 400, the sugar loses 
two atoms of water, and caramel, which is described in the article GLUCOSE, is formed, and 
at a still higher temperature, the changes which sucrose undergoes are identical with, 
those suffered by glucose. Sugar dissolves many metallic oxides when its solution is 
boiled with them as, for example, freshly precipitated oxide of lead, lime, and baryta, 
and its presence prevents the precipitation of alkalies of various metallic oxides from 
their salts the oxides of copper and of iron being thus retained in solution, Many 
metallic oxides are partially or entirely reduced when boiled with sugar; thus chromic 
acid is reduced to sesquioxide of chromium, salts of the red 1 oxide of mercury are con- 
verted into those of the suboxide, and salts of gold give a precipitate of the reduced 
metal. It does not reduce alkaline solutions of oxide of copper to the suboxide (Trom- 
mer's test) unless with the aid of heat, which converts it into glucose. Under the action 
of certain oxidizing agents it may be converted into propionic, formic, and acetic acids. 
Sucrose is not directly capable of undergoing fermentation; but in the presence of a 
ferment (yeast, for example) it is converted into glucose, and in that form it readily 
undergoes vinous, lactic, and butyric fermentation. Its action on polarized light is 
described below. 

This variety of sugar is chiefly obtained from the juice of the sugar-cane, but it is 
also abundantly present in the juices of certain species of maple and of beet-root, all of 
which yield this substance as a commercial product; it is also contained in sugar-grass 
(sorghum saccharatum), whose juice yields 13 per cent of sugar; in carrots and turnips, 
in the pumpkin, the chestnut, the young shoots of maize, in the flowering buds of the 
cocos palm, and in a large number of tropical f raits. Its use as an article of diet has 
been already mentioned under DIET. Several articles of food contain some form of 
sugar in considerable quantity. In peas, there are 2 per cent of sugar; in rye-meal and 
wheaten bread, about 3| per cent; in cows' milk, 4f per cent; in goats' milk and in 
barley-meal, 5J per cent; in human milk, in asses' milk, ripe gooseberries, and ripe pears, 
about 6 per cent; in oatmeal, about 8 per cent; in wheaten flour, from 4 to 8 per cent; 
in beet-root, from 5 to 10 per 'cent; in ripe peaches, 16^ per cent; in ripe cherries, 18 
per cent; and in dried figs, upwards of 60 per cent. Although sugar is commonly 
regarded as a luxury, it is in reality a very valuable article of food (as, indeed, might be 
inferred from its presence in milk, and in both the yelk and white of eggs), since it is 
very rapidly digested, and supplies heat-forming or respiratory food to the system. 
" When, however," says Dr. E. Smith, '' it is compared with wheaten flour, it is a very 
dear food, since three or four times more carbon will be obtained for Id. in flour, besides 
nitrogen, none of which is found in sugar. It has also been proved by Messrs. Lawes 
and Gilbert that even its fattening properties that is to say, its power to form fat in the 
system, when it is supplied in excess of the quantity which the daily wants of the body 
require to produce heat are not greater than those of starch as found in the cheapest 
grain." Practical Dietary, 1863, p. 63. In consequence of sugar being a fat-forming 
substance, it should be taken very sparingly in cases of excessive obesity. There are 
certain forms of dyspepsia in which sugar should be avoided, as exciting increased 
gastric uneasiness ; and in diabetes, all articles of food containing or (like starch) yield- 
ing sugar, should be rigidly prohibited. Although prone to fermentation when in * 


dihite state, in its concentrated form sugar possesses great antiseptic power, and in 
extensively employed to preserve both vegetable and animal substances from decay. 
The sugar naturally existing in some fruits is often sufficient to insure their preservation 
in a dry state, while in other cases it is added, as in preserves and jellies. A mixture of 
alt and sugar applied to meat, fish, etc., preserves more of the natural flavor than mere 
alting does. Sugar converted into caramel is much used by cooks and confectioners as 
a coloring matter. 

Closely allied in their chemical characters to sucrose are the following comparatively 
rare form's of sugar: (1) Trehalose (Ci 2 HuOii + 2A.q), so called from Trehala, or Turkish 
manna (the product of a coleopterous insect, Larinus nidificans), from which this variety 
of sugar is extracted, differs from sucrose in the following points it crystallizes in 
brilliant rectangular octahedra; contains water of crystallization; fuses at 212, and 
loses its water of crystallization; is very soluble in hot alcohol; possesses about three 
times as great a rotatory power on polarized light; and when heated to 356 does not 
undergo further change. (2) Mycose, obtained from ergot of rye, possesses the same 
composition as trehalose, from which it mainly differs in crystallizing in rhombic prisms, 
and in exhibiting a somewhat weaker rotatory power. (3) Melezitose (CiaHnOij), 
obtained from larch manna, differs from cane-sugar in its less sweet taste, and in exhibit- 
ing a less powerful rotatory action. (4) Melitose (C^HisOn-f-SJAq), the chief ingredient 
in the Australian manna yielded by the eucalyptus tree, crystallizes in acicular prisms, 
is feebly sweet, undergoes fermentation with yeast ; but yields only half as much alcohol 
and carbonic acid as would be obtained from an equal weight of glucose, one half of 
this sugar being converted into an unfermentable syrupy body, known as eucalyn 

More important than any of the above varieties, and differing from cane-sugar in a 
distinctive physical property, is the substance formerly known as fruit sugar, but now 
often described as inverted cane-sugar. The objection to the former name is, that the 
sugar contained in many ripe acidulous fruits, and formerly regarded as a distinct 
variety, is merely a mixture of cane-sugar, with more or less of the inverted sugar 
(Ci 2 Hi 2 Oi 2 ), which has already been noticed as resulting from the action of prolonged 
boiling, or of a little acid on cane-sugar. The same change occurs in many ripening 
fruits, in consequence of the presence of a peculiar albuminous ferment. Inverted 
sugar is not crystallizable, is soluble in dilute alcohol, and produces fe/ handed rotation; 
hence its name. By chemical means, it is convertible into grape-sugar, a change which 
sometimes occurs spontaneously, as is seen in the gradual crystallization of the sugar in 
dried fruits. 

Grape-sugar, constituting the hard granular sweet masses occurring in old dried 
fruits, such as raisins, figs, etc., has already been described in the article GLUCOSE, or 
GLYCOSE, under which names it is commonly known to chemists. It is also known as 
starch-sugar, because it is readily obtained by the action of a dilute acid on a hot solution 
of starch, and is identical with the sugar occurring in the urine in diabetes. 

MtikrSugwr, known also as lactine and ?acfc>se(C 20 H 19 Oi9-f-5Aq, or, according to some 
chemists, CizHnOn -f- Aq), is a purely animal product. It exists in considerable quan- 
tity in the milk, especially of the herbivorous animals, and is one of the most important 
and essential ingredients in that secretion. It may be obtained on a large scale by 
separating the curd from the milk, and evaporating the whey till it is ready to crystal- 
lize; when, on the introduction of small pieces of wood, the crystals o'f sugar are 
deposited on them. These crystals are four-sided prisms of a milk-white color, and so 
hard that they crunch between the teeth. This variety of sugar is only moderately 
sweet ('///< xiij,ra), requires about six fimes its weight of cold water for its solution, but 
dissolves readily in boiling water, while it is insoluble in alcohol or ether. If it be 
gradually heated to 284. two equivalents of water are expelled, whereas, if it be sud- 
denly heated to about 400, all five equivalents are given off. When pure, milk-sugar is 
insusceptible of fermentation; but when boiled with dilute acids, it is converted into a 
directly fermentable sugar, in many respects very similar to grape-sugar, and to which 
some chemists have given the name of lactose, a term commonly applied to milk-sugar 
itself. On treating a moderately diluted acid solution of mifk-sugar with yeast, this 
variety is first formed, and then yields carbonic acid and alcohol; if, however, decom- 
posing matters, as. for example, casein in the act of disintegration, are present, it under- 
goes lactic and butyric fermentation; and hence we understand how milk after exposure 
for a time to the air becomes sour. The intoxicating character of the drink prepared 
by the Kalmucks and Tartars from sour mares' milk, is due to this indirected vinous 
fermentation of sugar of milk. Regarding the uses of this variety of sugar, it may be 
observed that it is probably the most important of the constituents of whey (which is 
milk deprived of the whole of its casein except a mere trace held in solution), and hence 
that it is the active ingredient in the whey-cure, which is so popular in Switzerland. 
(The whey in these cases is usually obtained from goats' milk.) It is also the chief 
constituent of the globules used in homeopathy. 

The second group of sugars, namely, those which are incapable either directly or ia- 
iirectly of undergoing fermentation, are of less practical importance than cane sugar, 
grape-sugar, or milk-sugar. 

Inosin, or inosite (derived from the Greek is, gen. inos, muscle), is represented by th 


formula Ci 2 Hi 2 Oi 2 -f- 4Aq. It occurs as a normal constituent in the juice of the heart, 
and of the involuntary or unstriped muscles, and has also been found in the tissues of 
the lungs, spleen, liver, kidneys, and brain, and in the urine in Bright's disease and dia- 
betes. It has been recently shown that it is identical with the substance previously 
known as phaseo-mannite, which is readily obtained from the unripe seeds of the com- 
mon kidney-bean (phaseolus vulgaris). It forms colorless efflorescent prisms, which lose 
four equivalents of water at about 210. When mixed with decaying cheese and chalk, 
it becomes gradually converted into lactic and butyric acids. Scyllite is a saccharine 
matter closely resembling inosite, and occurring in various organs of several plagiostom- 
eus fishes, and especially in the kidneys of the rays and skate. It differs, however, 
from inosite in its crystalline form, and in its containing no water of crystallization. Its 
composition is unknown. Sorbin, or sorbite (Ci 2 Hi 2 Oi 2 ), derives its name from its oc- 
curring in the juice of the berries of sorbus aucuparia, the service tree, and may be 
obtained in colorless transparent rhombic octahedra. It reduces oxide of copper to the 
suboxide (Trommer's test), and is of a sweetish taste. 

Closely allied to the sugars, but differing from them in their chemical composition 
(inasmuch as they do not contain hydrogen and oxygen in the proportions to form water), 
are mannite (CuHi 4 Oi 2 ), obtained from manna, the inspissated juice of the fraxinus 
ornus, but also occurring in celery, onions, asparagus shoots, laminaria saccharata and 
other sea- weeds, certain fungi, the juice which exudes from apple and pear trees ; dulcite 
(Ci 2 Hi 4 Oi 2 ), the product of an unknown Madagascar tree; quercite (Ci 2 H 12 Oio), obtained 
from acorns; and pinite (Ci 2 H 12 Oio), from pinus lambertiana, a tree growing in Aus- 
tralia and California. All these bodies are crystalline, and sweet to the taste. 

Although chemists have hitherto looked upon the sugars as organic compounds, with- 
eut any recognizable radical, and from their composition have termed them carbo- 
hydrates, "the researches of Berthelot render it probable that the sugars as well as 
mannite, and the bodies allied to it, are polyatomic alcohols, like glycerine, for he has 
found that they possess the power of entering into combination with various acids, with 
elimination of water, in some cases yielding colligated acids analogous to the tannic, and 
in others furnishing neutral bodies, closely allied to the fats. " Miller's Organic Chemistry, 
2d ed. p. 72. 

Among the various chemical purposes to which the phenomenon of circular polari- 
zation may be applied, we may especially mention its use in determining the quantity of 
any kind of sugar in solution. While some sugars give a right-handed rotation, others 

five a left-handed rotation, and each sugar exerts a definite amount of rotatory power, 
'he following are the rotatory powers of the chief varieties of sugar, equal weights of 
each being dissolved in an equal bulk of water, and the temperature being 56 : 

Cane-sugar (CiaHnO'u) right 73'S 

Trehalose (0HnOii) " 220 

Melezitose (CnHnOn) " 94'l 

Mycose (CiH n OiO " 193 

Inverted sugar (d 2 H 12 O 12 ) . left 28 

Grape-sugar (Ci 2 Hi 2 Oi 2 ) right 57 '4 

Milk-sugar (Ci 2 H 12 Oi 2 ) " 56'4 

Sorbin (C, 2 H 12 Oi 2 ). . .' left 46'9 

For details regarding the apparatus to be employed, and the method of using it, we 
ma-y refer to Miller's Chemical Physics, 3d ed. p. 204; and to a memoir by Clerget in the 
Ann. de Chimie, iii., xxvi. 175. This method has been applied to determine the amount 
of sugar in diabetic urine, to ascertain the quantity of sugar which remains in the unfer- 
mented state in wines, and to other similar purposes. As, however, the process is one 
of extreme delicacy, this method must be used with great caution. 

Manufacture. The manufacture of sugar from the sugar-cane and other sources is 
now one of the largest branches of human industry, but this great development is of 
comparatively recent date; and although there are evidences of its very high antiquity 
in India and China, sugar appears only to have been vaguely known to the Greeks and 
Romans. It is mentioned by Theophrastus as ' ' honey in reeds ; " and Lucan has the fol- 
lowing line, which indicates a knowledge of its existence, but merely as a curious fact: 

Quique bibunt tenera dulces ab arundine succos. 

Its introduction to Europe appears to have been one of the results of the Crusades. 
The sugar-cane was grown in Cyprus about the middle of the 12th c. ; it was from thence, 
at a later time, transplanted to Madeira, and at the commencement of the 16th c., was 
carried from the latter island to the West Indies. Originally, in all probability, only 
the sweet recent juice was known; for apparently the art of boiling it down, and form- 
ing it into raw sugar, was an invention of the 15th c. ; and it was not until the middle 
ef the following century that a Venetian discovered the art of refining sugar, which soon 
became established in Germany. The first refinery of which any notice exists was one 
in Dresden, as early as 1597; but long previous to this the subject had attracted so|much 
attention as to be d'iscussed in learned treatises, one of which in particular, the Sacchar- 
0logia of Sala, in the beginning of the 16th c., shows that the clarification of the syrup by 
defection was then a matter of some importance. Still, the manufacture of sugar in the 



countries to which it had been introduced made but slow progress, for its use was limited 
by its dearness to the wealthy. The material has now, however, become one of the 
commonest necessaries of life, and has largely conduced to the health of nations. Until 
1747, sugar was supposed to be the product of the sugar-cane only, but in that year, 
Marggraf, a German chemist, demonstrated that it was a natural product of other vege- 
tables, and especially of the beet-root; and half a century later, its manufacture from that 
source was first commenced in Silesia. A large portion of the sugar consumed on tha 
continent is now obtained from this source. See BEET-ROOT SUGAR. 

Since we have become better acquainted with the sources of our own supplies, we 
have learned that a large portion of the raw sugar of the East Indies received in British 
ports as cane-sugar is in reality made from the juice of several palms, especially that of 
arenga saccharifera, and the wild date, pJuenix sylvestris. The juice is obtained from 
these plants by cutting off the male spadix when young, and from the cut portion there 
is for four or five months a continual now. The liquid is at first clear, and is immedi- 
ately boiled down to a thick sirup, which granulates on cooling, and constitutes, if not 
otherwise purified, the coarse brown sugar called jaggery, which is extensively consumed 
in India. More carefully prepared, it is sent to Europe with sugar made in the cane- 
plantations, and is only distinguished from it by well-skilled persons. If the juice is not 
immediately boiled, it becomes turbid, and passing into the vinous fermentation, forms 
the intoxicating drink called toddy. 

In Canada and in the United States very much sugar is made by boiling the juice or sap 
of the sugar maple-tree (acer saccharinum). The sorghum saccharatum, or sugar-grass 
(see DURRA), and the stalks of ordinary maize or Indian corn (zed) yield sugar, which 
has lately been made so as fairly to rival the best crystallized cane-sugar (see under 

Beet root sugar is manufactured from the fresh-dug roots, chiefly of the varieties we 
call mangold-wurzel. The process (which, however, is constantly undergoing modifica- 
tions) is briefly described in the article BEET-ROOT SUGAR. Beet-root yields from 7 to 8 
per cent of sugar, of which only 3 to 4 per cent are of the best quality, called melis, % 
to 3 per cent of the second quality, called farin, and the remainder molasses. 

The manufacture of starch-sugar is described in the article GLUCOSE. 

From the beginning of the 16th c., when the sugar-cane of India was introduced to 
the West Indies, sugar has been one of the most important products of those islands. 
Careful cultivation has produced many varieties of this useful plant, some of which are 
better adapted than others for particular localities. The original variety introduced into 
the West Indies is still cultivated under the name of the Creole cane; but the favorite 
variety is the Otaheite cane, which is the most luxuriant grower, and gives the largest 
yield of juice. It is the variety chiefly cultivated in Brazil, Demerara, and Venezuela, 
as well as the West Indies. In many parts of the east, another admirable variety is the 
Bata/oian or striped cane; it was originally raised in Java, and is the favorite with rum- 

The extraction of juice from the sugar-cane is effected by simple pressure. In its 
native country, India, there are still in use in some districts machines of the rudest con- 
struction, which are probably the same which were used a thousand years since. The 
Chinapatam sugar-mill consists of a mortar made by cutting down some hard-wood tree 
to within 2 or 3 ft. of the ground, and hollowing the top of the portion left standing in 
the ground into the form of a mortar. A small hole is then bored obliquely through 
from the bottom of the cavity to the outside, and a pipe conveys the juice into a jar. A 
cylindrical piece of wood, sharpened at each end, acts as a pestle, and is kept in its place 
with sufficient pressure by a lever and ropes. Two men are required: one has a basket 
supplied with small lengths of freshly-cut cane, which he places, 2 or 3 at a time, in 
the mortar, and, when necessary, removes the crushed ones; the other man sits on the 
other end of the train, balancing it, and at the same time drives oxen which are attached 
to the end of the beam, and keeps the movable parts of the mill constantly turning 
round. Notwithstanding the rudeness of this contrivance, very large quantities of sugar 
are made by it in India. A much better one, however, is the Chica Ballapura engine, 
which consists of two upright rollers, the heads of which are formed into double spiral 
screws, which work in one another, so that when an ox is yoked to the long curved lever 
and goes round, one of the upright rollers, being connected with the lever, is made to 
revolve, and its screw carries the other one round, but in an opposite direetion. The 
pieces of cane are fed in by hand between the rollers, and as the juice is squeezed out, it 
flows down into a small hollow below the frame made to receive it, whence a small 
trough carries it to an earthen pot. The frame of this mill is securely fixed with stakes 
driven deep into the ground. In all probability, this very ancient machine has been the 
origin of all the most modern ones, for they all consist of rollers placed either vertically 
or horizontally, between which the canes are made to pass. 

The mills now in general use for squeezing the juice out of the sugar-canes are 
very powerful machines. Some idea of the strength of those mills will be formed from 
the fact, that one of the rollers weighs upward of 5 tons. The axles are 12 in. in di- 
ameter, and notwithstanding that they are made of the best wrought iron, they are not 
secure against breakage. The manufacture of sugar has probably been carried to 
greater perfection in the islands of Java, Mauritius, and Cuba, than in any other parta 


of the world. In Java especially, in consequence of the great extent of the plantations, 
the planters have been able to erect very complete establishments for the manufacture of 

The following very condensed account of the process of making sugar in Java will 
give some idea of the operation. 

The canes, freed from all loose leaves, are passed through between the rollers under 
the greatest possible pressure that can be brought to bear upon them. The rollers re- 
volve only from two to four times per minute. From 100 Ibs. of canes, 65 to 75 Ibs. of 
cane-juice will be expressed. This juice, which is of a sweetish taste, and of the color 
of dirty water, passes direct from the mill to a small reservoir, where it usually receives 
a small dose of quicklime, and without delay runs off to large iron or copper vessels, 
heated either by a tire underneath or by steam-pipes in the liquid. As the temperature 
of the juice rises, a thick scum comes to the top, which is either removed by skimming, 
or the warm juice is drawn off from below the scum. The concentration of the juice is 
partly effected in a series of large open hemispherical iron pans about six to eight ft. 
diameter, of which five or six are placed in a row, with a large fire under the one at the 
nd. This one fire, which runs along under the whole row of pans, is found sufficient 
to make two or three of them nearest the fire boil violently, and in addition, it 
warms the juice in the pans furthest from the fire. As the juice firsts enters the pans 
furthest from the fire, it gets gradually heated, and the vegetable impurities rise in scum 
to the top, and are carefully removed. As the juice is ladled from one pan to the next, 
it boils with greater and greater vigor as it approaches nearer the fire, until in the pan 
immediately over the fire it seethes and foams with excessive violence; and this seems to 
be essential to the successful making of sugar. It is known that the presence of all 
those impurities which constitute the scum interferes with the crystallizing of the sugar; 
and the rapid ascent of bubbles of steam through the liquid in the pans carries all im- 
purities dispersed through the body of the liquid to the top, where they can be removed 
with facility. It is well known that great heat is very destructive to cane-juice; that is 
to say, it turns much of the crystallizable sugar into treacle or uncrystalliz^bie sugar, but 
the gain arising from getting rid of much of the impurity in the cane-juice more than 
compensates for the destruction of part of the sugar. After the concentration has been 
carried to a given point, and all the scum has been got rid of, the application of a high 
lieat, which would act with an increasingly destructive effect as the condensation became 
greater, is suspended, and the liquor, now of the color of turbid port wine, and of the 
consistency of oil, is drawn into the vacuum-pan, where the concentration is completed 
at the lowest possible temperature, generally about 150 Fahr. The vacuum-pan is in 
universal use in all European sugar-refineries, and in all well-provided sugar-plantations. 
It is generally made of copper, of a spherical form, and from six to nine feet diameter. 
The bottom is double, leaving a space of an inch or two for the admission of steam be- 
tween the two bottoms, and there is generally a long coiled copper pipe of three or four 
inches diameter above the inner bottom, so as to still further increase the amount of 
heating surface. This apparatus is made perfectly air and steam tight. Leading from 
its upper dome, there is a large pipe, communicating with a condenser into which a rush 
of cold water is continually passing, so as to condense all the steam or vapor that arises 
from the liquid boiling in the vacuum-pan. The water which is constantly rushing into 
the condenser is as steadily withdrawn again by pump. There is thus a constant vacuum 
in the pan, and, consequently, the liquid in it will boil at a much lower temperature than 
it would in an open pan or boiler. There is an extraordinary advantage in being able to 
effect the latter stages of concentration at a low temperature, for it is when the liquid 
becomes thick that the destructive results of a high temperature become most excessive-. 

As the concentration of the liquid in the vacuum-pan proceeds, crystals of sugar begin 
to form, and the skill of the sugar-boiler is shown by the uniformity of the crystals he pro- 
duces. The boiling is commenced by filling in only about a third or fourth of the quantity 
the vacuum-pan will hold, and gradually adding more liquid as the crystals increase in 
size. ' The sugar-boiler is able to watch the changes going on in the vacuum-pan by means 
of small samples he withdraws from it by means of a suitable apparatus. The sugar- 
boiler holds those drops of thick fluid on his finger and thumb, between his eye and a 
strong light, and is thus able to detect those minute changes in its condition which show 
that it is time to add an additional quantity. By the time the vacuum pan is full, the 
contents have thickened, by the formation of crystals of sugar, into a mass of the con- 
sistency of thick .gruel; it "is then allowed to descend into a vessel called the heater, 
where it is simply kept warm until it can be run out into the "forms," which, in the 
sugar-growing colonies, are generally conical earthen pots, holding from one to two 
cwts. of sugar. It is allowed to cool and complete its crystalization before the plugs, 
which close the bottom of the pots, are withdrawn. When this is done, from one-fourth 
to one-third of the contents of the forms, which has remained in a fluid state, runs off 
into gutters leading to large tanks, from which it is again pumped up into the vacuum- 
pan, and reboiled, yielding a second quality of sugar. This reboiling of the drainings 
is repeated, with a continually decreasing result, both as to quantity and quality of the 
solid sugar obtained, and it is rarely carried beyond the fourth boiling. If the planter 
wishes to obtain Muscovada or unclayed sugar, the process is now complete, and the 
sugar is turned out of the forms, and packed for shipment. In some cases, the sugar i* 

run direct from the vacuum-pan into casks or hogsheads, which replace the forms, holes 
being bored in the bottoms of the casks, to admit of the uncrystallized portion of the 
sugar draining out. 

If clayed sugar is to be made, the forms are allowed to stand for a few days until all 
the treacle has drained out; and a quantity of thin mud, about the consistency of good 
thick cream, is then poured over the sugar to the depth of one or two inches. The 
water contained in this thin mud slowly steals down through the sugar, and mixing 
with the coatings of treacle still adhering to the outsides of the crystals of sugar, renders 
them less viscid, and facilitates their descent to the bottom of the form. The mud re- 
mains, at the erM of a few days, in the form of a dry hard cake on the top of the sugar, 
and none mixes with the sugar. 

The process of claying sugar is simply washing off a coating of black or yellow 
treacle from a crystal of sugar, which is always white. This operation is possible without 
dissolving the crystal of sugar, simply because the treacle has a greater affinity for water 
than the crystallized sugar has. Anything that would yield a very slow and steady 
supply of water to the sugar, would do as well as mud or clay. There is always some 
loss of crystallized sugar in the process of claying, and attempts have been made to use 
strong alcohol for washing off the coatings of treacle from the crystals; but although 
alcohol dissolves treacle very freely, and scarcely acts on the crystals at all, still it has 
not been found to answer commercially. Besides the cost of the process, there is a 
difficulty in getting rid of the smell of alcohol in the sugar. 

The centrifugal machine of Messrs. Manlove, Alliott & Co. has been very ex- 
tensively used for getting rid of the treacle. Its action depends on precisely the same 
principle as that called into play when a sailor twirls a mop to expel the water from it. 
The centrifugal machine is simply a drum of 3 or 4 feet diameter, and 12 to 18 inches 
high, revolving at a great velocity on a vertical axis. The sugar, either direct from the 
vacuum-pan or after it has been allowed to cool, is put, still mixed with the treacle, into 
the machine. As soon as the drum acquires a high velocity its contents are forced by 
the centrifugal action against the drum, the cylindrical portion of which is made like a 
sieve, and admits of the escape of the treacle, but retains the crystals of sugar. Some 
idea of the efficiency of those machines may be formed when it is stated, that in a ma- 
chine of 3 ft; diameter, revolving at the usual speed of 1000 revolutions per minute, the 
tendency of the treacle to escape will be 514 times its own weight; that is to say, the 
treacle will have 514 times more force to fly off than it has to drop off the crystal by the 
mere force of gravity. 

Sugar-rejiningvf&s unknown to the ancients, and even the refining previously referred 
to as having been established in Germany in the 16th c. consisted merely in clarifying 
the sirup, and producing a sort of sugar-candy; but one improvement followed another, 
until the process may now be considered as almost perfect. The chief difficulties attend- 
ing the operation arise from the circumstance that the material to be operated upon is 
ever varying in quality. Not only is there a difference between the produce of two 
different plantations, 1 ut even the manufacture of the same plantation shows differences 
of quality; these differences arising chiefly from the presence of foreign substances, 
which seriously interfere with the operations of the refiner. The attempts made to test 
the exact quality of solutions of raw sugar by means of polarized light (see above) have 
hitherto been attended with little success in practice. Sugar-refining, as practiced in 
Britain, has three distinct objects (1) the production of loaves of thoroughly refined 
sugar; (2) crushed sugar; and (3) white sugar in separate crystals. The last is of com- 
paratively recent introduction. In some existing sugar-refineries, old fashions still pre- 
vail ; but our description must be confined to the most recent methods. 

Sugar-refining is carried on in this country on a great scale; London, Bristol, and 
Greenock being the principal seats of the trade. There is comparatively little raw sugar 
used in Great Britain. Xearly all the yellow and dark-colored sugar sold in the shops 
has passed through the hands of the refiners, and is simply inferior sugar, made out of the 
sirup which drains from the white loaf-sugar. 

Sugar-refineries are built eight or nine stories high, and the raw sugar is first hoisted 
to the upper story, where it is Dissolved in large tanks of hot water, care being taken to 
use as little water as possible for the purpose. A quantity of bullock's blood is stirred 
into the solution of sugar, and the heat being gradually raised, the albumen of the blood 
coagulates, and rises to the surface in the form of a thick light scum, bringing with it 
nearly all the mechanical impurities floating in the fluid. The liquor, still hot, is then 
passed into bag -filters. Those filters are made of a very closely woven cotton cloth, 
capable of retaining the minutest mechanical impurity. In order to facilitate the passage 
of the liquor through the bags, they are suspended in a kind of iron closet, and sur- 
rounded by an atmosphere of steam to keep the liquor hot. From the bag-filters the 
liquor, now freed from all mechanical impurities, but of a dark color, flows into a lofty- 
cylindrical iron filter, of about 5 or 6 ft. diameter, and 20 or 30 ft. high, filled with 
animal charcoal, that is, charcoal made of bones. This charcoal is reduced to coarse 
powder; and the dark offensive liquor is allowed to percolate very slowly through the- 
mass. The result is, that it flows out at the bottom a perfectly transparent and pure- 
solution of sugar. The charcoal can only be used for a few days at a time, because it 
gradually loses its purifying power; when the liquor begins to flow through it without 

Sugar. .e 


being purified, it is taken out of the filter, and reburned, which completely revives its 

The liquor as it flows from the charcoal filter is a mixture of pure sugar and pure 
water, and perfectly transparent. The application of heat is the only mode of expelling 
the water, and this unfortunately blackens the sugar again. In order to get rid of the 
water with as little heat as possible, the colorless liquor is boiled in the vacuum-pan as 
in the early process of the manufacture. Tbe liquor boils in vacuo at about 150 F., 
and even this moderate heat has the effect of turning it quite brown. When it has been 
sufficiently concentrated by boiling in the vacuum-pan, which takes from 1 to 2| hours, 
it is run into the sugar-loaf forms ; which, after cooling, are carried to a room kept warm 
by means of steam-pipes. This warmth facilitates the flow of the treacle or syrup out 
at the aperture at the bottom of the form. To get rid of the coating of colored treacle 
which still hangs about the crystals of sugar, a small quantity of a saturated solution of 
pure white sugar is poured on the top of the form. This strong liquor is unable to dis- 
solve any more sugar, but being more fluid than the sticky coatings of treacle or syrup 
adhering to the crystals, it mixes with the coatings, and makes them fluid enough to 
flow down to the bottom of the form, leaving the crystals clear of syrup or treacle, and 
consequently free of all color. This process of washing off the coloring matter from the 
crystals of sugar is the same in principle as the "claying" used in the production of 
sugar. The loaves of sugar, after standing some time, to admit of all the liquor drain- 
ing off, are wrapped in paper, and dried in stoves heated by steam. The liquor draining 
from the forms is reboiled in the vacuum-pan, and forms loaves of an inferior quality ; 
and the liquor draining from the inferior loaves is again boiled into the yellow sugars 
known among sugar- refiners as bastards. 

Crushed or crashed sugar is simply inferior loaves crushed while still soft and moist, 
and packed in hogsheads, instead of being left in the loaf form. 

The syrup which drains from refined sugar is reboiled, and constitutes the golden 
syrup of the shops. 

Crystal Sugar. In making the sugar crystals, all the processes are carried on as in 
refining, until the syrup is clarified. Then it is boiled or concentrated in a vacuum-pan 
of larger size than ordinary, and the concentration is carried on until minute crystals 
appear. Fresh syrup is then added from time to time, great care and experience being 
required to insure a regular feeding of the first-formed crystals, and prevent the forma- 
tion of a second crop. When the crystals are large enough, the contents of the pun are 
transferred to the centrifugal machines, which quickly separate the crystals in a perfectly 
dry state from the uncrystallizable syrup. The crystals are of a square tabular form, 
with a deep groove across in one direction, dividing the crystal into equal parts. This 
kind of sugar is much liked for coffee, etc., but the crystals dissolve with difficulty 

The commerce in sugar is prodigious, and is rapidly increasing; but its consumption 
is very unequally distributed. Thus, in the six principal countries, America consumes 
the most, and Russia and Austria least. The proportions are as follow: Great Britain, 
30 Ibs. per head; France, 4 Ibs. ; Belgium, 6 Ibs. ; Russia, l Ibs. ; Austria, 1^ Ibs. ; United 
States of America, 40 Ibs. The quantity of all kinds imported into Great Britain in 
1877 amounted to the enormous sum of 831,047 tons unrefined; 171,492 tons refined; 
and 14,913 tons of molasses; the total value of all of which was 27,327,988. 

SUGAB-CANE", Saccliarum, a genus of grasses, natives of tropical and sub-tropical 
countries. The common sugar-cane (8. officinarum) is originally a native of the East 
Indies, was brought to the s. of Europe by the crusaders, and in the loth and 16th c. 
found its way into all the European colonies within the tropics. In Europe the culti- 
vation of the sugar-cane has always been very limited, and is scarcely practiced except 
in Sicily and Andalusia. In China it extends to 30 n. lat., and in North America to 
32; in the southern hemisphere only to 22 3 s. lat. The plant is a perennial with a 
creeping root, sending up a number of culms or stems, generally 8 to 12 ft. high, which 
liave many joints, are of various colors, and about 1 to 2 in. thick. They are filled for about 
two-thirds of their length with a loose, sweet, juicy pith. The leaves are ribbon-shaped, 
and 4 to 5 ft. long, with a strong whitish middle nerve. The flowers are in great diffuse 
pyramidal panicles of a yard in length. The violet-colored sugar-cane (S. violaceum) is 
particularly esteemed, and much cultivated in the West Indies. The Chinese sugar-cane 
{8. sinense), cultivated in China, has the stem in great part covered with the sheaths of 
the leaves. Cultivation has produced many varieties of these species; if, indeed they 
are originally distinct species, and not themselves mere varieties. The species of 
$accharum are numerous ; they contain much silica in the rind, and some of them are 
much employed in India for thatching and for making mats, as well as for screens and 
light fences. The Bengalese make their pens of the hollow stems of 8. semidecumbens 
and 8. fuscum. 

The sugar-cane is usually propagated by cuttings. For this purpose the top joints 
are used. The cuttings are planted in rows 3 or 4 ft. apart, and at intervals of about 
2 ft. in the rows. The largest varieties, in rich moist soils, attain a height of 20 ft. ; but 
in dry poor soils, the height is sometimes scarcely more than 6 feet. The plant titters 
like wheat, but not to the same degree. The cane-ground is kept clean by hand-hoeing, 
or by the plow. Hand-hoeing was formerly universal in the West Indies, but the plow 

K7 Sugar. 


is HOW very generally used where the nature of the ground permits. The best varieties 
are ready for cutting in about ten months from the time of planting, but other varieties 
require a longer period of growth, from 12 to 20 months. When the canes are fully ripe 
they are cut a little above the ground, and tied in bundles to be conveyed to the mill. 
Fresh canes called rattoons spring from the root, so that the plantation does not require 
to be renewed for several years ; but the canes of the first crop are the largest, and a 
gradual decrease of size takes place. The ordinary practice on sugar estates is to renew 
a part of the plantation every year. 

The name CHINESE SUGAR-CANE is sometimes given to the SHALOO or SUGAR-GRASS 
^sorghum saccfuiratum), already noticed in the article DURRA. A still more important 
sugar-yielding grass is the ordinary maize or Indian corn. The sorghum became known 
in America in 1857, and has latterly been extensively cultivated for producing syrup. 
It has long been known that sugar could also be obtained from the stalks of maize ; but 
neither sorghum sugar nor maize sugar could till lately be made so as to compete com- 
mercially with the produce of the sugar-cane. Recently, however, an American gen- 
tleman Mr. Stewart, of Murraysville, in Pennsylvania has discovered a method of 
obtaining from both sorghum and maize crystallized sugar equal to the best kinds known. 
The processes are somewhat simpler than those in use for the sugar cane, and are more 
economical than those employed in making beet-sugar. The quantity is also abundant. 
It has been calculated that, on an average, one acre of maize may yield 1800 Ibs. of sugar 
and 44 galls, of molasses ; and that the yield of sugar from one acre of maize will give as 
good a profit as could be got from 30 acres of wheat. (See report of Mr. Drumrnond, 
British secretary of legation at Washington in 1878.) Two per cent of the area now 
given to maize would -serve to supply the enormous demand for imported sugar in the 
United States. It is therefore easy to see how great would be the effect produced in the 
sugar-trade of the world if the United States were to utilize for their own use, as they 
may now easily do, their own sugar supplies ; still more if they should become a sugar- 
exporting country. 

STTGAR-OF-LEAD, the common name for acetate of lead. See LEAD. 

STJHL, a t. of Prussia, province of Saxony, and government of Erfurt, is situated on 
a small stream, called the Lauter, in a romantic valley on the s.w. side of the Thuringian 
forest, 32 m. s.s.w. of Erfurt. The name Suhl, which in the Sorb-Wendish dialect means 
salt, is probably derived from the salt springs, formerly much worked. Mining is exten- 
sively carried on in the neighborhood, and has been so for centuries. The principal 
manufactures are iron and steel wares, chemical preparations, paper, and leather. Suhl, 
celebrated in the days of chivalry as the "arsenal of Germany," still maintains its 
ancient reputation as a manufactory of arms. Pop. '75, 10,721. Its history is very 
interesting; see Werther's Sieben Bucher der Chronik der Stadt Suhl (1847). 

SUHM, PETER FRIDERIK, a Danish historian, was b. in Copenhagen, Oct. 18, 1728, 
of an ancient and noble family, and was sent to the university of Copenhagen, where he 
graduated in law in 1748. A few years later he went to Norway for the sake of 
prosecuting his studies in philology and history, in conjunction with the learned histo- 
rian Scheming, and did not return till 1765 to Copenhagen, where he continued to reside 
till his death in 1798. Among his numerous works on the early mythical and political 
history of Denmark we may instance the following : F&rsoeg til Forbedringer i den gamle 
danske og norske Historic (1757); Om de nordiske Folks celdste Oprindelse (1770); Om Odin 
og den hedenske Gudelare (1771); Critisk Historic af Danmark i den hendenske Tid, i.-iy. 
Band (1774-81); Historic af Darimark, Iste Tome (1782). Besides numerous other histori- 
cal essays, moral treatises, poetic compositions, contributions to the philosophical and 
literary periodicals of Germany, France, and Denmark, etc., he edited Scriptores Rerum 
Danicarum Medii jffivi, from vol. iv. to vol. vii. inclusive (Hafniae, 1776-92), and took 
upon himself the cost and supervision of the publication of many remains of old northern 
literature. Suhm was an indefatigable collector of rare and curious books; and in 1796, 
in return for a pension from the government, he made over to the royal library of 
Copenhagen his valuable library of 100,000 volumes, to which he had previously allowed 
the public access. After the death of his only son he devoted the greater part of his 
ample means to the purpose of having copies made of the more valuable MSS. in the 
collection, many of which were, moreover, printed at his sole charge ; besides which he 
founded scholarships and afforded direct pecuniary assistance to many poor students 
and learned men. He died in 1798. Suhm's collective writings were brought out by 
S. Poulsen, in 16 vols., between 1788-99; and various editions of his lesser works have 
at different times appeared in Germany, as well as in Denmark, where he is justly 
regarded as one of the most learned and laborious and patriotic writers of his countrj r . 

SUICIDE (Lat. self-murder) is a heinous crime, 'by the law of the United Kingdom, 
though it was treated as venial by the Roman law, and was the subject of panegyric by 
Stoic philosophers. The law of England treats it as a felony, and hence there may be 
accessories to it, so that if A persuade B to kill himself, and B does so, A is guilty of 
murder. Suicide, or felo de se (q.v.), not only includes one who deliberately kills him- 
self, but also one who in maliciously attempting to kill another is himself killed. If A, 
however, requests B to kill him, and B does so, A is not a felo de se, though B is a mur- 
derer. If A and B mutually agree to commit suicide together, and in the attempt one- 

Suid*e. .- v 


only dies, the other is guilty of murder. When it is said that a man was a suicide, this 
implies that he was in his senses, for otherwise he committed no crime ; hence an insane 
person, unless when in a lucid interval, cannot commit the crime. The punishment 
inflicted on a suicide consisted, formerly, in an ignominious burial in the higway, with 
a stake driven through the body, and without Christian rites, also the legal consequence 
was forfeiture of the goods and chattels to the crown. The only consequences now are 
forfeiture of goods and deprivation of Christian rites. The burial now takes place in a 
churchyard, but between 9 and 12 P.M. An attempt to commit suicide is not punishable 
like an attempt to murder a third party, nevertheless it is a misdemeanor. The conse- 
quences of suicide on the contract of life-assurance are generally guarded against by an 
express stipulation that, if the assured die by his own hand, the policy shall be void; 
and it has been held by the courts that the policy is forfeited even though the party 
destroyed himself in a fit of frenzy or delirium. In Scotland suicide is also followed by 
forfeiture of the movable estate to the crown. 

There are, no doubt, even in modern times, some who hold the theoretical opinion that 
suicide is permissible in certain circumstances, but in regard to those who have actually 
permitted or attempted the crime, there has almost always been detectable evidence of 
cerebral changes, or, at all events, of that irritation and excitement which initiate and 
accompany molecular disorganization of the nervous structure. In short, suicide, as a 
rule, is a syniptom of some form of insanity, permanent or temporary, in which the 
emotions and passions are excited or perverted. Suicide is likewise a concomitant of 
certain bodily diseases; for example, of dilatation and fatty degeneration of the heart, 
of blood degeneration, of affections of the intestinal mucous membrane, of the uterus, 
and of the brain and nervous matter; and it may be regarded as a' frequent sequence of 
the melancholic, the morose, and hypochondriacal temperament. It has appeared as an 
epidemic; it has been observed as a hereditary tendency in certain families, and as a 
tendency more frequently exhibited by males than females ; more frequently by the edu- 
cated and affluent than by the industrial and ignorant classes; most frequently in large 
cities, .and as directly engendered by luxury, political agitation, gambling, intemperance, 
and demoralization. It would appear, however, that indulgence and asceticism, riches 
and extreme poverty, claim nearly an equal number of victims. It has been calculated 
that twice as many artisans commit suicide as laborers. In 1840, it was found that 
in every 10,000 of the population, 1.33 masons, carpenters, butchers; 7.43 tailors, shoe- 
makers, bakers; 4.9 bankers, professionals; 2.0 of persons assured in equitable office; 
7.8 dragoons; 6.7 servants and coachmen; 4.0 paupers, died by their own hand. Obser- 
vation has shown that from 20 to 35 is the most influential age in inducing the suicidal 
tendency, and the age appears to determine, to a certain degree, the modes of death se- 
lected as well as the proclivity. As might be expected, the nature of the delusion, the 
accessibility of the means, iniitation, the profession or pursuit of the individual, novelty, 
and notoriety, all influence the choice of the instrument or means of death. The theo- 
maniac dies by crucifixion; the great majority by ropes, rivers, wells, razors, arsenic; the 
medical man by aconite, chloroform. Even sex is characterized by peculiar preferences. 
Females seek voluntary death according to the following order of the means hang- 
ing or strangulation, abstinence, precipitation, drowning, cutting, poison; males, again, 
according to this order cutting, shooting, hanging, poison, drowning. Race, climate, 
country, and the distinguishing polity of different societies to a certain extent affect the 
proportion of suicides to the population. In the kingdom of Sweden there is calculated 
to be 1 suicide to every 92,375 inhabitants; in Saxony, 1 to 8,446; in Eussia, 1 to 34,246; 
in the United States, 1 to 15,000. In Paris, 1 suicide occurs in 2,700; in St. Petersburg 
and London, 1 in 21,000 citizens. Middlesex, again, is the most prolific of all 
English counties; Chester least so; there being in the former 10.5, in the latter 7.2 to 
100,000 people. In all England, the proportion is 7.4. Anatomy of Suicide, Forbes 
Winslow; Du Suicide et de la Folie Suicide, etc., a BriSrre de Boismont; Traiie du Suicide, 
Louis Bertrand; English Suicide Fields, Eadcliffe, p. 701; Medical Critic, 1862. 

Su" IDJE, a family of mammalia, of the order Pachydermata, having the feet gener- 
ally four-toed, the hinder feet some times three-toed; the toes hoofed, the two front toes 
forming the principal part of the foot, the others smaller and scarcely touching the 
ground ; the snout abruptly truncated, mobile, muscular, and sensitive, but not elongated 
into a proboscis; the tail short, or almost wanting; the incisor teeth variable in number, 
the lower ones all directed forward, the canines projecting, and bent upward; the 
stomach little divided. To this family belong hogs, wart-hogs, peccaries, etc. 

STJIDAS, the name given by the compiler of a Lexicon some time during the Byzantint 
empire. When he lived, or who he was, or whether he was even called Suidas, no one 
can say, but it is customary to place him about the 10th or llth century. The Lexicon, 
bears unmistakable evidence of having gone through many hands; and though we can 
fiz the date when several of the articles must have been written, it is impossible to ascer- 
tain whether they are the compositions of the first compiler or of a later editor. The 
work is a sort of cyclopedia, giving an explanation of words, and notices of persons, 
places, etc., in alphabetical order. It is utterly destitute of literary or critical merit, 
but is valuable in the eyes of scholars on account of its numerous extracts from ancient 
Greek writer, grammarians, scholiasts, and lexicographers, whose writings in many 

KQ SuidaB, 


cases have perished. The first edition appeared at Milan (1499): since then the best edi- 
tions have been those of Kilster (Cainb. 3 vols. 1705), Gaisford (Oxf. 3 vols. 1834) Bern- 
hardy (Halle, 2 vols. 1834), and J. Bekker (Berl. 1854). 

SHI JURIS, in the Roman law, the condition of a person not subject to the Patria 
Pote<tos(q.v.). The paterfamilias was the only member of a family who was mi juris, 
all the rest being alieni juris, including sons, unmarried daughters, the wife, and the 
wives and children of the sons of the paterfamilias. A daughter, on her marriage, 
passed into the family of her husband, but a son did not become sui juris by marriage. 
A son or unmarried daughter became sui juris on the death of the paterfamilias. In his- 
father's lifetime a son could only become sui juris by emancipation. The laws of the 
twelve tables declare that a son three times sold by his father should be freed from his- 
power; and the ceremony of emancipation was of the nature of a fictitious sale gone 
through three times, in order to liberate the son from parental control. Connubium being; 
the foundation of the patria potensas, a bastard was sui juris. 

SUIR, a river of Ireland rising in the n. of the county of Tipperary, flows s. through 
that county by the towns of Thurles and Oahir; 10 m. s. of Cahir it bends eastward,, 
forming the boundary of Tipperary and Waterford, and passing by Clonmel and Car- 
rick. It then passes out of Tipperary, and meeting the Barrow at Passage, Waterford, 
falls into the sea in Waterford Haven, after a course of about 100 m. It is navigable by 
barges as far as Clonmel. 

SUIT IN CHANCERY was the process corresponding to an action in a court of law. 
The suit generally commenced with a bill, i.e., a petition to the lord chancellor, which 
set forth the grievance, with a prayer for redress. It was signed by counsel, and was 
served on the defendants, either personally or at the dwelling-place. They had then to 
enter appearance, and put in either an answer or a demurrer, or a plea, which were the- 
several defenses to the suit, according to the nature of the subject matter. Since 1876, 
all suits have been called actions, but the procedure is not much changed. An appeal 
lies from the chancery division of the high court to the court of appeal, and finally to- 
the house of lords. 


SULIMAN' MOUNTAINS, a mountain range upward of 350 miles in length, running: 
from n. to s., and forming the boundary between Afghanistan and the Punjab. In lat. 
about 33 20', it throws off the lateral branch of the Salt Range (q.v.). The highest sum- 
mit of the range is Tacht-i-Suliman (Solomon's throne), 11,000 ft. high, and covered 
with snow for three months of each year. 

SULINA, one of the lower branches of the Danube (q.v.), flows through the middle- 
region of the delta of the great river, and enters the sea at about the same distance from 
the Kilia mouth on the n. and St. George's mouth on the south. It is the smallest out- 
let of the Danube, and conveys only ^ of the main river to the sea; but its channel 
through the bar that lines the coast is deeper than that of the other mouths, and there- 
fore the Sulina is more frequented by vessels than any other branch of the Danube. 

SU'LIOTS, a tribe who inhabited the valley of the Acheron, in the pashalik of Janina 
(E [tints) in European Turkey, are a mixed race, being partly of Hellenic and partly of 
Albanian origin. They are the descendants of a number of families who fled from their 
Turkish oppressors to the mountains of Suli (whence they derive their name) during the 
17th century. In this obscure corner of the Turkish empire they prospered; and toward 
the close of the 18th c. , numbered 560 families, inhabiting 90 hamlets. For about 51 years 
they heroically resisted the encroachments of Ali Pashi (q.v.) of Janina upon their 
independence, the very women taking part in the strife. Vanquished in 1803, they 
retreated to Parga, and afterward to the Ionian islands, where they remained ,till 1820, 
when their old oppressor, Ali Pasha, finding himself hard pressed by the Turks, invoked 
their aid, offering them guaranties for his faith, and his grandson as a hostage. Eager 
to return to their cherished home, they accepted these terms, and under Marcos Bozzaris 
(q.v.), maintained a long and desperate conflict with the Turks, but were ultimately 
forced again to flee from their country, and take refuge to the number of 3,000 in 
Cephalonia, though a large remnant preferred to skulk in the neighboring mountains. 
Though they took a glorious part in the war of Greek independence, their country was 
not included by the treaty of 1829 within the Greek boundary-line; but most of them 
established themselves in Greece, where their leaders were raised to important offices. 
The old seat of the Suliots lies in a portion of Epirus which the Berlin congress of 1878 
recommended to be restored to Greece. See Perrhsebos's History of Suli and Parga (2d 
Greek ed., Venice, 1815; Eng. trans. 1823); and Ludemann's Wars and Ballads of th 
Suliots (Leip. 1825). 

SUL'LA, L. CORNELIUS, surnamed by himself FELIX, the ablest Roman after the 
younger Scipio until the appearance of Julius Caesar, was b. 138 B.C. His family was a 
member, but not a distinguished one, of the Cornelian gens, or "clan." In 107 B.C., he 
was elected questor, and sent to Africa with the cavalry that the consul Marius (q.v.) 
required for prosecuting the Jugurthine war. He rapidly acquired a brilliant reputa- 
tion as an officer, and crowned a series of important services by inducing Bocchus, the 
Mauritanian king, to surrender Jugurtha, whom he brought in chains to the Roman 


camp (106 B. c.). Marius was not over well pleased at the distinction achieved by his 
subordinate. In the campaigns that followed (104-101 B. c.) against the Cimbri and 
Teutones, Sulla's reputation continued to rise, although Marius was still regarded (and 
with justice) as the first general of the state. For several years after the destruction of 
the barbarians, Sulla lived quietly, taking no part in public affairs; but in 93 B.C. he 
stood for the pretorship, and won it by a liberal distribution of money among the peo- 
ple. Next year, he was sent to Cilicia as propretor, to replace Ariobarzanes on the 
throne of Cappadocia, from which he had been driven by Mithridates. On his return 
to Italy (91 B.C.), the long smoldering animosity between Marius and him was on the 
point of bursting forth, but the terrible Social war forced all Komans to postpone their 
quarrels until the common danger had been averted. Both Marius and Sulla commanded 
armies in this great struggle ; but the successes of Sulla threw those of Marius into the 
shade, and the mortification of his rival was deep and bitter. In 88 B.C., Sulla was 
elected consul along with Q. Pompeius Rufus, and the senate conferred on him the 
command of the Mithridatic war. But this was a command that Marius himself pas- 
sionately desired, and when he heard that Sulla had obtained x it, he rushed headlong into 
treason and civil war. 

Here it may perhaps be necessary to observe that Marius and Sulla were not only 
personal rivals, but the leaders of opposite political parties. The former, a man of hum- 
ble origin (see MAKIUS), was a rough, stubborn, irascible, and illiterate plebeian; the 
latter, a finely cultivated patrician, subtle and sagacious in policy, and winning in man- 
ners. In the terrible scenes that ensued, although Sulla showed himself by far the fiercer 
and more sanguinary of the two, it should not be forgotten that it was Marius who com- 
menced the contest. Allying himself with the tribune P. Sulpicius Rufus, a political 
adventurer in difficulties, Marius placed himself at the head of the new Italian party, on 
which the rights of Roman citizenship had been conferred, and hoped to force the senate 
to recall the appointment of Sulla to the command of the expedition to tlfce east. Sulla 
was compelled to flee to Nola in Campania, where his camp then was; but finding the 
soldiers full of enthusiasm, he resolved to lead them against the pseudo-government that 
had been established at Rome. The story of the overthrow of the Marian party, the 
expulsion of Marius, and his subsequent wanderings in Africa, etc., are well known, and 
intimately as these events are inwoven with the fortunes of Sulla, cannot be repeated 
here. Suffice it to say, that after settling affairs at Rome as well as he could, Sulla 
embarked for the east (87 B.C.), and was away for four years. Most of his fighting, how- 
ever, was done in Greece against Archelaus, an ally of Mithridates, whom the latter 
repeatedly subsidized with men and money. Athens was stormed and plundered (86 
B.C.), and Archelaus himself was defeated with frightful slaughter at Chaeroneia in the 
same year, and again in the neighborhood of Orchomlenos (84 B.C.). Sulla now crossed 
the Hellespont, crushed Fimbria, a general sent out by the Marian party (which in Sulla's 
absence, had again got the upper hand in Italy), forced Mithridates to sue for peace, and 
after extorting heavy contributions from the cities of Asia Minor, sailed for Italy, and 
landed at Brundusium in the spring of 83 B.C. Marius was now dead, but his party were 
strong in numbers, if not in organization; yet, before the close of 82 B.C., the Marian 
party in Italy was utterly crushed. In Spain, however, under the gallant and high- 
souled Sertorius (q.v.), it held out for ten years longer. 

When Sulla felt himself master of the situation, his thoughts turned to revenge. 
Then followed the fearful period of the proscriptions (81 B.C.) a virtual "reign of 
terror" throughout Italy, the object of which was literally to extirpate the Marian 
party. In this, however, it was only partially successful; and the next generation saw 
that party rise to more splendid predominance than ever in the person of Julius Caesar 
(q.v.), nephew of old Marius. In 81 B.C., Sulla got himself appointed dictator, an office 
which hje held until 79 B.C. This period was signalized by his framing a series of laws 
often spoken of collectively as the " Sullan legislation " the design of which was to 
make the senate and the aristocracy as vigorous and powerful as in the times of the 
Punic wars, but which utterly failed of its end. 

On resigning his dictatorship, Sulla retired to his fine estate at Puteoli, to enjoy at 
his ease those sensual pleasures to which he had been deeply addicted from his earliest 
manhood. Literature, wine, and women were luxuries in which he had always indulged, 
but now he wholly devoted himself to them in a sort of swinish manner.' It is strange 
to reflect that the man who undertook to legislate with the view of mending the public 
morals, should himself have surpassed in profligacy all his contemporaries. What more 
convincing proof could we have that morality in Rome had ceased to be more than a 
name! Sulla's debaucheries hastened his end. He died 78 B.C., when only 60 years of 
age, of the disgusting disease known as morbus pediculosus. 

SULLIVAN, a co. in s.w. Indiana, having the Wabash river for its w. boundary 
separating it from Illinois; 435 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 20,336 19,944 of American birth, 146 
colored. It is intersected by the Evansville and Terre Haute railroad ; drained by the 
Wabash and Busseron creek. Its surface is level, with a good supply of timber and 
groves of hickory and sugar maple. It has extensive beds of bituminous coal. Stock is 
raised in large numbers, and the soil is adapted to the production of grain, maple sugar, 
sorghum, and dairy products. Its manufactures are lumber and cooperage. Co. seat, 


SULLIVAN, a co. in n. Missouri, crossed by the Burlington and South-western rail- 
wad, and drained by Muscle river, the e. fork of Medicine creek, and the middle and 
yr. forks of Locust creek; 648 sq.m.; pop. '80, 16,569. The surface is partly rolling 
prairie, and partly forest; the soil is fertile. The principal productions are grain, hay, 
tobacco, wool, and lumber. Horses, cows, mules, sheep, and swine are raised in great 
numbers. It contains flour and saw mills, and cloth dressing and wool carding are car 
ried on. Bituminous coal is found here. Co. seat, Milan. 

SULLIVAN, a co. in w. New Hampshire, bounded by the Connecticut river on the 
w., and partly by lake Sunapee on the e., intersected by the Concord and Claremont rail- 
road, drained by the Ashuelot and Sugar rivers; 820 sq.m.; pop. '70, 18,508. The sur- 
face bordering the Connecticut is level, other parts of the county consists of rugged hills, 
covered with forests of oak, ash, sugar maple, and elm trees, and are suitable for grazing; 
the soil is mostly fertile. The principal productions are grain, hay, potatoes, wool, but- 
ter, cheese, and maple sugar. Cattle, horses, sheep, and swine are raised in large num- 
bers. It contains manufactories of cotton, woolen, paper, machinery, boots and shoes, 
and wooden ware, and tanned and curried leather establishments, also flour and saw 
mills. Co. seat, Newport. 

SULLIVAN, a co. in s.e. New York, having the Delaware river for its w. and s.w. 
boundary, separating it from Pennsylvania; 980 sq.m.; pop. '80, 32,490 28,230 of 
American birth, 84 colored. It is drained by theMongaup, Neversink, Beaver Kill, and 
Shawangunk rivers, and Rondout creek. It is intersected by the Delaware and Hudson 
canal; the Erie railroad in the w. and s.w. following the course of the Delaware river, 
and the New York and Oswego Midland railroad. A branch of the Erie railroad con- 
nects its co. seat with Port Jervis. The surface is mountainous, traversed by several 
lofty yidges divided by fertile valleys. Leather, carriages, and lumber, are manufac- 
tured. Co. seat, Monticello. 

SULLIVAN, a co. in n.e. Pennsylvania, drained by the Susquehanna river, Loyal- 
sock and Muncy creeks; 420 sq.m.; pop. '80, 8,073 7,151 of American birth, 3 colored. 
The surface is hilly and includes a part of the Alleghany mountains. It is well timbered 
with oak and hickory, and an occasional grove of sugar maples. Coal is found, and. the 
soil is adapted to stock raising and the production of grain, potatoes, and dairy products, 
Leather and lumber are manufactured. Co. seat, Laporte. 

SULLIVAN, a co. in n.e. Tennessee, bordered by Virginia, crossed by the East Ten- 
nessee, Virginia and Georgia railroad, drained by the Holston river and its branches ; 
300 sq.m.; pop. '80, 18,321. The surface is hilly and partly covered with forests of 
sugar maple, beech, oak, ash, chestnut, hickory, and pine. The soil is fertile; the prin- 
cipal productions are wheat, corn, oats, flax, wool, honey, tobacco, maple sugar, and 
sorghum molasses. It contains large deposits of iron ore and limestone. Co. seat, 

SULLIVAN, ARTHUR S., b. England, 1844. He sang as a choir boy in St. James's 
chapel royal of London, and then studied music in Germany. After his return to Eng- 
land he composed the music to Cox and Box; The Prodigal Son; The Light of the World; 
and Trial by Jury. His music to Shakespeare's Tempest won a great success, and his 
songs and sacred music have placed him among the leading composers of the day. He 
is best known, however, as the composer of the comic opera Pinafvre, for w T hich W. S. 
Gilbert wrote the words. It was first produced in England, but failed to make the 
extraordinary but ephemeral success it attained on its reproduction in America at the 
end of 1878. Sullivan sailed for New York the same year to superintend the production 
of Pinafore under his leadership. He since composed in correction with W. S. Gilbert 
another comic opera, the Pirates of Penzance, which met with considerable success. The 
honorary degree of doctor of music was conferred upon him by the university of Cam- 
bridge in 1876. He was English delegate to the commission des auditions musicales of the 
Paris exhibition of 1878, when he was made chevaiier of the legion of honor. 

SULLIVAN, JAMES, LL.D., 1744-1808, b. Me. ; king's attorney for York county. He 
sympathized with the patriotic party, however; was in 1775 a member of the provincial 
congress of Massachusetts from which Maine had not yet been separated, and was sent 
as a commissioner to Ticonderoga. In 1776 he became a justice of the superior court; 
was a member of the convention which formed a state constitution for Massachusetts in 
1780, and was elected to congress in 1783. Removing to Boston, he represented that 
' town in the legislature several years, served on the executive council, and was probate 
judge for Suffolk co., and was attorney-general of the state, 1790-1807. He served on the 
commission to fix the boundaries between the United States and Great Britain, and was 
governor of the state in 1807-8. He wrote a History of the District of Maine (1795), and 
a History of Land Titles in Massachusetts (1801). 

SULLIVAN, JOHN, LL.D., 1740-95; b. Me.; in early life was a successful lawyer, but 
held his profession^subservient to his zeal for American liberty. He was a member of 
the first continental congress; and through the darkest periods of the revolutionary war, 
be ranked among the ablest leaders of the American armies. In the siege of Boston h 
"was next in command to gen. Lee. When in the battle of Long Island, in 1776, gen. 
Grne was disabled by sickness, Sullivan was selected to command his division of the 

Sullivan O 


army. Serving afterward under the immediate supervision of Washington, Gen. Sul- 
livan was distinguished for his discretion and valor in the battles of Trenton, Princeton, 
Brandywine, and Germantown. In 1778 Washington and count d'Estaing arranged for 
the French fleet to attack the British near Rhode Island, and Sullivan was sent with a 
large force to co-operate in besieging Newport. On the day appointed for the combined 
attack, a violent storm so shattered the French vessels that they withdrew from the con- 
test. After defeating the English in one engagement, the American forces retired from. 
Rhode Island. In 1779 Sullivan was sent with a large force into western New York to 
take vengeance upon the hordes of Indians and tories who, besides other atrocities, had 
massacred the inhabitants of Wyoming and Cherry valley. The savages were dispersed, 
many were killed, and their villages destroyed. In 1780 gen. Sullivan resigned his com- 
mission and returned to New Hampshire and to his profession of the law. After suc- 
cessfully filling many important civil and judicial offices, died at Durham, N. H. 

SULLIVAN, JOHN LANGDON, 1777-1865, b. Maine; studied canal construction in Eng- 
land and on the continent. He was agent and engineer of the Middlesex canal, 1804-11. 
He was associate civil engineer of the U. S. board of internal improvements, 1824-25; 
and published reports on the feasibility of a canal through the Alleghanies. He after- 
ward practiced medicine, adopting the homeopathic system. In 1814 he received a 
patent for the invention of the steam tow-boat, being given priority over Robert Fulton. 

SULLIVAN, WILLIAM, LL.D., 1774-1839, b. Maine; graduated at Harvard, 1792, 
studied law, and for many years practiced in Suffolk co. , Mass. He was for a long 
period a member of the legislature, and is best known as the author of political, histori- 
cal, and moral Class Books; Familiar Letters on tJie Public Men of tlw Revolution (1834); 
and Historical Causes and Effects (1838). 

SULLIVAN'S ISLAND, a large island, 6 m. below Charleston, S. C., between the har 
bor and ocean, the site of fort Moultrie, now dismantled, and of the summer residences 
of the wealthy inhabitants. When fort Moultrie was evacuated by maj. Anderson, Dec. 
26, 1860, several batteries were erected on the shore of this island, bearing upon the 
channel and fort Sumter. 

SULLIVANT, WILLIAM STABLING, LL.D., 1803-73; b. Franklinton, Ohio; graduate 
of Yale college, 1823; became a surveyor and resident of Columbus, and published cata- 
logues and specimens of plants and mosses. He has made contributions to the bryology 
and hepaticology of North America; to Asa Gray's Manual of Botany, and numerous 
other works, besides contributing valuable papers to scientific journals. Associated 
with L. Lesquereux he published Musci Boreali-Arnei'icani, consisting of 350 species 
and varieties of dried mosses. He discovered a plant of the saxifrage family on which 
was founded the genus Suttivantia. 

SULLY, a new co. of s.e. Dakota, bounded on the w. by the Missouri river, and 
drained by its branches; 1100 sq. miles. The surface is mostly rolling prairie; the soil 
bordering the Missouri river is very fertile. Co. seat, Fort Sully. 

SULLY, MAXIMILIEN DE BETHUNE, Duke of, the celebrated minister of Henry IV. of 
France, was the second son of Fra^ois, baron de Rosny, and was born at Rosny, near 
Mantes, in 1560. The Rosny family, an offshoot from the great house of Flanders, was 
never possessed of much wealth or influence, and had severely deteriorated in both res- 

Sicts during the early religious wars. Sully was at an early age committed to the care of 
enry of Navarre, the head of the Huguenot party, which not only obtained for him an 
excellent education, but laid the foundation of a companionship which lasted, without 
intermission, till Henry's death. After narrowly escaping during the St. Bartholomew 
massacre, he accompanied his patron in his flight from court (1575), and during the civil 
war which followed, exerted himself to the utmost, by daring valor in the field and 
otherwise, to serve the master for whom he cherished the most absorbing devotion. 
After Henry's authority had been well established, Sully, who had for some years pre- 
vious been his trusted adviser, became (1594) counselor of state and of finance. The 
financial affairs of the country were then in a frightful condition ; from the chief of the 
department down to the very lowest country agent, the administration was an organized 
system of pillage, and but a small percentage of the taxes levied found its way into the 
imperial treasury. The baron de Rosny was the very man to remedy this state of 
matters; rude, obstinate, and haughty, but at the same time resolute, active, indefatigable, 
wholly devoted to his master's interests; and backed by the influence of Gabrielle d'Es- 
trees, and by Henry's own clear-sighted convictions, he cared nothing for the clamor 
and hatred of the court, which had largely profited by the former state of chaos. Not 
content with regulating the affairs of the revenue from the seat of power, he made a 
tour through the chief provincial districts, armed with absolute authority, personally 
examined the accounts, dismissed or suspended delinquents, and largely replenished the 
treasury with the ill-gotten wealth which he compelled them to disgorge. By indomit- 
able perseverance, he little by little brought the affairs of the country into an orderly 
state; although in the diminution of the expenditure his efforts were by no means so 
successful, as the king, his mistresses, and the other companions of his pleasures, com- 
bined to oppose all retrenchment as far as they were concerned. In 1596 the disposable 
revenue of the state was 7 to 9 millions; in 1609 it was no less than 20 millions, with 

CO Sullivan. 


surplus of 20 to 22 millions in the treasury, and the arsenals and fleet in a state of excel- 
lent equipment. Sully, however, was more than a mere financier; he had the supreme 
charge of various other branches of the administration, zealously promoted agriculture 
by diminishing the taxes of the peasantry, encouraging export trade, draining marsh- 
lands, and constructing numerous roads, bridges, and causeways. Sully was the ser- 
Tant of the king and government alone, and was of necessity disliked by the people for 
his severity, by the Catholics for his religion, and by the Protestants for his invariable 
refusals to sacrifice the smallest jot of his master's or the country's interest for their sake. 
Accordingly, with the death of Henry, his career of supremacy was at once ended, and 
he was forced to resign the superintendence of finance, Jan. 26, 1611, though he retained 
his other high offices, and was presented by Maria de Medicis with 300,000 livres as 
acknowledgment of his services, He had been created duke of Sully and peer of France 
in Feb., 1606. Sully wrote three treatises on war and police, which are lost, and two 
pieces of verse which are extant; but the work which will ever be connected with his 
name is the Memoires dex sages et royales (Economies d'Estat de Henry le Grand; a dull, 
wearisome, and disorderly collection of writings, but of priceless value to a historian of 
Henry IV.'s time. Sully printed the first two volumes of the Memoires at his own 
chateau of Suliy in 1634,' the third and fourth were published at Paris in 1662, and the 
whole has been several times republished, as well as translated into English, German, 
and Russian. Sully died at Villebon, near Chartres (Eure-et-Loir), Dec. 22, 1641. Artists 
have generally represented Sully as older than Henry IV., while in reality he was seven 
years youiiger. 

SULLY, THOMAS, 1782-1872. b. England; brought to this country by his parents. 
From 1798-1804 he resided iu Charleston, S. C., studied art and produced some juvenile 
pieces. He then settled in Richmond, Va. . and later in New York, in both places prac- 
ticing the profession of a portrait painter with great success. In 1809 he removed to 
Philadelphia, where the rest of his life was spent, with exception of visits abroad, in 
one of which he painted an excellent portrait of queen Victoria. The Boston museum 
possesses his, most ambitious work, "\VashingtonCrossingtheDelaware." Among his 
best portraits were those of Cooke the tragedian as Richard III., Fanny Kemble, Dr. 
Rush, Decatur, Jefferson, and Lafayette. 

STTLMO NA, or SOLMONA, a city of southern Italy, province of Aquila, in Abruzzi. 
Pop. '71, 12,583. It is situated in a vast fertile plain, watered by two rivers, and bounded 
by hills. It is very well built, having one very wide street in the center of the city. 
There is a handsome town-hall, a cathedral, and a convent dedicated to St. Pietro Celes- 
tino, built with stones from the ancient crfiniinn. It has paper manufactories, dye- 
houses, and tan-yards. Sulmona was the birthplace of Ovid. In the 8th and 9th cen- 
turies, it was sacked by the Saracens, but was restored under the Normans, and has ever 
since been a flourishing and industrious city. 


SULPHIDES, METALLIC, formerly known as sulphurets, are combinations of sulphur 
with a metal. Many of them occur native, and form highly valuable ores. They are 
all solid at ordinary temperatures, and, with the exception of those of potassium, 
sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, and magnesium, are insoluble in water; they are, 
moreover, conductors of electricity. Many of them, especially of those that occur 
native, exhibit very brilliant and characteristic colors. The same metal may have sev- 
eral sulphides, and in general there is a sulphide for each oxide. The sulphides are, 
however, sometimes the more numerous. Most of these compounds may be fused at a 
heat a little above redness, and if the air be excluded, the protosulphides (those contain- 
ing one atom of sulphur and one atom of metal) remain unaffected ; but many of the 
higher sulphides, such as the bisulphide of iron (FeS 2 ) and the bisulphide of tin (SnS,) 
give off an atom of sulphur, and are reduced to protosulphides. If, however, there is a 
free admission of air or of oxygen gas to the heated sulphides, they are all decomposed, 
the sulphur becoming oxidized, and passing off as sulphurous acid (SO 2 ), while the metal 
usually remains in combination with oxygen. When heated before the blowpipe, most 
of the sulphides evolve an odor of sulphurous acid, and very small quantities of soluble 
ulphides may be detected in neutral or alkaline solutions by the addition of a solution 
of nitroprusside of sodium (Naj.FejCysNO^ -f- 4Aq), when a magnificent purple color, 
which, however, is not permanent, is evolved. It has very recently been discovered by 
. Mr. Barrett, and announced in his paper, "On some Physical Effects produced by the 
contact of a Hydrogen Flame with various Bodies," in the Philosophical Magazine for 
Nov., 1865, that the sudden appearance of a blue color when the hydrogen flame is 
'brought in contact with a body containing sulphur, is a most delicate test for the pres- 
ence of this element, detecting it even when the nitro-prusside of sodium test fails. By 
this test Mr. Barrett detected i o 3 ooo of a grain of sulphur. 

The sulphides are prepared in various ways, of which it is sufficient to notice the 
most important. (1.) The protosulphides of the metals of the alkalies and alkaline earthi 
taay be obtained by decomposing their sulphates by igniting them in closed vessels with 
charcoal, the oxygen being removed in the form of carbonic oxide. (2.) Many of the metals, 
when heated with sulphur, combine directly with it; sulphide of iron, for example, is 
toually prepared in this manner. (3.) Hydrated sulphide of tin, titanium, molybdenum, 

Sulphocyanogen. f>4 


tungsten, vanadium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, copper, lead, mercury, silver, gold, 
and platinum with its allied metals may be obtained by passing a stream of sulphuret- 
ted hydrogen through neutral or acid solutions of their salts, when they are precipitated 
in an insoluble form; and the hydrated sulphides of zinc, iron, manganese, cobalt, and 
nickel may be prepared by double decomposition, by mixing a solution of the salt of 
the metal with a solution of a sulphide of one of the metals of the alkalies, as, for exam- 
ple, sulphide of potassium : thus, sulphate of zinc, if mixed with sulphide of potassium, 
yields sulphate of potash, which remains in solution, and sulphide of manganese, which 
falls as an insoluble precipitate. "In many cases," says prof. Miller, "the atoms of 
these hydrated sulphides are characteristic of the metal; for example, the hydrated sul- 
phide of zinc is white; that of manganese, flesh red; those of cadmium, arsenic, and 
persulphide of tin are yellow; that of tersulphide of antimony is orange red; and that 
of hydrated protosulphide of tin is chocolate brown. The sulphides of molybdenum, 
rhodium, indium, and osmium are brown, each with its peculiar shade, while in a large 
number of instances including the sulphides of iron, cobalt, nickel, uranium, vana- 
dium, bismuth, copper, lead, silver, mercury, gold, platinum, and palladium the pre- 
cipitated sulphides are of a black, more or less pure." Inorganic Chemistry, 2d ed. 1860, 
p. 322. A recollection of the colors of these precipitates will save the young chemist a 
large amount of labor in testing for the presence of the metals. 

given to a monobasic radical, C 2 NS 2 , or CyS 3 , which has never yet been isolated, but 
which forms an acid compound, known as hydrosulphocyanic acid (H.CaNSj), with 
hydrogen, and yields numerous metallic salts. These salts, known as sulphocyanides, 
may be represented by the general formula, M,CyS a , where M represents any metal. 
The sulphocyanides of potassium, sodium, and ammonium are crystallizable and soluble 
in water; those of the heavy metals are comparatively insoluble. These salts do not 
possess the poisonous character of the cyanides. Sulphocyanide of potassium (K,CyS 2 ) 
is anhydrous, but very deliquescent, and occurs in long streaked colorless prisms, some- 
what resembling niter both in appearance and taste ; it is extremely soluble in water, 
and fuses on the application of a gentle heat. The sulphocyanide of mercury is a white 
powder which possesses the property of swelling or growing in size to an almost incred- 
ible degree when moderately heated, so as to decompose it into a mixture of mellon 
(CisNjs), with a little sulphide of mercury. The resulting mass often assumes a most 
fantastic shape, and is sufficiently coherent to retain its form; it is of a yellow color 
externally, but black within. It is this sulphocyanide which is the ingredient of the 
well-known toy known as " Pharaoh's serpents." Each serpent consists of a little cone 
of tinfoil, resembling a pastille in shape, and filled with the above-named compound. 
On lighting the cone at the apex, there begins to issue from it a thick serpent-like coil, 
which continues twisting and increasing in length to an extraordinary degree, the ser- 
pent-like shape resulting from the salt being burned in the tinfoil cone. The compound is 
readily obtained byprecipitating a strong solution of pernitrate of mercury with sulpho- 
cyanide of ammonium, which is most cheaply prepared by Mr. Wood's method from 
bisulphide of carbon. 

SULPHOVINIC or SULPHETHYLIC ACID (HO,C4HO,S.,O 6 )is formed by mixing alcohol 
with an equal bulk of oil of vitriol. Great heat is evolved, and the two bodies enter 
partially into combination ; this new compound acid possessing only half the saturating 
capacity of sulphuric acid. In connection with the theory of the formation of ether 
from alcohol and sulphuric acid, it may be observed that this sulphovinic acid is devel- 
oped as an intermediate product, if the temperature be raised to 212% but not other- 
wise. This is one of the class of acids to which the term rinic acids is applied. 

SULPHUR (symb. S, eq. 16 new system, 32 sp. gr. of rolled sulphur, 1.98 [see 
ATOMIC WEIGHTS], and of amorphous sulphur, 1.957; sp. gr. of vapor, 6.617 at 824, 
and 2.2 at 1900, atmospheric air being the unit of comparison for the vapor) is one of 
the most important of the non-metallic elements. At an ordinary temperature, it exists 
as a solid, brittle, tasteless, and inodorous body, of a characteristic yellow color, and 
insoluble in water. A piece of solid sulphur, heated to a temperature of 239, fuses 
into a thin yellow liquid; while in closed vessels, it may, by a further heat, be distilled, 
the boiling-point being about 824, and at this temperature it yields a deep yellow vapor, 
of sp. gr. 6.617. When the sulphur- vapor comes in contact with cold air, it condenses 
in the form of a fine yellow powder, known as flowers of sulphur. If fused sulphur 
be rapidly cooled, it solidifies into a compact mass, of a granular crystalline texture, and 
if, in its liquid state, it be allowed to run into cylindrical wooden molds, we obtain it in 
the ordinary form of roll-sulphur, or common brimstone ; if, on the other hand, it be 
allowed to cool slowly, it crystallizes in long, glistening, deep, yellow, oblique prisms, 
with a rhombic base, which, however, soon lose their most characteristic properties. 
As native sulphur is frequently met with in yellow crystals, whose form is derived from 
the octahedron with a rhombic base, it is obviously a dimorphous substance. It has 
been already stated that sulphur fuses at 239 ; from that temperature up to 280, it forms 
a yellow, transparent, limpid liquid; as the heat increases, the color becomes brown, and 
almost black, and the liquid becomes viscid, these changes being very distinctly seen at 
350. If the external application of heat be steadily continued, it will be found that for 

f> K Sulphocyanogen. 


a while the temperature remains constant, but it afterward rises, and at nearly 500", the 
sulphur again liquefies, although less completely than when first melted. If it be now 
suddenly cooled by pouring it, in a slender stream, into cold water, we obtain a spongy, 
tenacious, and plustic mass, which may be drawn out into elastic threads, whose color, 
after they have cooled, varies from an amber to a deep brown color, according to the 
heat that has been employed. After some hours the ductile sulphur loses its character- 
istic properties, increases in density, and returns to the brittle form; or, if it be heated 
to 212, it suddenly returns to the brittle condition ; the temperature rising to 230 dur- 
ing the change. Hence, sulphur may be obtained in three (if not in more) allotropic states, 
which are distinguished by the symbols S, S/J, Sy. The first variety, Sa, is the 
native octahedral crystal of sulphur; it may be obtained artificially by dissolving sulphur 
in bisulphide of carbon, or chloride of sulphur, and submitting the solution to sponta- 
neous evaporation. These crystals are semi-transparent, of an amber-yellow color, and 
undergo no change on exposure to the air. The second variety, S/?, is the oblique pris- 
matic crystal already described as being formed when fused sulphur cools slowly. The 
best method of obtaining these crystals is to melt a few pounds of sulphur, and allow 
it to solidify on the surface. On perforating the external crust with a hot wire, and 
pouring out the sulphur that remains liquid, the interior of the cavity is found to be 
traversed m all directions by these crj-stals, occurring as transparent brownish needles, 
having a specific gravity considerably less even than that of roll-sulphur. On exposure 
to the air they soon lose their coherence, and form an opaque and crumbling mass, con- 
sisting of minute rhombic octahedra. This conversion of the prismatic into the octa- 
hedral form takes place immediately if the prisms are immersed in bisulphide of carbon. 
The third variety, S^, is the plastic amorphous sulphur, which has been sufficiently 
described. If sulphur be frequently heated to 600", and suddenly cooled, a black vari- 
ety of this element is produced ; and a red variety has been obtained, but the redness ia 
now supposed to be due to the presence of a trace of some fatty body. 

Sulphur is a bad conductor of heat, and the mere heat of a warm hand often causes 
it to crackle, and even to fall to pieces, from the unequal expansion. It is an insulator 
of electricity, and becomes negatively electric by friction. It is slightly soluble in 
alcohol, ether, and the fatty oils; its best solvents being the bisulphide of carbon and 
chloride of sulphur. When it is heated in the air, it takes fire at about 470 3 , burning 
with a blue flame, and becoming converted into sulphurous acid, whose pungent suffo- 
cating fumes are characteristic of sulphur. This element is second only to oxygen in its 
powerful affinity for other elements, with most of which it unites, and often in several 
proportions. With most of the metals it combines very readily, and in some cases, with 
a development of light and heat; thus, silver and copper burn in sulphur-vapor just as 
iron-wire or zinc-foil burns in oxygen. In consequence of its power, with the aid of 
heat, of forming sulphurous acid with the oxygen of the air, and thus rendering the 
latter incapable of supporting combustion, burning sulphur may be usefully employed 
for the extinguishing of fire as, for example, in chimneys. 

Sulphur occurs very widely distributed in the mineral kingdom, partly free and partly 
combined with other elements. The free sulphur is either found pure in regularly 
formed crystals, or intimately mixed with earthy matters. The principal sources of 
crystalline sulphur are Urbinp in Italy, Girgenti in Sicily, and Radoboy in Croatia; 
while the earthy sulphur is mainly derived from Italy. Moravia, and Poland. Iceland 
is rich in both varieties, but the mineral wealth of that island remains almost unworked. 
At present, by far the greatest quantity of the sulphur employed in Europe comes from 
Sicily; and, as a general rule, it is abundant in volcanic districts. In the form of sul- 
phide, sulphur occurs abundantly in combination with iron, copper (iron and copper 
pyrites), lead (galena), zinc (blende), etc., the bisulphide of iron (or iron pyrites) furnish- 
ing most of the sulphur that is employed in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Sulphur 
is still more extensive!}* distributed in the form of sulphates, the sulphates of lime, 
magnesia, baryta, etc., being abundant natural productions. In the vegetable kingdom, 
sulphur is a constituent (although only to a small amount) of the albuminous bodies 
which are so widely diffused in plants; and of certain volatile irritant oils, as those of 
mustard, garlic, asafetida, etc.; and, moreover, the vegetable juices contain it in the 
form of certain sulphates. In the animal kingdom, it is not only a constituent of the 
albuminous, fibrinous, and gelatinous tissues, but of the hair, saliva, bile, urine, etc. 
The two animal substances in which it is most abundant are cystin (q.v.), an occasional 
constituent of urinary calculi, and taurine (q.v.), a constituent of the bile, in bothRof 
which it forms about a quarter of the entire weight. 

It would be out of place in this article to enter into details regarding the extraction 
or preparation of sulphur. It is sufficient to state that the grosser impurities are removed 
by crude processes of fusion and distillation at or near the place from whence it is 
obtained. That which is imported into Britain undergoes further purification. What 
is called refined sulphur is that purified by distillation in a large cast-iron still, and con- 
densed in a receiver kept cool. When the vaporized sulphur is condensed in a large 
chamber, it is obtained in the form of sublimed sulphur, or flowers o f sulphur; but as the 
walls get hot, it melts and collects on the floor, and is run into cylindrical wooden 
molds, from which, when cool, it is taken out as roll or stick sulphur. The residue left 
in the retort is a mixture of sulphur with various impurities. Under the names of btaeit 
U- K. XIV. 5 


tulphur, or sulphur mvuin (commonly inquired for at the chemist's under the title of 
sulphur of ivy), it is used in veterinary medicine, and for the purpose of dressing moldy 
hops. Sulphur is thrown down from certain of its compounds (as from a strong solution. 
of a polysulphide of calcium, sodium, or potassium) by dilute hydrochloric acid; it falls 
as a grayish- white, very fine, light powder, known in the Materia Medica as milk of sul- 
phur, or precipitated sulphur. For the method of obtaining sulphur from iron pyrites, 
we must refer the reader to Miller's Inorganic Chemistry, 2d ed. p. 154. The proceeding 
is usually conducted on a large scale, 2,000 tons of pyrites being roasted at once, the 
roasting extended offer five or six months, and the final result being about 20 tons of 
sulphur. The most common impurities met with in ordinary commercial sulphur are 
selenium and realgar (bisulphide of arsenic). Flowers of sulphur frequently exhibit a 
slight acid reaction, in consequence of a little sulphurous acid clinging to them. By 
rinsing them with water, this impurity is at once removed. 

Sulphur is extensively employed in the arts and manufactures; as in the manufacture 
of matches, gunpowder, etc. When converted into sulphurous acid, it is employed as a 
powerful bleaching agent, and also for the destruction of insects, fungi, etc. ; but its 
chief consumption is in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. 

The compounds of sulphur and oxygen are no less than seven in number, all of which 
present the characters of acids. These acids have the following composition : 

Sulphur. Oxygen. 

Sulphurous acid SO a 16 16 

Sulphuric acid SO S 16 

Hyposulphurpus acid S 2 O a 32 

Hyposulphuric acid S 2 O 8 32 

Trithionic acid S 3 O 5 48 

Tetrathipnic acid S 4 O 5 64 

Pentathionic acid S 6 O 6 80 


The last five of these acids have never been obtained in the anhydrous form. We shall 
only notice the most important members of this group, viz., the first three of them, and 
of these, the second, sulphuric acid, is so extremely important, that it is discussed in a 
special article. (The last three derive the essential portion of their name from the 
Greek word theion, sulphur. 

SULPHUROUS ACID or SULPHUROUS ANHYDRIDE (SO 2 ), occurs under the ordinary 
relations of temperature and pressure as a colorless gas, possessing the suffocating odor 
of burning sulphur. In its concentrated form it is quite irrespirable, and in a diluted 
state it excites cough, and produces the symptoms of an ordinary catarrh. It is not 
only incapable of burning, but it rapidly extinguishes the flame of burning bodies. It 
is very freely soluble in cold water, which at 32 takes up nearly 69 times its volume of 
the gas, while at 75 it only takes up 32 volumes; the solution known as aqueous sul- 
phurous acid having at first the same smell and taste as the gas, but soon absorbing 
oxygen from the air, and becoming converted into sulphuric acid. By the action of 
cold, sulphurous acid may be condensed to a colorless transparent limpid liquid, which 
freezes at 105, forming a transparent crystalline solid: The specific gravity of the 
gas is 2.247 (atmospheric air being the unit), and that of the liquid is 1.49 (water being 
the unit), the solid being considerably heavier. Although dry sulphurous acid gas and 
dry oxygen, when mixed, exert no action on one another, there are many conditions 
under which sulphurous acid rapidly absorbs oxygen, and is converted into sulphuric 
acid. It has been mentioned that this takes place if the gas be dissolved in water; a 
similar action takes place under the influence of hydrated nitric acid, iodic acid, and 
certain metallic oxides. For example, oxide of lead, when immersed in the gas, burns, 
and is converted into white sulphate of zinc (PbO 2 -f- SO 2 = PbO.SOs). Hence, sul 
phurous acid is a powerful reducing or deoxidizing agent. This gas is a common and 
abundant product of volcanic action, and is occasionally met with in solution in the 
springs in volcanic regions. It may be prepared artificially by simply burning sulphur 
in the air or in oxygen gas, or by heating in a flask 4 parts of flowers of sulphur mixed 
with 5 parts of powdered black manganese, sulphurous acid and sulphide of manganese 
being the products, as shown by the equation 2S -f- MnO 2 = S0 2 + MnS. In conse- 
quence of its solubilty in water, this gas should be collected over mercury. In addition 
to the uses of sulphurous acid as a bleaching agent, it is valuable both as a disinfect- 
ant agent and as a powerful antiseptic; its latter property has been applied to the pre- 
servation of meat, which, after exposure to this acid, w'ill keep fresh for years, if it be 
inclosed in metallic canisters filled with nitrogen, to which a little binoxide of nitrogen 
has been added, to remove any trace of oxygen. But by far its most important use is, 
as a first stage in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. In combination with bases, this 
acid forms the sulphitet a class of salts which, excepting the sulphite of soda, are 
of little practical importance, except for their power, when moist, of extracting oxygen, 
and thus acting as reducing agents. For example, the salts of the sesquioxide of iron 
are reduced by them to salts of the protoxide. 

HTPOsmLPHUROUS ACID (S 2 O 2 ) as yet is only known in a state of combination with 
bft*ee ; for on attempting to separate the acid from the base, the former becomes decom- 

v* Sulphur. 

posed into sulphur and sulphurous acid. The most important of its salts is the hypo- 
sulphite of soda fN"aO,S 2 O 2 -f- 5Aq), whose mode of preparation and characters are 
described in the articl. SODIUM. This and other soluble hyposulphites may be easily 
recognized by the facility with which they dissolve the haloid salts of silver, forming a 
solution of an extremely sweet taste, and containing a double hyposulphite of silver 
and soda, with an admixture of chloride, iodide, or bromide of sodium. It is this 
power of dissolving those salts of silver which are insoluble in water, that renders the 
hyposulphite of soda so important an agent in photography. The only other salt of 
this acid which we shalL notice is the hyposulphite of gold and soda [AuO,S 2 O 2 ,3 (NaO, 
S 2 O 2 ) -j- 4 Aq] which may be prepared by mixing concentrated solutions of 1 part of 
chloride of gold and 3 parts of hyposulphite of soda, and adding alcohol, when the 
required salt is precipitated. It is used for gilding the daguerreotype plate, and for 
coloring the positive proof obtained in photographic printing. 

With hydrogen, sulphur forms two compounds, viz., sulphureted hydrogen, or hydro- 
sulphuric add (q.v.), and persulphide of hydrogen, an oily liquid, having the smell and 
taste of sulphureted hydrogen, and in many of its properties having an analogy to 
binoxide of hydrogen. Sulphur combines with carbon to form a bisulphide of carbon 
(CS 2 ), a very volatile colorless liquid, of a high refractive power, of an acrid and pungent 
taste, and a very disagreeable odor. It is heavier than water, in which it is insoluble, 
but dissolves freely in alcohol and ether, and is the best solvent for sulphur and phos- 
phorus. Bisulphide of carbon does not occur as a natural product, but may be ob- 
tained by heating fragments of charcoal to bright redness in a porcelain tube, and 
passing sulphur vapor along it. Its vapor, when freely inhaled, exerts a similar anes- 
thetic action with those of chloroform and ether. Workmen in caoutchouc or other 
manufactures in which bisulphide of carbon is used as a solvent, suffer very much from 
prolonged exposure to its vapor, which produces headache, loss of appetite, impair- 
ment of vision and hearing, and causes general derangement of health by its deleterious 
action on the nervous system. Sulphur combines with chlorine in several proportions, 
the most important of these compounds being subchloride of sulphur (S 2 C1) and the 
chloride of sulphur (SCI). Both of them are liquids, and are formed by the direct 
action of the combining elements. The subchloride is a yellow volatile liquid with 
a penetrating aud disagreeable odor. When dropped in water, it sinks to the bottom 
(its spec. grav. being about 1.687), and is slowly decomposed into hydrochloric and 
various sulphur acids, and free sulphur. It is capable of dissolving about 67 per cent 
of sulphur at an ordinary temperature, and, like bisulphide of carbon, is extensively 
employed in vulcanizing india-rubber. The chloride of sulphur is formed by saturating 
the subchloride with chlorine. It is a deep-red liquid, resembling the previous com- 
pound in most of its properties. It is decomposed by the sun's rays into the subchloride 
and free chlorine. 

With regard to the history of sulphur and its compounds, it may be observed that 
sulphur seems to have been known from the earliest times, and that sulphuric acid was 
most probably known to the Arabians. The manufacture of English sulphuric acid 
dates, however, only from the 18th century. Sulphurous acid was first investigated 
by Stahl, Scheele, and Priestely; hyposulphuric acid was discovered by Welter and 
Gay-Lussac; hyposulphurous acid, by Gay-Lussac and Herschel; trithionic acid, by 
Langlois; tetrathionic acid, by Fordos and Gelis; and peutathionic acid, by Wacken- 
roder. Scheele was the first who accurately studied hydrosulphuric acid, or sulphur- 
eted hydrogen. 

Sulphur is used to a considerable extent and for very different purposes in medicine. 
It is given internally either as sublimed sulphur (flowers of sulphur) or as_ precipitated 
sulphur (milk of sulphur), in somewhat large doses, as a mild cathartic its purgative 
effects being due to its stimulating the muscular coat of the intestines. In consequence 
of its being both gentle and sure in its action, it is the best purgative to employ in cases 
of piles, or in stricture or other painful affections of the rectum. The only objection to 
its use is that, from its becoming partly converted in the system into sulphureted hy- 
drogen, the evacuations, and even the insensible perspiration, often become abominably 
fetid, and continue so for some time after the primary operation of the medicine. As a 
purgative, the dose is about two drams, made into ari electuary with treacle or honey. 
It is, however, generally combined with jalap and cream of tartar. 

The confection of sulphur of the Pharmacopoeia is composed of sulphur, cream of 
tartar, and syrup of orange-peel rubbed together the dose being from half an ounce to 
an ounce, or from one to two tablespoonfuls. In small doses, sulphur is of great value 
in cases of atonic gout and chronic rheumatism. An electuary known as the Chelsea 
pensioner, consisting of two ounces of sublimed sulphur, one ounce of powdered rhu- 
< barb, half an ounce of resin of guaiacum, one ounce of cream of tartar, half an ounce of 
ginger, and two drams of powdered nutmegs, with as much treacle as is necessary, ia 
doses of one or two teaspoonfuls night and morning, is a combination of great value in 
these cases. It originally gained its reputation by curing lord Amherst of rheumatism, 
and is still a favorite remedy at Chelsea hospital. Dr. Neligan states that steaming the 
lower bowel, by sitting over the vapor of warm water upon which a tablespoonful of 
flowers of sulphur had been sprinkled, constitutes a most valuable remedy in what 9 
popularly known as a "fit of the piles." The external use of sulphur in the form ctf 


ointment has been alreay noticed in the article ITCH. It is also used externally in many 
other cutaneous disorders, particularly in lepra and psoriasis; and in chronic cases, its 
application in the form of vapor is often of great service. 

STJLPHTJ'RIC ACID, or, more correctly, hydrated sulphuric acid (SO S ,HO), is the 
chemical name of the liquid commercially and popularly known as oil of vitriol.* It is 
a dense, colorless, oily liquid, without smell, of a spec. grav. of 1.846 at a temperature of 
60, and of an intensely acid taste and reaction. It has a powerful caustic action, and 
chars and destroys organic matters from its strong affinity for water; and in consequence 
of this destructive property, it must always be handled with the greatest caution. So 
powerful is this affinity, that if the acid be exposed for a few days to the air in a shallow 
dish, so as to present a large surface, it often doubles its weight by absorbing aqueous 
vapor from the air; and in consequence of its possessing this property it is extensively 
used in laboratory operations as a desiccating agent. It mixes completely with water in 
all proportions, and as great heat is given out at the moment of mixture, the dilution 
should be performed by very gradually adding the acid to the water. When cold the 
mixture occupies less bulk than the two components previously occupied. This acid 
freezes at a temperature of 15, and boils at 620 (or according to Marignac, at 640), 
and just above the boiling-point it assumes the form of a vapor, w r itha spec. grav. of 
2.15. Oil of vitriol, or the protohydrate, is not the only hydrate of sulphuric acid. 
Three others are known to exist. When the fuming oil of vitriol of Nordhausen is ex- 
posed to a low temperature, a white crystalline substance separates, which is a hydrate, 
containing half as much water as the common liquid acid. Its formula is 2SO 3 ,HO, or 
(SO 3 ) 2 HO. Its fusing point is 95. Then, again, a mixture of 49 parts of strong liquid 
acid and 9 parts of water (SO 3 ,2HO) freezes at 47, and crystallizes into splendid rhombic 
prisms, from which property it is often termed glacial sulphuric acid. It boils at 435, 
and its spec. grav. is 1.780. Lastly, when a very dilute acid is concentrated by evapora- 
tion in, vacua, at 212, till it ceases to lose weight, there will be a resulting compound, 
consisting of 40 parts of the real acid, and 27 of water, and represented by the formula, 
SO 3 ,3HO. It boils at 348, and its spec. grav. is 1. 602. There are thus no less than four 
hydrates of sulphuric acid viz. : (1) the dihydrate, 2SO 3 ,HO; (2) the ordinary protohy- 
drate, SO 3 ,HO; (3) the bihydride, SO 3 ,2HO; and (4) the terhydrate, SO 3 ,3HO. The 
compound formerly known as anhydrous sulphuric acid possesses none of the character- 
istic properties of an acid. See SULPHURIC ANHYDRIDE ; also CHEMISTRY. 

Sulphuric acid in its free state is a very rare natural product; although, in combina- 
tion with bases, it is common in the animal and vegetable, and abundant in the inor- 
ganic kingdom. The only cases in which it is known to occur free are certain Ameri- 
can rivers, especially the rio Vinagre, and some lakes in Tennessee and in Java; and 
it has been found to be a normal constituent of the saliva of dolium galia, a species of 
snail found in Sicily. In all these cases the acid is, of course, in an extremely diluted 
form. In plants it exists in the juices, and in animals in the blood and its derivates 
chiefly in the form of sulphates of the alkalies; while in the mineral kingdom it occurs 
as gypsum (sulphate of lime), heavy spar (sulphate of baryta), celestiue (sulphate of 
strontia), etc. 

Sulphuric acid may be prepared on a small scale by boiling sulphur in aqua regia, or 
in nitric acid, the sulphur becoming gradually oxidized into sulphuric acid. As a gen- 
eral rule, however, the commercial acid is employed even for laboratory experiments. 
See below. 

In order to obtain the acid in a pure form, suitable for medical use or medico-legal 
analyses, it must be redistilled with sulphate of ammonia in a retort containing a few 
slips of platinum foil, the first and last portions being rejected. The distillation is 
attended with violent concussions, partly owing to the high specific gravity of 
the acid, and partly owing to its high boiling-point, and this convulsive action 
is moderated mechanically by the platinum slips. Sulphuric acid thus pre- 
pared according to the direction of the British pharmacopoeia may be regarded as 
perfectly pure, presuming arsenic is not present. Strong sulphuric acid has compara- 
tively little action on the metals except at a high temperature, when it dissolves them, 
and, at the same time, undergoes partial decomposition ; the metal being oxidized by a 
portion of the acid which becomes decomposed into oxygen and sulphurous acid, and 
then uniting with a portion of undecomposed acid to form a sulphate. Silver, copper, 
mercury, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, tin, lead, and tellurium are thus acted on. Gold, 
platinum, rhodium, and iridium are not affected by the acid even at a boiling tempera- 
ture. The more oxidizable metals, such as zinc, iron, nickel, and manganese, are read- 
ily soluble in the dilute acid, water being decomposed, and hydrogen liberated, while 
the oxygen of the water unites witli the metal; and the metallic oxide, at the moment of 
its formation, combines with the sulphuric acid to form a sulphate. 

The sulphates or salts formed by the combination of sulphuric acid with a base 
are generally composed, as in the case of green vitriol (FeO, SO 3 -f- 7Aq), of 1 equivalent 
of acid and 1 of metallic oxide, with or without water of crystallization. With the alka- 
lies this acid also forms acid salts, as bisulphate of potash, and in a few cases copper, 

* It received this name from having been first produced by the distillation of green vitriol (sulphate 
of iron); Basil Valentine being usually credited with the discovery. See ALCHEMY. 


for example it forms basic salts. The insoluble sulphates, such as that of baryta, may 
be obtained by precipitating a soluble salt of the base by a soluble sulphate; thus, nitrate 
of baryta and sulphate of soda yield an insoluble sulphate of baryta and nitrate of soda, 
which remains in solution. The soluble sulphates may be prepared by dissolving the 
oxide or carbonate in dilute sulphuric acid, in those cases in which the metal itself is not 
readily attacked by the acid. Sulphuric acid and the soluble sulphates are easily 
detected by their yielding, with a solution of a baryta salt, a white precipitate of sul- 
phate of baryta insoluble in acids. 

This acid is employed in the arts and manufactures for a large number of purposes. 
Its use as a desiccating agent for laboratorj' purposes has been already noticed, and its 
application to the development of oxygen gas has been described in the article on that 
element. But its greatest consumption, doubtless, is in the preparation of the salt-cake, 
which is used in the manufacture of carbonate of soda (q.v.). 

In medicine a dilute sulphuric acid, formed by gradually mixing three fluid ounces of 
the strong purified acid with thirty -five fluid ounces of water, or aromatic sulphuric 
acid (known also as elixir of vitriol), prepared by mixing three ounces of sulphuric acid 
with a quart of rectified spirit, adding cinnamon and ginger, digesting for a week, and 
filtering, are almost always employed. In doses of from ten to thirty minims, properly- 
diluted, these preparations exert a strong astringent power, and are serviceable in all 
forms of passive hemorrhages, and in checking inordinate discharges when they arise 
from debility. In ordinary diarrhoea, and even in the premonitory diarrhoea of cholera, 
dilute sulphuric acid is of great use. In painter's colic it is given in order to convert 
any lead that is absorbed into an insoluble sulphate, which is inert. Sulphuric acid 
lemonade is also used as a prophylactic against the disease. As this acid exerts a dele- 
terious action on the teeth, it should be directed to suck it through a quill. In some 
cases it is prescribed not so much for its specific as for its solvent power ; with this 
object it is usually prescribed with quinia. The strong acid is used in surgery as a 
caustic. In cases of poisoning with this acid the most prominent features are, burning 
pain extending from the mouth to the stomach, intense pain in the bowels, vomiting, 
great prostration, coldness of the surface, and fetor of the breath. The mucous mem- 
brane of the parts injured by the acid is at first converted into a white slough, which 
soon becomes black, and the patient usually dies from exhaustion within twenty-four 
hours. The best antidotes are the alkaline bicarbonates, or carbonate of magnesia. If 
the primary symptoms be conquered the patient often dies subsequently from stricture 
of the oesophagus. 

Sulphuric Acid Manufacture. There are two distinct processes by which sulphuric 
acid is at present prepared on a large scale viz., by the distillation of green sulphate of 
iron the original process of Valentine; and by the "oxidation of sulphurous acid through 
the agency of nitrous acid and hyponitric acid. The first process is chiefly employed at 
Nordhausen, in Prussia, and is thus described by Fownes: "The sulphate of iron, 
derived from the oxidation of iron pyrites, is deprived by heat of the greater part of its 
water of crystallization, and subjected to a high heat in earthen retorts, to which receivers 
are added as soon as the acid begins to distill over. A part gets decomposed by the very 
high temperature; the remainder is driven off in vapor, which is condensed by the cold 
vessel containing a very small quantity of water or common sulphuric acid. The prod- 
uct is a brown oily'liquid of about 1.9 specific gravitj r , fuming in the air, and very 
corrosive. It is chiefly used for the purpose of dissolving indigo." 

The second method is that universally followed in Great Britain, the germs of which 
were likewise discovered by Valentine. He observed that when the fumes of burning 
sulphur were collected under a bell jar, slightly moistened with water, a small quantity 
of liquid was deposited. This liquid, which was simply sulphuric acid, on being con- 
centrated from its solution by boiling, was long sold as oil of sulphur per campanum at 
prices as high as 2s. 6d. per ounce. 

About the year 1740, the French chemists Lefevre and Lemery suggested that, by 
the use of niter along with the sulphur, the operation might be conducted in close ves- 
sels, and a much greater quantity of acid might be produced. This idea was acted on 
in England by a Dr. Ward, who established works at Twickenham and Richmond, con- 
ducting his manufacture by burning the mixed sulphur and niter in large stoppered 
glass receivers, into each of which a small quantity of water was first introduced. The 
substitution, by Dr. Roebuck of Birmingham, of lead chambers in place of glass vessels, 
may be regarded as essentially the establishment of the process of manufacture followed 
at the present day Dr. Roebuck established his first works at Prestonpans in 1749. 

The first stage in the manufacture of sulphuric acid is the preparation of sulphurous 
acid by the burning of sulphur or of iron pyrites. Previous to the year 183d, 
Sicilian sulphur was almost exclusively used in the manufacture, but in that year the 
very ill-advised establishment of a monopoly of the sulphur trade by the Sicilian gov- 
ernment, and its consequent increase in price, diverted the minds of manufacturers to 
the employment of iron pyrites (sulphuret of iron), the*use of which, as a source of sul- 
phurous acid, was already not unknown. The monopoly was quickly abolished, on the 
representations of the English government, but not until it was demonstrated that the 
world was independent of Sicily both for sulphuric acid and sulphur. Iron pyrites is 
now much more used than sulphur, and the only hindrance to its universal adoption 



is the presence of foreign matter in the pyrites, the most deleterious being arsenical 
compounds; and it has hitherto been found impracticable to free the sulphuric acid 
wholly from the arsenious acid which consequently accompanies it. This renders the 
acid prepared from pyrites inapplicable for many purposes. 

When sulphur is the material used for producing the sulphurous acid, it is burned 
in an oven or "burner" (A) of brick- work, having a sole or bottom of iron, termed the 
''burner-plate." Under this a small fire is at first lighted, which is allowed to go out 
after the sulphur has ignited. A little above the sulphur, a small pot, called the niter pot, 
n, is either placed on a stand or hung from the roof, filled with a quantity of either 
nitrate of soda or nitrate of potash, with sulphuric acid sufficient for its decomposition 
8 or 10 Ibs. of the niter, with 5 or 6 Ibs. of sulphuric acid, being allowed for every 
cwt. of sulphur. The decomposition of the niter by the action of heated sulphuric acid 
furnishes nitric acid fumes, which go over into the chamber along with the sulphurous 
acid. The sulphurous readily abstracts from the nitric acid the additional equivalent 
of oxygen required for its conversion into sulphuric acid, reducing the nitrous com- 
pound from nitric acid, N0 5 , to nitrous oxide, NO 2 ; the reaction being thus: 3SO 2 -j- 
_NO 5 = 3SO 3 -f- NO 2 . Nitrous oxide in its turn quickly converts itself into nitrous acid, 
NO 4 , by the abstraction of two additional equivalents of oxygen from the air that is 
constantly entering the chamber through the burners. Again, in the presence of moist- 
ure, which is supplied by a jet of steam from the boiler C, sulphurous acid readily 
deprives the nitrous acid of two equivalents of oxygen, and thus forms two more 
-volumes of sulphuric acid, and again liberates nitrous oxide; which is ready once more 
to seize upon the oxygen of the air, and would continue so acting and reacting ad infini- 

Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid: 

A. sulphur-burner, or furnace; B, lead chamber, shown in section at B'; C, steam boiler; D, leaden 
pan; E, coke tower; S, steam-pipe; n, niter pot. 

turn, were it not carried forward and out by the chimney provided for the escape of the 
freed nitrogen. 

The chamber is an immense box or room of lead, bound together with a strong frame- 
work of timber, and generally raised on arches several feet above the ground. Cham- 
bers vary in size from 60 to 140 ft. in length, and from 20 to 40 ft. in width and height. 
Curtains of lead proceeding alternately from the bottom to near the top, and vice versa, 
are very frequently used; they serve to retard the progress of the gases, and thus insure 
the transformations desired. The floor of the chamber is covered with water, into which 
the sulphuric acid falls as it is formed: and when this solution attains a certain strength, 
it is tapped off for concentration. When the gases reach the chimney, on account of 
the reactions of the nitrous compounds already explained, a large amount of nitrous 
acid would not only be wasted, but would also be deleterious to the neighborhood, were 
steps for its recovery not adopted. This recovery is usually effected by means of a 
tower filled with coke, E, down which a constant stream of strong sulphuric acid trickles, 
the acid absorbing the nitrous fumes in their way upward. Instead of a single chamber, 
curtained off or not as the case may be, sometimes three or five distinct chambers, con- 
nected by pipes, are employed, those communicating directly with the burners being 
termed working chambers, and the others receiving chambers, the last either acting as 
or communicating with a condenser or chimney. In France and Germany, the appa- 
ratus employed is generally of a more complicated nature, but in principle the operations 
are identical. 

When iron pyrites is used as the source of sulphurous acid, a furnace somewhat on 
the principle of the ordinary lime-kiln is required. The pyrites is broken into pieces 
like nuts, washed, and spread in layers on plates heated to redness, and frequently 
stirred; or a quantity of coke is introduced with the first charge; and the heat evolved 
by the burning sulphur is thereafter sufficient fuel for the fresh charges. The exhausted 
we is frequently sufficiently rich in copper for its extraction ; indeed, when there is not 

>7 1 Sulphuric. 


more than 2-| per cent of that 'metal present in pyrites, it is now recovered, and this has 
led to the establishment of copper smelting works in connection with great chemical 
works near Newcastle and Manchester. The use of pyrites necessitates a chamber of 
comparatively larger size fbr the production of a given amount than is required when 
sulphur is used. The increased labor, with the greater quantity of niter wasted, aud 
other circumstances, tend to make the cost of acid from both sources nearly equal. 

In consequence of strong sulphuric acid absorbing both sulphurous acid and nitrous 
acid, the acid requires to be drained off from the chamber while the solution is compara- 
tively weak, at which strength, viz., of a specific gravity of about 1.4, it is used for 
some purposes in the arts, under the name of "chamber acid." This is concen- 
trated by evaporating, in lead pans, D, till it reaches the specific gravity of 1.6, 
then boiling in a platinum retort, on which strong acid does not act, even at high 
heat, or in large flint-glass retorts. Platinum retorts are extremely expensive; one 
to hold 30 gallons costing nearly 900. Large glass retorts which were used before 
the introduction of the platinum retorts, are again coming into favor with manufac- 
turers. The only objection to their use is the great expense arising from frequent 
breakages, and consequent loss of both acid and retort. 

The manufacture of sulphuric acid is a very extensive industry; immense quantities 
of it being consumed in the manufacture of soda, in that of bleaching-powder, in calico 
printing and dyeing, and, in fact, in most chemical operations both in the manufactory 
and the laboratory. In South Lancashire alone upward of 700 tons of concentrated, 
acid are produced weekly. A process of purification is required for the acid in several 
of its minor applications ; but for general purposes, it is sufficiently pure as supplied by 
the works. 

commonly represented by the formula SO 3 , but there are good reasons for believing that 
the formula should be doubled or, in other words, that it is a compound of two atoms 
of sulphur with six of oxygen. It is a colorless crystalline solid, which is tough and 
ductile, and can be molded in the fingers like wax without injuring the skin. It lique- 
fies at 65, and boils at about 112, forming a transparent vapor if hot water be present. 
It unites with moisture when exposed to the air, and gives off dense white fumes. 
When thrown into water, the heat emitted is so great that it hisses as red-hot iron would 
do; and the solution has all the properties of ordinary sulphuric acid. It may be 
obtained by the distillation of fuming Nordhausen acid, when white fumes pass over 
in the cooled receiver, and solidify into a white silky-looking fibrous mass. It may be 
also obtained by the distillation of acid sulphate of soda (NaO,HO,2SO 3 ), after it has 
been deprived of its atom of water. It combines with sulphur, iodine, and hydrochloric 
acid : but both it and its compounds are of chemical interest rather than practical value. 

SULPHURIC ETHER is a term commonly but improperly applied to ethylic, vinic, or 
ordinary ether (q. v. ) True sulphuric ether, known also as sulphate of ethyl (2C 4 H & O, SjO), 
is an oily liquid, of burning taste and ethereal odor, resembling that of peppermint, of 
specific gravity 1.120 (while that of ordinary pure ether is 0.720), and almost incapable 
of being distilled without decomposition, as at a temperature of about 280 it resolves 
into alcohol, sulphurous acid, and olefiant gas. 

In the article ETHER, reference is made to the anaesthetic properties of that com- 
pound. Dr. Richardson has discovered that local insensibility may be readily induced 
by the application to the skin of the finely divided spray of perfectly pure rectified ether 
01 specific gravity 0.723. The skin blanches in from half a minute to two minutes; and 
by following the knife with the spray, more than merely superficial incisions may be 
rendered painless. It has been successfully employed in amputations of fingers and toes, 
removal of tumors, opening of abscesses, removal of teeth, etc. 

SULPHUROUS ACID some years ago became one of the most popular articles in our 
pharmacopoeia. This sudden popularity was mainly due to the researches of a Scottish 
provincial physician, Dr. Dewar, of Kirkcaldy,who, from beginning his experiments oil 
cattle, during the period of the cattle plague of 1866, extended them to other animals and 
to man, and obtained remarkable satisfactory results (see Medical Times and Gazette for 
1867, vol. i., pp. 492, 548). There is, of course, nothing new in apptying sulphur- 
fumes which in reality are composed of sulphurous acid gas as a disinfectant. 
The classical scholar will recollect that Ulysses employed them to remove the unpleasant 
unell arising from the dead bodies of Penelope's murdered lovers. "Bring brimstone, 
the relief of evils," he exclaims, "and bring me fire that I may sulphurize the house." 
Horn. Od. xx. 481, 482. It is also recorded by Ovid (Fasti, iv. 735) and other writers 
lhat the shepherds of Italy yearly purified their flocks and herds with "the blue smoke 
of burning sulphur." Professor Graham's remark, that of gaseous disinfectants, sul- 
phurous acid (obtained by burning sulphur) is preferable on theoretical grounds^to 
chlorine, and that no agent checks so effectually the first development of animal and 
vegetable life, may be said to contain all that was known with regard to the medicinal 
value of this gas, till Mr. Dewar began his investigations. In his experiments in con- 
nection with the cattle-plague he found that the most safe and convenient apparatus 
consists of a chafer two-thirds full of red cinders, a crucible inserted in the cinders, aud 

Bulpieians. -.) 

Sumach. ' -* 

a piece of sulphur-stick. A piece of sulphur as large as a man's thumb will burn for 
nearly twenty minutes, and will suffice for a cowhouse containing six animals; and it 
appears undoubted that if there be due ventilation, this process may be performed four 
times a day for at least four months with positive advantage to the animals. When this 
system had been efficiently carried out and it has been largely tried by his friends no 
case of illness, not to say of death, occurred. In Mr. Crookes's report On the Applica- 
tion of Disinfectants in arresting tJie Spread of the Cattle-plague, that able chemist observed 
that " the value of sulphurous acid in arresting the progress of the cattle-plague has been 
proved beyond a doubt by the experiments of Dr. Dewar, and my own results entirely 
confirm his." His experiments in relation to the cattle-plague led Dr. Dewar to the fur- 
ther discovery of the value of sulphur fumigation in other departments of veterinary 
medicine. Peripueumonia, ringworm, mange, are among the diseases which rapidly 
disappear under its influence; and in the sudden undefined illnesses know in Scotland 
as "drows" and "towts," to which most of our domestic animals are liable, sulphurous 
fumigation, if applied at the outset, rarely fails to cut short the attack. 

Ill medical practice there are three different forms, independently of the sulphites, 
in which sulphurous acid may be employed viz. ; (1) As the sulphurous acid of the Brit- 
ish Pharmacopoeia, which contains 9.2 per cent by weight, or about twenty times the 
volume of sulphurous acid gas dissolved in water; (2) in the form of spray, which es- 
capes from the preceding compound under the action of an apparatus called a spray- 
producer; and (3) as a gas evolved by sprinkling at intervals small quantities of "flowers 
of sulphur" on red-hot cinders placed on a common shovel, resting on a stool in the mid- 
dle of the room, or by burning bisulphide of carbon (Lancet for 1876, vol. ii. pp. 712, 
811). A mixture of equal parts of sulphurous acid and water has been recommended in 
all cases of " breaches of the skin," as primary wounds (whether resulting from injuries 
or surgical operations), in ulcers, burns, bed-sores, chapped hands, chilblains, saddle- 
sores (whether of man or beast), sore nipples, and in cases of bruises, such as black eye, 
etc. Moreover, in erysipelas, its soothing properties, if diluted with two or three parts 
of water, are very striking. According to Dr. Dewar, the feverish irritability of young 
children is speedily relieved by dropping from time to time a few minims (5 to 30, ac- 
cording to age) of the acid on a few folds of muslin fastened on the breast: here, how- 
ever, the action is not local, but is due to the evolution of the gas which is inhaled. 
Amongst the cases in which the acid is serviceable when applied in the form of spray 
or inhaled as gas, are asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, croup, diphtheria, facial neuralgia, 
laryngeal affections, phthisis (at all events as a palliative), scarlatina, and typhoid. Dr. 
Dewar ascribes the healing action of sulphurous acid to its power of destroying fungi. 
That the acid has this power, we freely admit, but we cannot so readily admit the cor- 
rectness of his view that all the diseases in which he has found it serviceable (including 
piles and chilblains) are dependent on fungous growths. Dr. Dewar reports a case of 
severe sciatica, in which immediate and perfect relief was afforded by the injection of an 
ounce of sulphurous acid in a breakfast-cupful of gruel into the rectum. There is one 
affection of this class, to which Dr. Dewar does not refer, in which it has been pre- 
scribed with advantage viz., the form of gastric disorder in which sarcina ventriculi 
(q.v.) occurs in the vomited matter, the dose being half a dram, largely diluted with 

None of the sulphites or hyposulphites have as yet been introduced into the Pharma- 
copoeia. We notice them here because their action is supposed to depend upon the libera- 
tion of sulphurous or hypo-sulphurous acid when the salt comes in contact with the acid 
juices of the stomach. It is mainly to Dr. Polli that we are indebted for the introduc- 
tion of the sulphites and hyposulphites of the alkalies and alkaline earths (soda, potash, 
and magnesia) into medicine. From the year 1857 to the present time he has devoted 
almost all his time to the study of these agents. His labors are briefly summed up as 
follows by Dr. Sanson in an excellent memoir on " The Germs of Cholera, and the Means 
of their Destruction," published Jan. 22, 1868, in the Medical Press and Circular: " It 
was found that animals could, without any apparent ill effects, swallow and absorb large 
doses of the sulphites. It was then observed that when the animals were killed, they 
long resisted the putrefactive process. Another series of experiments and in this 
series 300 dogs were the basis of the deductions showed that the sulphites exerted a pro- 
phylactic and curative power when septic poisons were introduced into the economy. 
Then, as regards the human subject, it was found that the stomach would tolerate large 
doses of the sulphites of soda or magnesia. They were tried in the various eruptive 
fevers, intermittent, diphtheria, typhus, typhoid, cholera, and choleraic diarrhea, 
pyaemia, puerperal fever, dissection wounds, malarial infection, etc. The records of 
cases treated in this way show an extraordinary amount of success. " In a paper published 
by Dr. Polli himself in The British Medical Journal for Nov. 16, 1867, he states that since 
the promulgation, in 1861, of his views regarding the therapeutic value of the sulphites, no 
less than 158 papers on the subject have appeared; and with the exception of five or six 
containing certain criticisms on his Tabors, "all the remainder confirm, in the strongest 
terms, by many hundreds of detailed observations, the value of these remedies." A 
ecruple of the salt dissolved in a wine-glassful of water flavored with tincture of orange- 
peel is the average dose, and it should be taken every four hours; and in some cases, 
as in typhoid, a grain of quinine may be advantageously added to each dose. M. d 

*7 Q Sulpiciana. 


Ricci (Dublin Quarterly Journal, Nov., 1866) prefers the sulphite of magnesia on the 
grounds that it is less unpalatable, and contains a larger proportional quantity of acid, 
than the soda salt. He predicts (and Dr. Sanson and other physicians of repute agree 
with him) that eventually the treatment of zymotic diseases by the administration of the 
sulphites will be as fully recognized as that of ague by cinchona. 

In consequence of the powerful antiseptic properties of sulphurous acid, either in the 
form of gas or gaseous solution in water, and of the sulphites, these substances have 
been employed for the purpose of preserving meat from putrefaction. A joint of meat 
or a fowl submitted to a daily sulphur fumigation may be kept tit for use for many 
weeks. The bisulphite of lime has been found to be the most applicable of the various 
compounds of this class as a preservative ; and Messrs. Medlock and Bailey have pat- 
ented a method of preserving meat by means of a preparation of this salt. In hot 
weather a few drops of a strong solution of this salt will serve to keep fresh a pint of 
soup, jelly, milk, etc. Dr. Dewar patented a method of preserving meats by sulphurous 
acid, or some of its compounds; but as yet the process has not come into extensive use. 

SULPI'CIANS, a society of priests formed in 1641 by Jean Jacques Olier for the 
purpose of educating priests, and deriving its name from the parish of St. Sulpice in. 
Paris, of which he was pastor a year later. When their number had increased, a part 
assisted the pastor, and others took charge of a seminary. The priests of this society 
have conducted seminaries in France and some in America. Their institutions in France 
were suspended in the revolution, but in 1816 restored. Some of their members, as Olier, 
J. A. Emery, and Carriere have been distinguished as theologians. 

STILT AN, or SULTAUN, an Arabic word, signifying "mighty man," and evidently 
closely connected with the Hebrew word slialal, to rule, is in the east an ordinary title 
of Mohammedan princes, and also used in private life as a title of courtesy for people of 
high rank. It is given, par excellence, to the ruler of Turkey, who assumes the title sul- 
tan-es-selatin, or sultan of sultans. It is also applied to his mother and daughters; the 
word in Turkish having no grammatical gender, and corresponding also to our princess. 
The wife of the sultan is not now entitled^ to the epithet sultan or sultana. 

SULTT ISLANDS, an archipelago of above 60 islands in the Mindoro sea, between the 
Philippines and Borneo (q.v.). Cagayan Sulu, the chief of the islands, 36 m. long and. 
12 broad, contains the town of Soong, the residence of the sultan of the group. See 

STTMACH, Rhus, a genus of small trees and shrubs, of the natural order anacardiacece; 
having small inconspicuous flowers in panicles or in corymbs; a 5-parted calyx, 5 petals, 
springing from beneath a large orbicular disk; 5 stamens; a 1-celled germen with 3 stig- 
mas; the fruit a small, nearly dry drupe, with bony putamen. The species are numer- 
ous, diffused over almost all parts of the world, except its coldest regions and Australia; 
and some of them, on account of peculiar principles which they contain, are of impor- 
tance in the arts and in medicine; some are remarkable for their poisonous properties. 
VENETIAN SUMACH (B. cotinus), known also as wig sumach or wig tree, is a native of 
the s. of Europe and w. of Asia, and is often planted in Britain as an ornamental shrub. 
It has simple leaves, and hairy corymbs of fruit, which have a sort of resemblance to 
periwigs. The wood dyes yellow; and, with the addition of other substances, green 
and brown, and is known in trade by the name of young fustic. It is largely imported 
into Britain. The bark is sometimes used as a substitute for Peruvian bark. The leaves 
are astringent, and are used for dyeing Turkey red. The root is also used in dyeing, 
and the w-hole plant is used in Italy for tanning, and is there called scotino. The seed 
resembles the almond in flavor. The very acid fruit of the ELM-LEAVED SUMACH (B. 
coriaria) a native of the countries around the Mediterranean, with pinnate leaves, not 
unfrequent in British shrubberies has been used from the earliest times, as it still is by 
the Turks and Persians, as a condiment with different kinds of food. Both the seeds 
and the leaves are used medicinally, in the s. of Europe and the e. as tonic and cooling. 
This species is also extensively used for tanning, particularly in Turkey and in Spain. 
The leaves and twigs are used for dyeing black, the roots and fruit for dyeing red, and 
the bark for dyeing yellow. Similar to "this in its properties and uses is the VIRGINIAN 
SUMACH, or STAG'S-HORN SUMACH (R. typhina), a native of almost all parts of North 
America, and common in British shrubberies, which has the branches curiously crooked, 
and covered, when young, with a soft velvety down. It has pinnate leaves, withriumer- 
ous leaflets. The SMOOTH-LEAVED SUMACH (R. glabra), a very similar species, also North ; 
American, has very acid leaves, which are eaten by children, and are used in domestic ; 
economy and in medicine on account of the malic acid which they contain. The bloom ' 
of the fruit is also very acid. This species is sometimes troublesome in North America, 
overrunning ground as a weed. Of the acrid and poisonous species, the most important 
is the POISON OAK (R. toxicodendron') of North America, a shrub from 1 to 3 ft. high, 
with leaves of 3 leaflets, and a milky juice, which becomes black on exposure to air. 
The leaves are used in medicine in cases of paralysis, amaurosis, and other nervous 
affections, as a stimulant of the nervous system, also in chronic rheumatism and obsti- 
nate eruptions; but are efficacious only when fresh, as the poisonous substance is vola- 
tile. Similar to this in properties are the POISON IVY, or POISON VINE (R. radicans), the 
POISON ALDER, POISON SUMACH, or SWAMP SUMACH (R. venenata), also known as dog- 

Sumatra. >7 I 


wood, and other North American species, the juice of which is very acrid, and even the 
emanations are injurious to some persons, who from remaining a short time near these 
plants, or from handling them, experience swelling of the whole body, with subsequent 
inflammation of the skin, pustules, and violent itching, while it is remarkable that others 
appear quite unsusceptible of their influence. The VARNISH SUMACH or JAPAN VAR- 
NISH TREE (R. vernicifera), a native of Japan and Nepaul, yields a varnish much used in 
Japan for lacquer- work. This varnish is the juice which flows from wounds in the tree, 
and which becomes thick and black by exposure to the air, but is still so transparent 
that the finest veins of wood varnished with it may be seen through it. It is sometimes 
mixed with coloring matters, sometimes with gold-leaf finely ground. The expressed 
oil of the seeds becomes as hard as tallow, and is used for candles. 

The name TANNERS' SUMACH is given to cariaria myrtifolia, a shrub of the s. of 
Europe, of the natural order ochnacew. The leaves are astringent, and are used for tan- 
ning, and for dyeing black. 

STTMAT'BA (called by the Arabians Srimat or Srimata, " the happy," whence its 
present name), the most westerly of the Sunda islands, lies s. of the Malay peninsula, 
from which it is separated by the strait of Malacca. Lat. between 5 45' u. and 5 50' south. 
It is 1040 m. long and 266 m. in extreme breadth; area, 168,000 sq.m. ; pop. including 
that of the adjacent isles, 5,000,000, about two-thirds of whom are directly or indirectly 
under Netherlands rule. The Europeans in 1873 numbered 2,654, not including the 
army in Atcheen. 

Physical Features. The Barisan mountains run throughout its entire length, varying 
in altitude from 1550 ft. in the s.w. to 6,000 under the equator. Lofty cones, of which 
about 20 are volcanoes, attain to from 6,000 to upward of 10,000 feet. Another series of 
mountains runs parallel with the Barisan, lofty plateaux of great extent linking them 
together at various points. On the w. coast, a few m. of low land lie between the moun- 
tains and the sea, in some parts spurs reaching the shore in beetling cliffs. Wide alluvial 
plains, covered with dense jungle and forest, through which the rivers run sluggishly, 
forming deltas at their mouths, stretch along the n.e. coast; while the tidal action is eat- 
ing into the w. coast, new ground is forming on the east. 

Extensive valleys He between the mountain chains. Several beautiful lakes are scat- 
tered over the interior. The largest is lake Singkarah or Samawang, in upper Padaug, 
17 m. long and 6 broad. It is 1167 ft. above the sea, and discharges its waters by the 
Ombilin, which flowing toward the e. coast, becomes the Indragiri. 

The mountain systems are of trachyte, granite, limestone, red sandstone, and a wide- 
spread conglomerate composed of granitic and quartzose particles, the hollows in many 
places being filled with lava. Sienite, porphyry, serpentine, jasper, basalt, and 
tufa occur. Tertiary deposits are found in the valleys, and in some parts of the 
coasts a rich vegetable mold rests on beds of red and gray clay, or on coralline lime- 
stone. Potter's clays are met with, and gold is widely diffused. Coal, iron-ore, copper, 
sulphur, lead, silver, saltpeter, alum, naptha, etc., abound. 

Rivers. Sumatra has many rivers, the most important being the Tulang-Bawang; 
the Mflsi, or river of Palembang; the Djambi, Indragiri, and Siak, on the e. ; the Sing- 
kel, Tabujong, Indrapnra, Moko-Moko, Bencoolen, and Padang Gutjie on the west. 
The capes and bays are numerous, the bay of Tapanoli being capable of containing a 
large fleet. A chain of islands lies parallel to Sumatra in the Indian sea. The most 
important are Babi or Si Malu, Nias (q.v.), the Bata islands, North Pora, Coco island, 
South Pora, North Pagei, and South Pagei. To the s.e. lies Banca, rich in tin, produ- 
cing also iron, lead, silver, copper, arsenic, and amber. 

Climate. The climate of Sumatra is moderately healthy, especially on the e. coast. 
In Tapanuli, however, are large marshes, inducing intermittent and typhoidal fevers, 
dysentery, and other diseases. A slight increase of temperature takes place from 
October to March, the minimum being in Ma}'. Except in the highlands of the interior, 
where it is cool, the thermometer ranges from 70 Fahr., at sunrise, to 94 = at 2 P.M. The 
monsoons are irregular, and rain falls during all tae months, though the quantity in 
October and December is double that in February and June. 

Flora. Sumatra has many fine species of timber trees as the djati (tectona grandis), 
the maris, a hard and heavy wood, ebony, iron-wood, etc. The magnificent dryoba- 
lanops camphora, and other resin- producing trees, are abundant. Several species of fi;;, 
the urceola elastica, from whicb caoutchouc is obtained, and the gutta-percha tree 
(isonandra gutta), ase numerous. In the villages the bombax, or silk-cotton tree, forms 
a shady resting-place at neon. The lovely cinnamomum ca.ssia, the melalenca, leucaden- 
dron, which yields the medicinal cajeput oil, the satin-wood (chloroxylon swietenia), the 
gigantic reed (calamus draco), from the ripe fruit of which the dragon-blood gum exudes, 
and a great variety of palms, form part of the botanical wealth of the island. Flowering 
plants and shrubs are numerous, and countless, parasites garland the forest trees with 
flowers of every hue. The most curious of these is the rafflesia (q.v.), which, clinging 
to the bark of large trees, spreads out the largest known flower, with a calyx 3 ft. in 
diameter and 9 in. deep, and capable of containing 2 gallons of fluid. 

The fruits are richer in flavor than those of Java. Among these are the guava, 
citron, oranges, lemon, durian, mamro. bread-fruit, cocoa-nut, pomegranate. w.a>-ar. 

*7 X Sumatra. 


melons, pine-apples, and the highly-prized mangosteen, or berry of garcinia mangostana. 
Cacao, cotton, maize, indigo, tobacco, gambier, and more especially rice, millet, pepper, 
and coffee, are cultivated. 

Fauna. The elephant, single and double horned rhinoceros, tiger, leopard, black 
bear, and tiger-cat, wild-swine, tapirs, antelopes, deer, monkeys (including the ourang- 
outang), ant-eaters, many kinds of bat, etc., abound. Buffaloes, cows, goats, horses, 
sheep, and swine are kept by the natives. The peacock and the pheasants of Sumatra 
are of rare beauty. Hippopotami and crocodiles frequent the rivers, which have many 
kinds of fish, including a species of salmon. 

Geographical and Political Divisions. The kingdom of Acheen extends from the 
n.w. point to 98 16' e. long., and on the e. coast at Tamiang, to 4 22' n. lat., on the w. 
to 2 23' n. lat,; area, 18,900 sq.m.; pop. about 400,000. The Dutch troops now have 
a strong position in the country, and will probably subdue the whole. It is well culti- 
vated, and produces much pepper. Singkel, Tapanuli, and Lower Padang, adminis- 
tratively under the presidency of Padang, lie in succession to the s.e. of Acheen. 
Bencoolen stretches along the w. coast from 101 to 104 40' e. long. ; and the extreme s. 
and the e. coast, between 4 4' and 5 56' s. lat., form the Lampong districts. North of these 
is the residency of Palembang, with the kingdom of Djambi, ruled over by a native 
prince under Dutch control Further n. are Indragiri, Karnpar, and Siak, governed as 
Djambi. Between Siak and Acheen are many petty states. 

People. The natives are chiefly Malays who profess Mohammedanism. In appear- 
ance, manners, and customs, however, the inhabitants of Acheen and the Lampongs 
differ widely from those of other parts. The Acheenese are tall, well-made, active, and 
intelligent, but cunning, proud, treacherous, and blood-thirsty. They live simply, but 
are slaves to opium. The Lampongers are of middle stature, well-formed, of pleasant 
exterior, mild, but uncivilized and lazy. Caste prevails, and they follow the usages of 
their fathers, Mohammedanism being imperfectly known and practiced. Polygamy 
obtains, the wives being bought from their relatives. The houses are on posts of iron- 
wood, several families living under the same roof. In other parts of Sumatra the usual 
Malay type is found. The Kubus, in the n.w. of Palembang. are probably the remains 
of the aborigines, a harmless race who live chiefly by the chase and fishing. Theft and 
murder are scarcely known among them. They believe in an after spirit-life. 

Trade and Produce. The imports and exports of the independent and half-inde- 
pendent kingdoms cannot be ascertained. Acheen alone produces 8,000 tons of pepper 
annually, and also exports gold, precious stones, cotton, raw silk, sapan wood, benzoin, 
camphor, sulphur, betel, etc., to the w. of India by way of Pi;lu, Penang, and Singa- 
pore, receiving in return manufactured goods, salt, opium, etc. On the s.w. coast, 
Bencoolen, the Lampongs, and Palembang, the imports have an annual value of about 
750,000; the exports to 850,000. Java has nearly half the trade, Europe and eastern 
countries the remainder. Imports rice, cotton, and other textile fabrics, etc. ; exports 
benzoin, gum elastic, resin, pepper, rattans, cotton, coffee, drugs, ivory, dye-stuffs, 
edible nests, wax. tobacco, b^che-de-mer, etc. The rice-culture is extensive, the w. 
coast producing as much as 320,000 tons in a single year. The coffee yield varies from 
5,500 tons to nearly twice as much. Upper Padang sends the largest quantity of coffee 
and rice, with much cocoa-nut oil, to market. 

History. Marco Polo visited Sumatra in the 13th c., Alvaro Talezo in 1506, and 
Siquera in 1509, the Portuguese then entering into trading relations with the natives. 
About 90 years later the Dutch under Houtman reached the island, and on a second 
vssit he was treacherously murdered at Acheen. In 1601 two ships from Zealand, with 
the Netherlands commissioners, gen. De Roi and Laurens Bikker, arrived; were 
favorably received by the king, obtained a full cargo, and returned with two Acheenese 
ambassadors. Later, the Dutch drove the Portuguese from their factory at Pulu Tjinko, 
to the s. of Padang; and in 1666 the latter place became the seat of the Netherlands 
power on the w. coast. In 1795 Padang was taken by the British, and retained till 1819. 
A few years after, Bencoolen was also given up to the Dutch, and the southern division 
of the island soon fell under the same rule. Various rebellions against the Netherlands 
dominion have since arisen, with the uniform result of extending the power of the 
Dutch toward the interior and the north. In 1865 an expedition was sent to force the 
king of Asahan, a small state on the n.e. coast, to submit to their authority, and since 
1872 they have been waging war against Acheen. See Flora van Nederlandsch Indie, 
door F. A. W. Miquel (Amst. and Leip. 1855); Bfjdragen tot de Geologische en Mineral- 
oginclie kennis van Ned. Indie, in het Natuurk. Tijdschr. v. N. I. passim. 

SUMBA'WA, one of the chain of islands to the e. of Java, lies between 8 4' and 9 2' s. 
lit., and 116 50' to 119 15' e. long., is now divided into the kingdoms of Sumbawa, 
Bima, Dompo, and Sangar, each governed by its own sovereign. Area, 5,838 sq. miles. 
Pop. nearly 100,000. The island is mountainous, but except the volcano Tamb'ora, which 
is 9,522 ft., the elevation does not exceed 5,660. The most valuable timber-tree is the 
djati (tectona grandis, or Indian teak), and the tamarind is so abundant as to be little 
valued. Rice is extensively grown. Sapan- wood is contracted for with the princes, by 
the Netherlands colonial government. 

The natives of Sumbawa belong to the Malay race, but speak three different laa- 

Sumbnl. /r f> 


guages. They are inoffensive and industrious, murder, robbery, and theft being almost 
unknown. Many of them are Mohammedan, but the mountaineers are chiefly heathen, 
with an idea of a supreme being. Ancient relics recently found in Bima, indicate that 
they were formerly professors of Hinduism. 

In 1815 an eruption of Tambora depopulated the kingdoms of Tambora and Papekat, 
12,000 lives being lost, and great damage done to the whole island by the ashes. 
Another took place in 1836, and one of Gunong Api, in Bima, in 1860, but with little 

SUM BUL (see MUSK PLANT) has been extensively employed for some years past, both 
in this country and in America, in the treatment of epilepsy, hysteria," and other dis- 
eases of the nervous system. It has a musk-like odor, and an aromatic and somewhat 
bitter taste. It may be given in the form of infusion, tincture, or resin. 

SUMMARY DILIGENCE, in the practice of the law of Scotland, means issuing execu- 
tion without the formality of an action, as a creditor enforcing payment of a bill of ex- 
change or of a bond. 

SUMMER, a horizontal beam, called also breast summer. 

SUMMER DUCK, or WOOD DUCK, Dendronessa fsponsa, or aix sponsa, a very beautiful 
species of duck, of the section having the hind-toe destitute of membrane, a native of 
North America. It is found during the breeding season in almost all parts of the United 
States, and as far n. as Nova Scotia, migrating southward in winter, when it abounds 
in Texas and Mexico, but some remain during winter even in Massachusetts. It has 
been found capable of domestication. Very similar to it is the MANDARIN DUCK (dendro- 
nessa or aix galericulata), a Chinese species. Both of these species have the power of 
perching on trees. The summer duck makes its nest in the hollow of a tree. 

SUMMERFIELD, JOHN, 1798-1825; b. England; educated at theFairfield Moravian 
seminary ; was a clerk at 14 in a mercantile house in Liverpool, and fell into bad habits ; 
went with the family to Dublin in 1813; joined the Wesleyans; became a preacher in 
the Irish conference, 1818; preached with eloquence and success in Ireland and England; 
came to America with his father, 1820, and joined the New York conference. In New 
York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, his remarkable eloquence drew im- 
mense crowds from all denominations, classes, and professions. His health failing under 
his excessive labors he sailed for France in 1822; represented in Paris the American 
Bible society to the French Protestant Bible society ; spent some tune in England ; re- 
turned to New York, 1824, and continued to travel and preach, though in feeble health. 
He aided in forming the American tract society. His Sermons and Sketches of Sermont 
were published, with a biography by John Holland. 

SUMMER ISLANDS, a small archipelago of islets off the w. coast of Scotland, near the 
entrance of loch Broom, an inlet in the n.w. of the county of Ross. The islets are about 
20 in number; and the largest of them, Tanera, 2 m. long, and 1 m. broad, has a pop. 
'71, of 114. 

SUMMERS, a co. in s. West Virginia, drained by the Greenbrier and Kanawha 
rivers and traversed by the Chesapeake and Ohio railroad; formed a few years ago from 
Nicholas co. ; pop. '80, 8,8328,765 of American birth, 693 colored. The surface is 
rough and hilly, fertile only in the bottom lands; corn, wheat, and cattle are the staples. 
Co. seat, Hinton. 

SUMMERS, THOMAS OSMOND, D.D., LL.D., b. England. 1812; came to America, 1830; 
joined the Methodist Episcopal church, 1832; received into the Baltimore conference, 
1835; missionary to the republic of Texas, 1840, and was one of the nine preachers who 
formed the first Texas conference; became a member of the Alabama conference, 1844; 
was secretary of the conference at Louisville, Ky., where the Methodist Episcopal church, 
South, was organized. He has published A Treatise on Baptism; A Treatise on Holiness; 
Sunday-school Teacher, or the Catechetical Office; Seasons, Months, and Days; Talks 
Pleasant and Profitable; The Golfan Censer; Scripture Cathechism, 2 vols. ; Questions on 
Genesis; Refutation of the Theological Works of Thomas Paine. He was appointed in 
1846 assistant editor of The Southern Christian Advocate; edited The Sunday-school Visi- 
tor for seven years, and The Quarterly Review of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
South, in 1858; was chairman of the committee appointed to prepare the new hymn book, 
and has edited nearly all the publications of the Southern Methodist church. 

SUMMIT, a co. in n.w. Colorado, bordering on Utah, crossed by the Rocky mountains; 
8,500 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 5,459. There are large deposits of gold, iron, coal, lead, copper, 
and zinc. Co. seat, Breckinridge. 

SUMMIT, a co. in n.e. Ohio, drained by the head-waters of Tuscarawas river and the 
Cuyahoga; 420 sq.m.; pop. '80, 43,78836,724 of American birth, 377 colored. It is 
intersected by the Ohio canal, here at its highest elevation, and by the Atlantic and Great 
Western, the Cleveland and Pittsburg, and the Cleveland, Mt. Vernon and Columbus 
railroads. Its surface is hilly, diversified by lakes, and contains the long narrow valley 
of the Cuyahoga, 300ft. deep. The streams furnish extensive water-power; there is a 

S3od supply of timber; rich coal beds are mined; there are sandstone, and fire clay, 
arge numbers of sheep and other .stock are raised, and the soil produces grain, and 

17/7 Sumbui. 


dairy products. The manufactures are important, embracing carriages, cooperage, lum- 
ber, leather, cutlery, and edged tools, machinery, paper, iron castings, etc. Co. seat, 

SUMMIT, a co. in n.e. Utah, bordering on Wyoming; crossed by the Wahsatch 
mountains, which rise here to aheight of 12,000 ft. ; 1250 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 4,240. The sur- 
rface is covered with vast forests. It has large deposits of gold, silver, lead, and coal. 
Co. seat, Coalville. 

SUMMONS, in English law, means generally a writ directed to a party to appear and 
answer some complaint before a court or judge. It is the first writ in an action at law; 
and a similar writ issues incidentally both in chancery and interlocutory matters. It is 
also the first step in proceedings before justices. In Scotland, it is also the first writ in 
an action. 

SUMNER, a co. in s. Kansas, having the territorial line of the Indian territory for 
its s. boundary; 1188 sq.m.; pop. '80, 20,81219,589 of American birth, 114 colored. 
It is drained by Arkansas river, Good river, and Cowskin and Slate creeks. The sur- 
face is level prairie, containing every element of fertility. Co. seat, Wellington. 

SUMNER, a co. in n. central Mississippi, drained by the Big Black river; about 400 
sq.m. ; pop. : 80, 9,535 2,297 colored. The surface is rolling and heavily wooded. The 
soil is fertile. Corn, cotton, and potatoes are the principal productions. Co. seat, Walt- 

SUMNER, a co. in n. central Tennessee, adjoining Kentucky; drained by branches 
of the Big Barren and Cumberland, by which it is bounded s. ; traversed by the Louis- 
ville and Nashville railroads; 500 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 23,62523,510 of American birth; 7,331 
colored. The surface is heavily wooded and elsewhere fertile; tobacco, corn, wheat, 
oats, and pork, are the staples. Co. seat, Gallatin. 

STJMNEE, CHARLES, American statesman, was born at Boston, Mass., Jan. 6, 1811. 
His father was a lawyer, and for many years sheriff of the county. He was educated at 
Harvard college, where he graduated in 1830; studied law at the Cambridge law school; 
was admitted to the bar in 1834, and entered- upon a large practice; edited the American 
Jurist; published three volumes of Sumner's Reports of the Circuit Court of the United 
States; gave lectures at the law school, but declined a proffered professorship; and from 
1837 to 1840, visited England and the continent of Europe. On his return he edited 
Vesey's Reports, in 20 vols. , and in 1845. made his debut in politics in a 4th of July oration, 
on the true grandeur of nations an oration against war and the war with Mexico, pro- 
nounced by Mr. Cobden the noblest contribution by any modern writer to the cause of 
peace. Identifying himself with the free-soil party, he was, in 1850, chosen U. S. sena- 
tor from Massachusetts, in place of Daniel Webster, where he opposed the fugitive slave 
law, and declared " freedom national slavery sectional." In 1856 he made a two days 
speech on "the crime against Kansas," some of which was of a violently personal charac- 
ter, in consequence of which he was attacked in the senate chamber, May 22, and severely 
beaten by Preston C. Brooks, and so severely injured that his labors were suspended for 
three or four years; during which he visited Europe for repose and health. Returning 
to the senate, he supported the election of Mr. Lincoln, urged upon him the proclama- 
tion of emancipation, and became the leader of the senate, as chairman of the committee 
on foreign relations. In 1862 he was again elected a senator, and re-elected in 1869. In 
1871 he opposed the annexation of Hayti to the United States. He published White 
Slavery in the Barbary States (1853); Orations and Speeches (1850), etc. He died in 1874. 
A Memoir and Letters appeared in 1878. 

SUMNER, CHARLES (ante). A man of great personal force and indomitable will, 
Mr. Sumner made his influence more distinctly felt by the American people, and more 
directly influenced the course of events by his personal action, than did most of his 
associates in the senate. Frequently on the unpopular side of important questions, he 
often succeeded in turning the popular mind in the direction of his own opinion, by the 
force of the reasoning which he brought to bear on the question at issue. Such was 
peculiarly the case with regard to the Mason and Slidcll affair; the emancipation act; 
and the St. Domingo question. His oratorical efforts were invariably the result of 
exhaustive labor, and to the last he methodically wrote out his addresses. From the 
beginning of the war of the rebellion, he insisted upon the abolition of slavery; and 
favored the largest possible freedom of action, political and social, for the negro. His 
antagonism to pres. Grant's St. Domingo policy was positive and continuous; and he 
became so imbittered against the administration that he opposed Grant's re-election, and 
.supported Horace Greeley in 1872. The antagonism was mutual, Mr. Sumner's friend, 
Mr. Motley, having been removed from the position of minister to the court of St. James 
in 1870; while he himself was forced out of the position of chairman of the important 
committee on foreign affairs in 1871, a position which he had held continuously for ten 
years. His last important act was to press his civil rights' bill, which placed the negro 
on a perfect equality with the whites in every state in the union, so far as personal right* 
under the law were concerned. He never recovered, it was thought, from the effects 
of the attack made upon him by Mr. Brooks in 1856 ; and in 1874 this trouble returned 

Sumuer. - x 

Sun. ' O 

to him in a serious malady of the chest, which proved fatal to him on Mar. II of that 

SUMNER, EDWIN VOSE, 1796-1863; b. Boston; appointed to the army in 1819; 
served in the Black Hawk war on the Indian frontier, and through the Mexican war. 
He was dangerously wounded at Cerro Gordo, where he led the charge, and was bre- 
vetted colonel for his conduct at Molino del Rey, where he was in command of the 
cavalry. He was governor of New Mexico, 1851-53; led an expedition against the 
Cheyennes in 1857; and in 1861 succeeded Twiggs as brig.gen., and assumed command 
of the department of the Pacific. He was soon recalled to the e., and taking command 
of the 1st corps of the army of the Potomac, served through the peninsular campaign of 
1862, in which he was twice wounded. The same year he became ma j. gen. of volun- 
teers, and took command of the 2d corps. He was at Fredericksburg, and early in the 
next year was ordered to take command of the department of the Missouri, but died on 
his way. 

SUMNER, JOHN BIRD, D.D., 1780-1862; b. England; educated at Eton and Cam- 
bridge; ordained and appointed canon of Durham, 1820; bishop of Chester, 1828. In 
this district he gave a great impetus to the building of churches and the establishment 
of schools. In 1848 he was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury. He was a liberal in 
politics, and the leader of the evangelical portion of the English church. He published 
essays on the prophecies and on Christian evidences; the Hulse prize essay; The Records 
of dreation, which received the Burnett prize of $400; besides several volumes of ser- 
mons and charges. His numerous theological works are distinguished ' ' by their ear- 
nest piety, depth of thought, and elegance of language." 

SUMPTUARY LAWS (Lat. sumtus, expense), laws passed to prevent extravagance in 
banquets, dress, and private expenditure. They abound in ancient legislation. The 
Locriaa legislator, Zaleucus, 450 B.C., ordained that no woman should appear in the 
streets attended by more than one maid-servant, unless she were drunk, or wear gold or 
embroidered apparel, unless she designed to act unchastely. At an early period in 
Roman history, the censors, to whom was intrusted the superintendence of public and 
private morality, punished with the notatio censoria all persons guilty of luxurious liv- 
ing; but as the love of luxury grew with the increase of wealth and foreign conquest, 
various legislative enactments were passed with the object of restraining it. The lex 
Orchia, 161 B.C., limited the number of guests to be present at a feast; the lex Fannia, 
161 B.C., regulated the cost of entertainments, enacting that the utmost sum which 
should be expended on certain festivals was to be 100 asses, 30 asses on certain other festi- 
vals, and 10 asses on an ordinary entertainment, where also no other fowl than one hen 
w r as permitted to be served up, and that not fattened for the purpose. There were also 
the lex Didia, Lucretia, Cornelia, ^Emilia, Antia, Julia, and others, most of them 
passed in consequence of the practical disregard of the similar laws that had preceded 
them; but they all seein to have been habitually transgressed in the later times of the 

Sumptuary laws were in great favor in the legislation of England from the time of 
Edward III. down to the reformation. Statute 10 Edward III., c. 3, narrates that 
"through the excessive and over-many costly meats which the people of this realm have 
used more than elsewhere, many mischiefs have happened ; for the great men by these 
excesses have been sore grieved, and the lesser people, who only endeavor to imitate the 
great ones in such sorts of meat, are much impoverished, whereby they are not able to 
aid themselves, nor their liege lord, in time of need, as they ought, and many other evils 
have happened as well to their souls as their bodies;" and enacts that no man, of 
whatever condition or estate, shall be allowed more than two courses at dinner or sup- 
per, or more than two kinds of food in each course, except on the principal festivals of 
the year, when three courses at the utmost are to be allowed. All who did not enjoy a 
free estate of 100 per annum were prohibited from wearing furs, skins, or silk, and 
the use of foreign cloth was allowed to the royal family alone. Act 37 Edward III. 
declares that the outrageous and excessive apparel of divers people against their estate 
and degree is the destruction and impoverishment of the laud, and prescribes the apparel 
of the various classes into which it distributes the people ; it goes no higher than knights, 
but there are minute regulations for the clothing of women and children. This statute, 
however, was repealed the next year In France there were sumptuary laws as old as 
Charlemagne, prohibiting or taxing the use of furs; but the first extensive attempt to 
restrict extravagance in dress was under Philip IV. By an edict of Charles VI. no one 
was allowed to exceed a soup and two dishes at dinner. Sumptuary laws continued to 
be introduced in England in the 16th, and in France as late as the 17th century. Scot- 
land had also a similar class of statutes. The Scottish parliament attempted to regulate 
the dress of the ladies, to save the purses of the " puir gentlemen, their husbands and 
fathers." There was a prohibition against their coming to kirk or market with the face 
muffled in a veil ; and statutes were passed against superfluous banqueting, and the 
inordinate use of foreign spices "brocht from the pairts beyond sea, and sauld at dear 
prices to monie folk that are very unabill to sustain that coaste." Neither in England, 
Scotland, nor France do these laws appear to have been practically observed to any 
great extent; in fact, the kings of France and England contributed far more, by their 

H Q Stunner. 

y Sun. 

love of pageantry, to excite a taste for luxury among their subjects than by their ordi- 
nances to repress it. Mr. Froude suggests that such statutes may have been regarded, 
at the time when they were issued, rather, as authoritative declarations of what wise and 
good men considered right, than as laws to which obedience could be enforced. Enact- 
ments of this kind have long been considered to be opposed to the principles of political 
economy. Most of the English sumptuary laws were repealed by 1 James I., c. 25, but 
a few remained on the statute-book as late as 1856. 

SUMTER, a co. in w. Alabama, adjoining Mississippi; bounded on the e. by the 
Tombigbee river, drained by Sucaruoochee creek and the Noxubee river; traversed by 
the Alabama Central, and the Alabama and Chattanooga railroads; about 860 sq.m. ; 
pop. '80, 28,728 22,280 colored. The surface is rolling and heavily wooded. The soil 
is fertile. The principal oroductions are corn, cotton, and live stock. Co. seat, Liv- 

SUMTER, a co. in c. Florida, 1370 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 4,686. The surface is level and 
partly swampy. Co. seat, Leesburg. 

SUMTER, a co. in s.w. Ga., drained by the Flint river, its e. boundary, and by 
several creeks; traversed by the South-western railroad, about 600 sq.m.; pop. '80, 
18,23918,192 of American "birth, 12,189 colored. The soil is '.evel and fertile; cotton, 
corn, and pork are the chief productions. Co. seat, Americus. 

SUMTER, a co. in e. central S. C., drained by the Wateree and Black rivers and 
Lynch's creek; traversed by the Wilmington Columbia and Augusta railroad; about 
600 sq.m.; pop. '80, 37,03736,926 of American birth, 27,064 colored. Surface level 
and extensively covered with pine forest, the tar and turpentine from which are, with 
cotton, the main exports. Co. seat, Sumter Court-IIouse. 

SUMTER, FORT (originally spelled Sumpter, after gen. Sumpter, in whose honor it 
was named), an American fort of the second class, built 1845-'55, in the form of a 
truncated pentagon 50 ft. high, on an artificial island, at the entrance of Charleston har- 
bor, 2 m. distant from forts Moultrie and Pinckney, on either side. On the secession 
of South Carolina, Dec., 1860, niaj. Anderson, in command of the defenses of the harbor, 
was called upon to surrender them to the state authorities. Instead of doing this, he 
abandoned the other forts and occupied fort Sumter, mounting 52 guns, with a garri- 
soli of 70 men and 30 or 40 workmen. This was considered an act of war by the con- 
federates and their troops, who, under command of gen. Beauregard, took possession of 
forts Pinckney and Moultrie, and erected additional batteries. While the surrender of 
the fort was under consideration, a fleet was sent from New York for its relief. On its 
appearance off the harbor, the attack on the fort was opened by gen. Beauregard, April 
12, 1861, and it surrendered on the 13th. This event aroused the north, and began the 
war, which terminated in 1865. During the siege of Charleston this fort was battered 
by the heaviest artillery, until its walls were completely crushed and shattered. The 
flag-staff was shot away fifty times, and thousands of tons of iron projectiles were mingled 
with the debris of the fort ; but the garrison constructed a still stronger fortress on its 
ruins, and held it for three years against assault and bombardment, until the operations 
of gen. Sherman compelled its evacuation, and the United States flag was again raised, 
April 14, 1865; an event soon followed by the evacuation of Richmond, and the sur- 
render of all the confederates armies. 

SUMTER, THOMAS, 1734-1832, b. Va. ; settled in South Carolina. He took part in the 
Cherokee war, and was prominent in the political movements which resulted in the 
revolution. He became col. of the 2nd regiment of riflemen in 1776, and remained in 
the state till the surrender of Charleston, when he enlisted a considerable force in North 
Carolina, and defeated a body of British and tories. Soon afterward he unsuccessfully 
attacked the post at Rocky Mount. Within a few days lie defeated the prince of Wales 
regiment at Hanging Rock and dispersed a large force of tories. Routed in his turn by Tar- 
leton at Fishing'creek, he recruited another force with which he beat Tarleton at Black- 
stocks, but was dangerously wounded. He was made brig. gen. of the S.C. militia, and was 
thanked by congress. In"l781 he enlisted 3 regiments of rangers and aided Marion and 
other generals. He sat in the convention which formed the federal constitution; was 
a member of congress. 1789-93, and 1797-1802, and was U. S. senator, 1801-10. He 
was U. S. minister to Brazil, 1810-11. 

STT'MY, a t. of Russia, in the government of Kharkov, and 90 m. n.w. of the town of 
that name, on the Psiol. It contains several factories, and has an important annual 
fair. Pop. '67, 14,060. 

SUN, THE, the great luminary upon which not only our well-being but our very exist- 
ence depends, has been from the earliest ages a source of wonder and admiration, and 
its worship was probably the very first form of idolatry. See SUN- WORSHIP. 

When the true system of the universe became known, one of the first labors of 
astronomers was to ascertain the distance and size of the sun, and these have been 
known for some time with tolerable precision; but until lately the most vague and 
unsatisfactory theories regarding its chemical and physical constitution have continued 
to prevail. 

Within the last few years, however, our knowledge of its chemical and physical con- 


etitution has increased with a rapidity probably unequaled in any other branch of science. 

Our knowledge regarding the sun is best arranged under three heads: viz., The general 

relations of the sun to our globe; the sun's chemical constitution; and ite physical constitution. 

Relations of the Sun to the Earth, as the Source of Light and Heat. In order to appreciate 

the grandeur of the scale on which solar activity is carried on, it is only necessary to 

know a few facts relative to the sun, which are best expressed by numbers. 

1. Distance of the Sun from the Earth. The difficulty in ascertaing the parallax (q.v.) 
of the sun arises from the smallness of the base line as compared with the distance of 
the object. The distance of the observing stations must always be less than 8,000 m. ; 
from this the parallax of the moon, which is only 30 times 8,000, can be observed 
directly with tolerable nearness. But when the distance is many thousands times the 
length of the base line, the triangle is "ill-conditioned" or unfavorable to accuracy, and 
the problem must be approached indirectly. The first attempt to measure the distance 
of the sun was that made by the Greek astronomer Aristarchus in the third c. B.C., 
who made it only about one-twentieth of what we now know it to be. Even the great 
astronomer Kepler in the seventeenth c. could only say that the distance must be at least 
between 13 and 14 millions of miles. Subsequent estimates for, owing to the imperfection 
of the methods and instruments, they were little better than estimates rose to 80 mil- 
lions. At last, in 1716, the English astronomer Halley proposed a method of employing 
the transits of Venus. Accordingly, the transits of 1761 and 1769, were observed in a 
variety of places; but the results at first deduced were discordant and unsatisfactory, 
until in 1824 the German astronomer Encke "discussed" the observations of 1769, and 
arrived at a distance of about 95 T % millions of miles; and this number held its place in 
books of astronomy for a good many years. In the mean time, in the absence of transits, 
other methods, become possible through the growing perfection of astronomical instru- 
ments, were tried, and most of them concurred in pointing to a value nearly 3^ millions 
less than that above stated; so that 91,500,000 came to be accepted as the approximate 
distance of the sun, until the transit of 1874 should settle it more definitely. 

A transit can occur only when the planet is in or near one of her nodes at the time 
of inferior conjunction, so as to be in a line between the earth and the sun. The coin- 
cidence of these two conditions follows a rather complex law. There are usually two 
transits within eight years of one another, and then a lapse of 105 or 122 years, when 
another couple of transits occur, with eight years between them. The transit of 1874 
will be followed by one in 1882, and there will not be another until June, 2,004. 

The way in which a transit is turned to account may be understood by the help of 
the accompanying diagram, where E represents the earth ; V, Venus ; and S the sun. 
It is to be premised that the relative distances of the planets from the sun are well known. 
Their periodic times can be observed with accuracy, and from these by Kepler's (q.v.) 
law we can deduce the proportions of the distances, but not the distances themselves. 
It is thus known that if the distance of the earth from the sun is taken as 100, that of 
Venus is 72. In the fig. then, AV is 28, or about one-third of V or Vi. 

An observer at a station, A, on the northern part of the earth will see the planet pro- 
jected on the sun as at a, while a southern observer will see it at b. The distance of the 
sun from Venus being about three times her distance from the earth, it is obvious that 

the distance ab will be three times the 
distance AB ; and it is a great advan- 
tage to have the stations A, B, as far 
apart as possible, as the interval ab is 
thus increased and its measurement 
rendered more accurate. 

But how is it measured? For each, 
observer sees only one of the spots, and 
does not know where the other is ; and 
there are no permanent marks on tne sun's surface to guide us. The difficulty is got 
over in the following way: Each observer notes the exi ct duration of the transit, that is, 
the time the spot takes to travel from C to D, or from F to G. Now as we know the 
rate of Venus's motion in her orbit, this gives us the lengths of the lines CD and FG in 
minutes and seconds of arc. Knowing then the a-ogular diameter of the sun ( 32') and 
the lengths of two chords CD and FG, we can easily, by the properties of the circle, 
find the distance ab between them. This gives us the angle aA.b. In the triangle AV*, 
then, we know the angle at A and the proportion of the sides AV and V6, and from that 
we can find the angle A6V or A6B. Now this is the quantity sought, being the parallax 
of the sun as seen from two stations on the earth. Whatever the distance AB actually 
is, the angle is reduced to correspond to a distance equal to the earth's semi-diameter. 
The parallax deducted by Encke, as above referred to, was only 8.5776", while the 
parallax corresponding to the other smaller measurement above stated is 8.94". The 
advantage of this roundabout procedure is that a comparatively large angle (aA.b) is 
measured in order to deduce from it a smaller (AfrB), so that any error in the measure- 
ment is diminished in the result. 

The transit of 1874 was observed at more than fifty stations, astronomers from all the 
civilized world taking part in the work. The labor of discussing and comparing the 
observations has not yet been overtaken, but several partial results have been announced, 

which still show considerable discrepancy. The chief source of uncertainty arises from 
the difficulty the observers found in determining the exact moment of "ingress" and 
"egress" of*the planet, owing to the dense atmosphere of the latter rendering the limbs 
of the two bodies indistinct and distorted. Much was expected from the multitude of 
photographic pictures taken, but they have proved a failure. They are said to lack the 
necessary sharpness, and to be liable to other sources of error. The first partial discus- 
sion of the British observations gave, according to the astronomer royal, a result of 
93A millions of miles. A more extended discussion since announced results in 92^ 
millions of miles. 

It is hoped that when the transit of 1882 comes, the defects of the photographs, as 
well as the uncertainty of the time-observations, may be obviated. In the meantime 
astronomers are turning with greater hope to other methods, especially to observations 
of Mars, and of some of the minor planets. From observations of Mars made in 1862, 
the American astronomer Xewcomb deduced a distance of 92 T 2 ff millions of miles. The 
velocity of light, which has been determined by the ingenious optical experiments of 
Foucault and others, has also been pressed into the service of the problem. The aberra- 
tion of light (q.v.) results from the relation of the velocity of light to that of the 
earth's motion in her orbit; and from the observed amount of the aberration we are thus 
able to deduce the earth's velocity. From knowing then the time of the earth's revolu- 
tion, we can find the circumference of her orbit, and hence her distance from the sun. 
The most careful investigation by this method gives a distance of 93 millions of miles. 
An ingenious method of observing the parallax of Mars at its opposition, first suggested 
by the astronomer royal, but carried out by Mr. Gill on the island of Ascension in 1877, 
promises still more satisfactory results. The essence of the method consists in this, that 
instead of depending upon two sets of observers at different parts of the earth, one 
observer and one station are made to suffice. One observation is taken in the evening 
when the planet is rising, and another in the early morning when it is setting. In the 
mean time the rotation of the earth has transported the observer 6, 000 or 7, 000m. through 
space, and this forms his base line. Mr. Gill's observations were made by means of the 
heliometer, the most effective of instruments for such purposes. From such of his 
observations as had been reduced at the end of 1878, Mr. Gill announces his belief that 
the sun's distance will prove to be nearer to 93 than to 92 millions of miles. 

The other important numerical facts relative to the sun are the following: Its diame- 
ter calculated on the basis of the shorter distance hitherto received, is, in round numbers, { 
850,000 m., or more than 107 times the mean diameter of the earth; so that the volume 
or bulk of the sun exceeds that of the earth 1,200,000 times, and is 600 times greater 
than the bulk of all planets at present known, together. The mass of the sun, or 
quantity of matter it contains as measured by weight, exceeds that of the earth only 
300,000 times; and thus it appears that the matter of the sun has only one-fourth the 
density of that of the earth. From this and other facts, it is inferred that the matter of 
the sun exists for the most part in a gaseous condition. Still his mass is 740 times 
greater than the masses of ;ill known planets put together. The period of rotation of the 
sun upon its axis, which Galileo was the first to calculate from observations of the sun- 
spots, and which takes place in the same direction as that of the earth, is about 25 days 
8 hours. It appears, however, that this period varies according to the solar latitude of 
the spots from which it is calculated. The inclination of the axis of the sun to the eclip- 
tic is about 7-J- , and the longitude of tlie ascending node is about 74 30'. 

2. The form or figure of t?ie sun has been the subject of recent investigations. The 
polar and equatorial diameters of the sun's disk as observed, have been supposed to 
differ, though by a very small quantity only. The photographs of the sun do not quite 
agree in the amount of the value for the diameter with that given by observations. 

The general laws by which the relation of our earth to the sun, as the source of light 
and heat, is governed, are of the most simple kind. The rays which emanate from the 
.sun's disk into space proceed in diverging lines, and, on arriving at the earth, their 
intensity will be inversely proportional to the square of the sun's distance. This may 
lie called the primary law; but the more obvious phenomena of solar heat and light are 
manifested to us under a secondary law depending on the obliquity of incidence of the 
sun's rays. See CLIMATE, EARTH, TEMPERATURE, etc. 

3. Chemical Constitution of the Sun. Astronomy has weighed and measured the sun 
long ago, and in our days chemistry, aided by physics, makes an analysis of it. The 
way in which this surprising result is arrived at is explained under SPECTRUM. The 
main fact on which the method rests is briefly this: that a substance, when compara- 
tively cold, absorbs the very same rays which it gives out when heated. Hence it was 
inferred by Kirchhoff that if there was sodium or iron in a comparatively cold state in 
the solar atmosphere, above the source of light, these substances would produce black 
lines corresponding in spectral position with the bright lines which they give out when 
heated. On this principle the presence in the solar spectrum of hydrogen, magnesium, 
calcium, sodium, and metals of the iron group has been ascertained with something like 
certainty. There are less clear indications of other metals, such as zinc and lead; while 
metals of the tungsten, antimony, silver, and gold classes have been searched for in 
vain. Of the metalloids, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, and the like, none 
had been detected till, in 1877, prof. Henry Draper of America announced the discovery 

. K XIV. 6 



of oxygen. The presence of these substances in the sun is ha|dly doubted, but their 
identification is difficult. A chief source of complication in research of this kind is the 
effect on the spectra of substances produced by differences of temperature and pressure. 
JExcessive heat seems to dissociate the groups of atoms forming the molecules into sim- 
pler groups, and thus produces a different spectrum difficult to recognize. The labors 
of Lockyer, Huggins, Janssen, Draper, and others are directed toward overcoming these 
and other obstacles. 

4. Physical Constitution of the Sun. Since the first discovery by Galileo of those 
remarkable phenomena on the sun called sun-spots dark patches with an area fre- 
quently exceeding several times the surface of the earth an immense variety of theories 
as to the probable constitution of the solar body has been brought forward by nearly 
every observer. Solar photography promises valuable aid in this research by enabling 
us to keep a permanent record of passing phenomena, ready at any time for deliberate 
measurement and comparison. 

One of the most important discoveries in connection with sun-spots, science owes to Dr. 
Alexander Wilson of Glasgow, who, in the year 1769, observed certain general and remark- 
able features of sun-spots, which enabled him to establish the significance of these phenom- 
ena for a solution of the question as to the sun's physical constitution. These features 
are as follows: When a spot was near the middle of the sun, it was found to consist of 
a dark central part, called the nucleus or umbra, and around this was a comparatively 
brighter envelope, called the penumbra, and at such a time both parts were distinctly 
visible. But as the spot approached one border, the penumbra on the side nearest the 
observer became gradually more and more foreshortened, while the penumbra on th 
other side grew broader and broader, and at length, as the spot was disappearing that 
is, passing the edge of the limb the near side of the penumbra, as well as the dark cen- 
tral part, entirely vanished, nothing remaining except the opposite penumbra. When a 
spot made its appearance on the other side of the border, Wilson noticed the same phe- 
nomena in an opposite order, and soon discovered that they were nearly universal. It 
followed from these observations at once that every spot presents the appearance of a 
funnel-shaped opening in the sun's body, which, by the rotation of the latter, succes- 
sively presented the described appearances. These observations have been abundantly 
confirmed by the photographic records of Messrs. De la Rue, Stewart, and Loewy. 

Schwabe showed, as the result of nearly 40 year's observations, that the number of 
groups of sun-spots is not the same from year to year, but .has a maximum about every 
10 or 11 years; and gen. Sabine recorded the wonderful fact that the various epochs of 
maximum spot frequency are also those of maximum disturbance of our earth's mag- 
netism. Here, then, we have a very curious bond of union between the sun and th 
planets of our system. 

It was next shown by Carrington that sun-spots have a proper motion of their own 
those near the solar equator moving faster than those near the poles. 

While spots are darker than the general surface of the sun, there are also frequently 
observed patches brighter than the general surface. These are called facula, and they 
generally accompany spots, most frequently in their wake; but they are only distinctly 
visible near the sun's limb, and lose their specific luminosity near the center of the sun's 

Another phenomenon connected with our luminary is not less remarkable than 
sun-spots. This is tbe red flames, or protuberances, which were first observed surround- 
ing the sun's disk on the occasion of a total eclipse, but which by ingenious methods of 
observation can now be rendered visible even when the sun is not eclipsed. This col- 
ored envelope, less brilliant than the photosphere, or light-giving surface, and having a 
mean height of 5,000 or 6,000 miles, is known as the chromosphere, and seems to consist 
mainly of incandescent hydrogen, jets of which are seen at times to be projected to a 
height of 200,000 miles. The velocity of these movements has been calculated to 
exceed at times 120 mile a second. Above the chromosphere there is a far deeper layer 
of cooler, sub-incandescent gases, among which is an unknown substance, which chiefly 
composes the outer portion, and is apparently lighter than hydrogen. These gaseous 
envelopes, extending together to 300,000 or even 500,000 miles above the photosphere, 
are now believed to cause the appearance called the corona, or white halo, which is seen 
to surround the dark body of the moon during an eclipse of the sun. 

If a spot be a hollow, as we have reason to suppose, it is only necessary to believe 
that there has been a descending current of this cold absorbing atmosphere to account 
for the want of luminosity. In like manner, on this hypothesis, a facula will be a 
portion of the luminous matter, which has been removed 'high up into the atmosphere, 
and which thus escapes the absorbing influence of the atmosphere. A spot may thus 
be supposed, to be produced by two currents one ascending, and carrying the hot 
luminous matter up; the other 'descending, and carrying the cold atmosphere down. 
The photosphere is thus in a constant state of agitation like ebullition. 

Spots and their accompanying facula? are an indication of the activity of those "con- 
rection currents " by which heat is brought to the surface to replace what has been 
radiated off. Their temporary prevalence then is held to be a sign of more than ordinary 
solar activity or expenditure of energy. This is palpably manifested on our globe i* 
the greater magnetic disturbance that takes place when sun-spots are numerous, as 

QO Sun. 


before mentioned. The diurnal range of the magnet freely suspended in the Kew 
observatory, shows an unmistakable correspondence with the waxing and waning of 
the spotted area on the sun; and the frequency of aurora? is found to be in perfect cor- 
respondence with prevalence of spots. It is natural to seek to connect cycles of weather 
with the spot-period of the sun, but nothing has yet been conclusively established. A 
coincidence has seemingly been made out between the recurrence of famines in southern 
India through deficient rain and the period of minimum spots; but the coincidence does- 
not hold for other localities. Attempts have even been made to bring commercial crises 
and other recurring events into the spot-cycle. 

As to the cause of the periodicity of sun-spots, observations made at Kew seem to 
establish a connection between the behavior of spots and the proximity of prominent 
planets; and it may thus be found that the recurrence of certain planetary positions in 
some way determines the spot-period. 

SUN AND FIRE WORSHIP. All investigation tends to show that nature-worship was 
the basis of all polytheistic religions, and that the chief deities of the several mytholo- 
gies were originally personifications of the sun, or of particular influences of the sun. 
The original solar nature of Jupiter, Zeus, Odin, Baal, Amen Ra (see EGYPT), Indra, 
etc., can hardly be mistaken. See those heads; also SCANDINAVIAN MYTHOLOGY, 
PHENICIA; and for a full devolpment of the subject. Max Mailer's essay on Compara- 
tive Mythology (Oxford Essays; 1856X The actual sun, however, still continued an object 
of worship, more especially as in the abstract and more strictly personal gods, moral 
and intellectual attributes came to predominate over and obscure the physical (see 
HELIOS); and with the worship of the sun was more or less closely associated that of 
fire his representative on earth. See PAKSKKS. NEEDFIRE, BELTEIX. 

The most complete system of sun-worship that we have any account of is that exist- 
ing in Peru when discovered by the Spaniards (1526). "Our northern natures can. 
hardly comprehend how the sun, and the moon, and the stars were imaged in the heart 
of a Peruvian, and dwelt there; how the changes in these luminaries were combined 
with all his feelings and his fortunes; how the dawn was hope to him; how the fierce 
mid-day brightness was power to him; how the declining sun was death to him; and 
how the new. morning was a resurrection to him; nay, more, how the sun, and the 
moon, and the stars were his personal friends, as well as his deities; how he held com- 
munion with them, and thought that they regarded every act and word ; how, in his ': 
solitude, he fondly imagined that they sympathized with him, and how, with out- ~ 
stretched arms he appealed to them against their own uukinduess, or against the injus- 
tice of his fellow-men." Helps's Spanish Conquest of America . The Incas, as the Peru- ! 
viati monarchs were called, claimed to be children of the sun, and his representatives 
on earth. Their government was a despotic theocracy, of which the Inca was both 
high-priest and king. In Cuzco, the capital, stood a splendid temple to the sun, all the 
implements of which were of gold. On the w. end of the interior was a representation 
of the sun's disk and rays in solid gold, so placed that the rising sun, shining in at the 
open e. end, fell full upon the image, and was reflected with dazzling splendor. In 
the place or square of the temple, a great annual festival was held at the summer sol- 
stice. The multitude, assembled from all parts of the empire, and presided over by the 
Inca, awaited in breathless solemnity the first rays of their deity to strike the golden 
image in the temple, when the whole prostrated themselves in adoration. Sacrifices, 
similar to those of the Jews, were offered on the occasion, and bread and wine were 
partaken of in a manner strikingly resembling the Christian communion. 

" It must not be supposed that the sun alone absorbed the devotion of the Peruvians. 
There was little in nature that they did not contrive to make a deity of. The moon, as 
the spouse of the sun. the planet Venus as his page, the Pleiades, and the remarkable 
constellation of the southern cross, .were minor deities. The rainbow and lightning 
were also worshiped as servants of the sun; and tire, air, earth, and water were not 
without adoration." 

'9! TTNAH S EPHA is, in the ancient legends of India, the son of a poor Brahman, 
Ajigarta, who was sold by his father for"! 00 cows to Huris 'cJtandra (q.v.), and offered 
by the latter as a victim to Varun'a, instead of his own son Rohita, whom he had 
pledged himself to sacrifice to this god. The legend relates that when Sunahsepha was 
bound to the sacrificial post by his own father for no priest could be found to perform 
the ceremony and when his father came whetting his sword to kill him for neither 
was any priest to be found w r ho would perform such a sacrifice Sunahsepha prayed in 
succession to the gods Prajapati, Agni, Savitr i, Varun'a, again to Agni, then to the 
Vis'we-Deva"h', Indra, the As'win, and the dawn; and while he praised the dawn with 
three verses, at the delivery of each verse his fetters became losser, and when the last 
verse was said, he became free again. He left afterward the family of his parents, and 
was adopted by Vin'-ira-mitrn, under the name of S'unah's'epha Devarata (the God-given). 
The Aitareya Brahmana (see VEDA), where this legend is related, also ascribes to him 
the first performance of some Vedic ceremony. 

STJ'NART, LOCH, an inlet of the sea in the extreme w. of Argyleshire, Scotland, 
having the districts of A-rdnamurchan and Sunart on the n., and that of Morven on the 

Sunbircls. QA 


s. ; length, inland from the Sound of Mull, 19 m. ; breadth varies from 3 m. to 3 furlong* 
At its head stands the village of Strontian. 

SUNBISDS, GinnyridcB, a family of birds of the order insessores and tribe tenuirostres, 
which may be regarded as a connecting link between the creepers and the humming- 
birds, and as occupying nearly the same place in the tropical parts of the Old World 
which belongs to the humming-birds in America. They are all of small size, although 
none are so small as the smallest humming-birds; they rival humming-birds in brilliancy 
of plumage, and like them they feed on the juices of flowers, which they suck by their 
long bill; they do not, however, flutter on the wing when feeding, like humming-birds, 
but perch on or beside the flower into which the bill is to be inserted. The species are 
rery numerous, and are natives of the southern parts of Asia, the eastern Archipelago, 
and Africa. The resplendent metallic plumage belongs only to the male, aud only to 
the breeding season. 

8UNBURY, a co. in s.e. New Brunswick, crossed by the European and North 
American railroad and the Fredericton branch; drained by St. John's river; 1200 sq.m.; 
pop. '71, 6,824. The surface is mostly level and densely timbered; the soil is fertile. 
Co. seat, Oromocto. 

SUNBURY, a borough of Upper Augusta township, Northumberland cp., Penn., 
near the junction of the branches of the Susquehanna, about 55 m. from Harrisburg, on 
the Northern Central railroad; pop. '70, 3,131. The place has some importance as a 
railroad junction and coal-shipping station. There are 2 machine-shops, 2 foundries, a 
daily and 3 weekly papers, and a bank. 

STJNDA ISLANDS, that great chain of islands belonging to Malaysia, running e., com- 
mencing with Sumatra (q.v.), and ending with Timor (q.v.), and separating the Java sea 
from the Indian ocean. Suiida strait is a passage, from 70 to 90 m. in breadth, between 
Sumatra and Java. 


SUNDAY-SCHOOLS were founded about the close of the year 1781 by Robert Raikes, a 
printer in Gloucester. Business leading him into the suburbs of the town, inhabited by 
the lowest class of the people, he was struck with concern at seeing a group of children, 
miserably ragged, at play. He was informed that "on Sunday the street was filled with 
a multitude of wretches, who, having no employment on that day, spent their time in 
noise and riot, playing at chuck, and cursing and swearing." To check this deplorable 
profanation of the Lord's day he engaged four women, who kept dame schools, to 
instruct as many children as he should send them on the Sunday, in reading and the 
church catechism, for which they were to receive one shilling each. In a short period 
& visible improvement was effected both in the manners and morals of the children, who 
came in considerable numbers; they attended church with their mistresses, and a great 
many learned to read and say their catechism. Such was the origin of the Sunday- 
schools. This excellent scheme was noticed in the Gloucester newspaper in 1783; but a 
letter of Mr. Raikes, from which the above account is taken, published in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine in 1784, first drew general attention to it. Numerous schools, formed 
on the same model, sprang up in all the principal towns; and a society, under high pat- 
ronage, was formed in London in 1785 for the establishment and support of Sunday- 
schools throughout the kingdom, which in 14 years expended 4,000 in payment of 
teachers. Her majesty, queen Charlotte, admitted Mr. Raikes to an audience, and 
expressed her high approbation of his plan. This was the first stage of the Sunday- 
school. The great impediment to its prosperity was the expense of hiring so many 
teachers. Even in Gloucester, the birthplace of the Sunday-schools, after Mr. Raikes 's 
death in 1811, all the Sunday-schools were closed for a time owing to want of funds. 
Whoever first conceived the idea of gratuitous instruction has nearly as great merit as 
Mr. Raikes himself; but probably it was suggested by necessity to many minds in dif- 
ferent places at the same time. It was the means of starting Sunday-schools on a new 
career of success, and the idea spread so rapidly that, by the year 1800, the leaching was 
almost universally gratuitous. A higher class of teachers offered their services; the 
schools ceased to be filled by the very poorest alone; handsome buildings were erected 
in connection with the different churches and chapels, or by general subscription, and 
that system was organized which has covered the land with schools. The secular teach- 
ing, which in certain instances included writing and arithmetic, was not of a very high 
order; but it placed the key of knowledge in the hands of multitudes who would other- 
"wise have been unable to read ; and the religious instruction with which it was combined 
has molded the character of some of the best men in England. In 1803 the Sunday 
.school union was formed, which, by its numerous publications, its traveling agents, and 
its connection with branch societies in every part of the kingdom, has exercised great 
influence on the Sunday-school cause. The institute of the church of England, which 
operates in a similar manner, is of later date. Within the last 20 years the Sunday- 
school has entered upon a third stage of its history. The improvement and multiplica- 
tion of week-day schools obviate the necessity for teaching reading in Sundav-schools, 
.o that they have gradually become restricted to religious instruction. This for a time 
threatened to affect their popularity, but as the teachers were earnest men they culti- 

QK Sun birds. 


rated the art of teaching with considerable success. Sunday-schools have prospered in 
Scotland, where religious teaching alone ever prevailed, and the stability of this modern 
invention is accomplished. 

The Sunday-school found its way into Scotland as early as the year 1782; but it was 
not till 1786, when the society for promoting religious knowledge among the poor was 
formed, that it was publicly recognized; nor till 1797, when the gratis Sunday-school 
society was originated, that schools became general. At first they met with considerable 
opposition from portions of the ecclesiastical courts, but they are now supported by all the 
churches. Sunday-school unions exist in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and most of the large 
towns. The names of Dr. Chalmers, James Gall, the author of the Lesson System, and 
David Stowe, the author of the Training System, deserve mention in connection with 
the progress of Sunday-schools in Scotland. In Ireland Sunday-schools had been par- 
tially anticipated in county Down in 1770; but it was not till 1785 that the system pur- 
sued by Mr. Raikes was adopted, since which its history has been analogous to that of 
England. The Sunday-school society for Ireland was established in 1809. Sunday- 
schools were introduced into New York in 1816, through the exertions of some benevo- 
lent ladies, from which they have spread themselves through the United States. They 
are now to be found wherever the English tongue is spoken. They thrive vigorously in 
the Protestant churches of France; and more recently have been planted in parts of 
Germany and Italy. The Roman Catholics, in this country at least, have numerous 
Sunday-schools. It is stated on good authority that there are in the United Kingdom 
about 300,000 teachers and 3,000,000 scholars; and in the United States there are 750,000 
teachers and nearly 6,000,000 scholars. Of the teachers and scholars elsewhere it is 
not easy to form any estimate. 

SUNDAY-SCHOOLS (ante). The first permanent Sunday-school organization in the 
United States, of which there is authentic record, was The First-day or Sunday-school 
society, formed in Philadelphia, 1791. It was composed of members of different denom- 
inatioris including the society of Friends. Its constitution required thatjthe instruction 
e;iven in its schools should be "confined to reading and writing from the Bible, and such 
other moral and religious books as the society may direct. " The New York Sunday-school 
union was instituted, 1816; the Philadelphia Sunday and adult school union, 1817. These 
three societies recognized the union of different denominations, and led to the organiza- 
tion of the American Sunday-school union at Philadelphia, 1824. The suggestion that 
such an association should be formed came from New York. Its object was to concen- 
trate the efforts of Sunday-school societies in different sections of the United States, and 
*o endeavor to plant such schools wherever there is a population. As the new states 
were settled and the various religious denominations were strengthened, more attention 
^vas given by each to its own Sunday-schools, and denominational unions to promote 
them were formed. In the early history of the schools the chief thing expected of the 
children was to commit to memory portions of scripture, and the chief employment of 
the teachers was to hear the recitations. Afterward the question book was added to 
the recitation, and at length in a great degree superseded it. Still later came the lesson 
helps, golden text, blackboard exercises, etc. In the first schools, reward tickets were 
given, and when they had sufficiently accumulated were exchanged for books. This 
stimulated the production of volumes of suitable character, and from this the Sunday- 
school library has been developed. At the Robert Raikes centenaiy held in London, 
1880, the following statistics for the United States were reported: Number of Sunday- 
schools in all the states and territories 82,216, containing 886,328 teachers and 6,623,124 

SUNDEEBUNDS, a tract of British India, presidency of Bengal, consists of a number 
of low islands, forming the delta of the Ganges. The tract extends e. from the mouth 
of the Hoogly to the island Rabanabad, is 158 m. long, 75 m. broad, has an area of 
5,341 sq.m., and an inconsiderable population. The isfands are separated from each 
other by narrow channels, through which the waters of the Ganges force their way to 
the sea. The chief channels (14 m number) are navigable for the largest craft used in 
inland navigation. In such of the islands as have not been cleared, luxuriant woods 
abound, and afford lairs for the tiger, wild boar, and other ferocious animals. Govern- 
ment has commenced vigorous operations for the clearing of the islands, and grants of 
land are offered to settlers at a nominal rate. The climate, though improving, and capa- 
ble of further improvement, is, as might be expected, very unhealthy. Rice, sugar, 
and indigo are produced in the cleared districts. Large quantities of fish, obtained in 
the waters of the Sunderbunds, are sent to Calcutta. Large and fierce alligators abound 
in the channels. 

STJNDEELAND, a thriving municipal and parliamentary borough and sea-port, in the 
county of Durham, 13 m. n.e. of the city of that name, at the mouth of the Wear. The 
town may be said to be co-extensive with the parliamentary borough, and to include the 
suburbs of Bishop-Wearmouth on the s. bank, and Monk-Wearmouth and Southwick 
on the n. bank of the river, connected with Sunderland proper by an iron bridge of one 
arch, 236 ft. long, and nearly. 100 ft. above the river at low water. The bridge over the 
Wear was erected in 1796, but was repaired and widened in 1858 by Robert Stephenson 
Xq.v.), at the cost of about 40,000. On both sides of the river there are extensive wet 

tmdcrlaml. Oft 


docks, much of the area of which has been reclaimed from the sea. The harbor, which 
is defended by batteries, is formed by two great piers, one 650 yards and the other 590 
yards in length; and the port is resorted to by vessels of the largest tonnage, from all 
commercial countries. In 1875, 3,169 vessels, of 820,137 tons, entered, and 8,908, of 
2,177,128 tons cleared the port; in 1877, goods (chiefly coals) worth 706,611 were 
exported. After Newcastle, Sunderland is the greatest coal-shipping port in the world. 
The sanitary condition of the town has been recently greatly improved; a large new 
infirmary was built in 1867, and in 1868 a spacious workmen's hall. Ship-building is one 
of the principal branches of industry. Glass, earthenware, ropes and chains, anchors, 
and other iron-wares, are very extensively manufactured. The public park of Sunder- 
land, about 70 acres in extent, is adorned with a bronze statue of gen. sir Henry Have- 
lock, a native of the town, and commands a fine view of the sea. The village of Roker, 
a mile from the town, is much resorted to for sea-bathing. Fishing is carried on to a 
considerable extent. Pop. of parliamentary borough, which returns two members to the 
house of commons (1871) 104,409; of municipal borough, 98,242. 

STJNDEBLAND, ROBERT SPENCER, second Earl, was the only son of HENRY, first 
earl, who had been raised to the peerage in 1643, for his exertions in the royal cause. 
He was born in 1642, and after serving as ambassador to several courts, became in 1679 
secretary of state. He had by this time manifested remarkable talent. Bishop Burnet 
says of him, "He had a superior genius to all the men of business that I have yet 
known." At first, he united with Essex and Halifax in opposing Shaftesbury, who 
wished to set Monmouth on the throne, and favored the exclusion of the duke of York. 
He encouraged the king to persevere in the degrading French alliance, and, with the 
duchess of Portsmouth, to whom he attached himself, negotiated a treaty by which, in 
consideration of an annual pension from the French king, Charles was to agree to assem- 
ble no parliament for three years. Before the end of the year, he had shaken off Essex 
and Halifax; and a new triumvirate, consisting of himself, lord Hyde, and Godolphin, 
succeeded to the confidence of Charles II. The treaty with France was broken off, and 
guuderland, who was now afraid of the whigs, engaged the king in a more popular alli- 
ance with Spain. . After the dissolution of the last of the exclusion parliaments, he lost 
his office; but the duchess remained faithful to him in disgrace; and by her influence, 
and that of lord Rochester, he was, in 1682, says Bishop Burnet, "upon great submis- 
sion made to the duke [of York], again restored to the secretary." He remained in office 
until the accession of James II., when his influence in the ministry became greater than 
ever. He who had so often saved himself in the former reign by the influence of the 
duchess of Portsmouth, now secured himself another patroness in the king's second wife, 
the princess of Modena. Although there is reason to believe he gave some encourage- 
ment to Monmouth in his rebellion, he managed, with consummate art, to obtain the 
entire confidence of James, and in 1685 became prime-minister. He was intrusted with 
a knowledge of the king's intention to establish the Roman Catholic religion as the 
national church, and was indeed the only minister in whom the king confided. In 1687 
he privately conformed to the Roman Catholic church, and afterward openly professed 
his conversion. His influence was so great, that James would grant no favor until he 
had asked the question, " Have they spoken to Sunderland?" and when tcld that this 
nobleman got all the money of the court, he would reply, " He deserves it." Yet ws 
find him about this time in correspondence with the prince of Orange, afterward Wih- 
iam III. The princess Anne described Sunderland as " the subtillest workingest villain 
that is on the face of the earth." Burnet says he entered into a particular confidence 
with the prince of Orange, which he managed by his uncle, Mr. Sidney, who was sent 
envoy to Holland. With profligate but masterly dexterity, he contrived to deceive both 
his master and Barillon, and to keep them in ignorance of the events that were passing 
in Holland. When the prince arrived in England, Sunderlaud and his wife went to 
Amsterdam, whence he wrote to the new monarch, claiming his favor and protection on 
the ground that he had all along been in his interest. In 1691 he was allowed to return 
to England, and to kiss the king's hand. In 1695 William III. spent a week at Sunder- 
land's house at Althorpe. It was imputed to him that he had changed his religion, in 
the late reign, in order the more effectually to ruin king James; and it was generally 
believed that he had rendered king William, when prince of Orange, some signal ser- 
vices, which no one else could have done. This belief gained credit from the favor 
shown him by William. He was made lord chamberlain^ and as such took his seat at 
the head of the council table. After directing affairs as the acknowledged head of the 
government, he resigned office in 1697, and retired to private life. He spent the rest of 
his days at Althorpe, where he died in 1702. He never shone as a public speaker. He 
had, however, unusual abilities for business, and a rare skill in the art of insinuation. 
He possessed exquisite courtly talent, extraordinary versatility, and a flexibility of prin- 
ciple too common in his day, but carried by him to the most reprehensible lengths. By 
his wife, Anne, daughter of the second earl of Bristol, he left CHARLES SPENCER, third 
earl, who was born in 1674. He was described by Evelyn as a youth of extraordinary 
hopes, very learned for his age, and ingenious. He was for some time secretary of stats 
in the reign of queen Anne, and under George I. rose to be all-powerful; but in 1721, 
being accused of receiving 50,000 worth of the fictitious stock distributed by the direc- 

. x - Sunderland. 


tors of the South Sea scheme (q.v.), in order to bribe the government, he was acquitted 
only by an inconsiderable majority and that from party considerations, and the indigna- 
tion of the public made him resign his office. He died in 1722, not without suspicion of 
having intrigued, after his fall, for the restoration of the tories, if not for the return of 
the pretender. Sunderland was a type of the political morality, or rather immorality, of 
a disgraceful age, when the greatest statesmen made no scruple of sacrificing either their 
-own party, or the interests and dignity of the nation, to personal ambition. His title 
descended to CHARLES, his second son, who succeeding, 1733, to the honors of his illus- 
trious grandfather, John Churchill, the earldom of Sunderland became absorbed in the 
dukedom of Marlborough. His third son, JOHN, was ancestor of the earls Spencer. 

SUN-DEW, Drosera, a beautiful and interesting genus of plants of the natural order 
drosemcece, three species of which are natives of Britain, found in bogs and moist heathy 
ground. The most common is the ROUND-LEAVED SUN-DEW (D. rotundifolia), which 
is plentiful in almost all places suitable to the plant. The leaves all spring from the 
root, and spread out in a rosette, from the center of which springs the flower-stem or 
scape, with a raceme of flowers all on one side. The leaves of this and the other spe- 
cies are fringed and beset in all parts with hairs, which bear at their extremity viscid 
glands, and the irritation of these glands causes them to contract and fold up, so that 
insects are imprisoned by them. Recent observation has proved that these insects are 
actually digested by the plant, their nutritive material being absorbed by it. Compare 
the dion&a, (q.v.), and see Darwin's Insectivorous Plants (1875). The whole plant is 
acrid, curdles milk, and has a reputation for removing corns, bunions, and warts. An 
agreeable liqueur, called rossoli (ros solis) is made by infusing the plant in brandy, with 
sugar, etc. 


SUNFISH, Orthagoriscus, a genus of fishes of the family diodontidw (see DIODON), hav- 
ing the body compressed, and not capable of inflation, as in the other diodontidcs; 
abruptly terminating in a very short tail; the dorsal and anal fins long and pointed, 
united to the short tail-fin; each jaw furnished with a cutting edge of bone instead of 
teeth. The species chiefly inhabit the seas of warm climates, but two are occasionally 
seen on the coasts of Britain. The SHORT SUNFISH (0. inola), when young, is almost 
perfectly round, but becomes rather more elongated when full grown. The name sun- 
fish is variously regarded as derived from the form of the fish, and from its habit of 
floating at the surface of the water in fine weather, as if to enjoy the sunshine. It 
Attains a large size, being sometimes more than six ft. in length, and is captured by sail- 
ors. Its flesh is white and well flavored, somewhat resembling that of the skate. The 
Jiver yields a large quantity of oil, which is in repute among sailors as an external appli- 
cation for the cure of sprains, rheumatism, etc. The OBLONG SUNFISH (0. oblongus), of 
which specimens have also been taken ou the British coasts, but more rarely, is of a 
longer form. It also attains a large size. The sunfishes feed upon sea-weeds. 

SUNFLOWER, TleliantJfus, a genus of plants of the natural order composites, suborder 
'forymbiferip. having large flowers ; the florets of the ray strap-shaped, without stamens 
or pistils, yellow or orange; the florets of the disk tubular, perfect, yellow or purplish- 
brown; the flowers solitary or in corymbs, with an involucre of numerous leaves; the 
fruit compressed, with a pappus of two or more deciduous scales. The species are 
numerous, all natives of America; large herbaceous plants, with opposite or sometimes 
alternate undivided leaves. The ANNUAL SUNFLOWER (H. animus), common in our 
flower-gardens, is a native of tropical America, where it sometimes attains a height of 
20 feet. The stem is thick and rough; the flowers solitary, and from one foot to two 
feet in diameter, nodding; the leaves heart-shaped-ovate. This plant is now cultivated 
in almost all parts of the world, and in the s. of Europe is sometimes a field-crop; the 
seeds being valued as food for cattle and poultry, and on account of the oil which they 
yield, which is little inferior to olive oil. An acre of good land produces about fifty 
bushels of seed, each bushel yielding a gallon of oil. The seeds are also used like 
almonds for making demulcent and soothing emulsions; and in some parts of Europe, 
a bouilli is made of them, which is used as food for infants. The American Indians 
make bread of them. The flowers abound in honey, and are much frequented by bees. 
The leaves are good fodder for cattle. The stems are used for fuel, and yield much 
potash. The Jerusalem artichoke (q.v.) belongs to this genus. 

SUNFLOWER, a co. in n.w. Mississippi, traversed centrally by the Sunflower river; 
720 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 4,6614,587 of American birth, 2,895 colored. The surface is low, 
swampy in some sections; a large proportion \voodland. The soil is fertile, producing 
cotton, grain, sweet potatoes, and live stock. Co. seat, Johnsonville. 

SUNN, Crotalaria (q.v.)juncea, a leguminous plant, native of India, which has been 
in general cultivation there from time immemorial, for the fiber of its bark. It has a 
strong general resemblance to Spanish broom. It is, however, an annual plant. 
The plant is cultivated not only for its fiber, but as food for milch-cows. The seed is 
generally sown in April or May, and in August it is pulled, or cut close to the ground 
when grown for its fiber laid in long rows till the leaves begin to rot and separate 
from the stalks, and steeped in water for a few days, till the bark separates freely. The 

Sun ii i. CO 


fiber is not so strong "as hemp; but 'good cables, canvas, and 'cloth are made of it. It 
is now imported in considerable quantity into Britain. It is known by various names. 
Taag is one of its Indian names, and it is sometimes called brown hemp, Bengal hemp, 
etc. The confusion of names makes it difficult to ascertain the quantity imported. 

SUNNA (Arab, custom, legal usage), originally denotes among Moslems the savings 
and the example of Mohammed and his community, provided they are in accordance 
with the Koran, the meaning of which, however, is itself explained by the Sunna. The 
term is therefore (though incorrectly) used for the collections of moral and legal tradi- 
tions traced to the prophet, which supplement the Koran, somewhat like the Mishna 
(q.v.), which supplements the laws of the Pentateuch. The Sunna not only comprises 
religious doctrines and practice, but also civil and criminal laws, and the usages of com- 
mon life: the way to eat and to drink, and to dress, and the like. This tradition is first 
heard of during the civil laws among the adherents of the new faith, about half a c. 
after the flight. The single traditions, as we now possess them, rarely exceed six lines. 
The diction is carefully wrought, and the form is that of a dialogue. For the credibility 
and cauonicity of a tradition, it was originally necessary that it should have been heard 
by one truthful witness; but this law was much relaxed in after-time. At the end of 
the 3d c. (H.), a countless number of individual collections (Mosnad), mostly of an 
apocryphal character, had been produced by different theologians, but the first who 
sifted them critically, and without regard to any special theological system, was 
Bochary (d. 256 H.). His collection contains 7,275 single traditions, 4,000 of which, how- 
ever, occur twice in the work. Moslim, his pupil, supplemented Bochary with another 
collectioa, containing 12,000, again including 4,000 repetitions. Besides these, there are 
four more "canonical" collections; by Abu Dawud (d. 275 H.), Tirmidzy (d. 279), ISTasay 
(d. 303), and Maga (d. 273). The Sunna, as we have it in these collections, contains, 
broadly speaking, more truth than it is generally supposed to contain, and, critically 
used, is, besides the Koran, the most authentic source of Islam. A selection from the 
different collections (both canonical and otherwise), called Mishcat Al Mamlih, has been 
translated into English by capt. Matthews (Calcutta, 1809). Fragments from Bochary 
are found in a German translation, by Hammer, in the Fundgiiiben des Orients. 

STJNNITES, traditionists or believers in the Sunna (q.v.); the name of the "orthodox" 
Moslems as opposed to the Shiites (q.v.). They are subdivided into four principal sects, 
who, though at issue on different minor points, yet are acknowledged by each other to 
belong to the faithful, and to be capable of salvation, and they each have a special ora- 
tory at Mecca. The first of these sects are the Hanefites, founded by Abu Hanifa, who 
died 150 years after the Hegira. They are emphatically called " the followers of rea- 
son," whilst the other three are guided exclusively by tradition. They allow reason to 
have a principal share in their decisions on legal and other points. To this sect belong 
chiefly the Turks and Tartars. The second sect are the Malekites, founded by Malek 
Ibn Ans, who died about 180 H. at Medina. As one of the chief proofs of his real piety 
and humility, it is recorded that when asked for his decision on 48 questions, he would 
only decide on 16, freely confessing his ignorance about the others. In Barbary and 
other parts of Africa, the greatest part of his adherents are found. Mohammed Al 
Shafei, born in Palestine, 150 H., but educated in Mecca, is the founder of the third 
sect, the Sh&fseites. He was a great enemy of the scholastic divines, and seems alto 
gether to have been of an original cast of mind. He never swore by God, and always 
took time to consider whether he should at all answer any given question or hold his 
peace. The most characteristic saying recorded of him is, "Whosoever pretends to 
love both the work and the Creator'at the same time, is a liar." He is accounted of such 
importance, that, according to his contemporaries, " he was as the sun to the world, and 
as health to the body;" and all the relations of the traditions of Mohammed were said 
to have been asleep until he came and woke them. He appears to have been the first 
who reduced Moslem jurisprudence into a method, and thus made it, from a number of 
vague sayings, a science. His followers are now chiefly found in Arabia and Persia. 
Ahmed Ibn^Hanbal founded the fourth sect, the Hanbalites. He was born 164 H., and 
was a most intimate friend of Shafei. His knowledge of the traditions (of which he 
could repeat no less than a million) was no less famed than was his piety. He taught 
that the Koran was not created, but everlastingly subsisted in the essence of God; a 
doctrine for which he was severely punished by the caliph Almotasem. On the day of 
his death, no less than 20,000 unbelievers (Jews, Christians, and Mngians) are said to 
have embraced the Mohammedan faith. Once very numerous, the Hanbalites now are 
but very rarely met with out of Arabia. On the differences between the Sunnites and 
Shiites, see SHHTES. 

SUN- STROKE (otherwise called heat apoplexy, heat asphyxia,, coup de soleil, erythii 
mus tropicus, and insolatio, the name by which it is officially known in the returns of 
the registrar-general) is a very fatal affection of the nervous system, which seldom .oc 
curs in Great Britain, except in extremely hot summers, but is very common in India 
and other tropical countries. Our knowledge of the nature of this remarkable disease 
is almost entire ly based upon the accounts which have been given of it by Indian med- 
ical officers. It is from their reports that the most satisfactory histpry of this disease at 
present published that, namely, of Dr. Aitken in his Science and Practice of 

OQ Sunna. 


Medicine, 3d ed. 1864 is mainly drawn up. From the accounts given by these observers, 
it is clear that the symptoms of the disease are liable to be greatly modified in different 
cases. Mr. Russell, when in charge of the 68th regiment iu May, 1834, shortly after its 
arrival at Madras, with the men in robust health, has given the following account of this 
disease: "The funeral of a general officer being about to take place, the men were 
marched out at an early hour in tlie afternoon, buttoned up in red coats and military 
ttocks, at a season, too, when the hot land winds had just set in, rendering the atmosphere 
dry and suffocating even under the shelter of a roof, and when the sun's rays were ex- 
cessively powerful. After having proceeded two or three miles, several men fell down 
senseless. As many as eight or nine were brought into hospital that evening, and many 
more on the following day. Three men died one on the spot, and two within a few 
hours. The symptoms observed (and they were alike in the three cases), were, first, ex- 
cessive thirst, and a sense of faintness ; then difficulty of breathing, stertor, coma, livid- 
ity of the face, and in one whom Mr. Russell examined, contraction of the pupil. The 
remainder of the cases (in which the attack was slighter, and the power of reaction per- 
haps greater) rallied; and the attack in them ran on into either an ephemeral or a more 
continued form of fever." Aitken, op. cit. One of the earliest symptoms, noticed by 
several observers, is the skin becoming rough and fecaly, and the perspiration ceasing; 
the heat of the surface becomes at the same time much increased; the bowels become 
obstinately constipated. The actual attack, in the various cases described by the Indian 
surgeons and physicians, came on generally when the men were in their tents, some- 
times during the day, but in several cases during the night. The patient had been gen- 
erally lying down, often seemingly asleep, when the attention of his comrades would be 
directed to his hurried and heavy breathing, and on attempting to rouse him, he was 
found to be insensible. The mortality from sun-stroke is about 50 per cent. In the 
cases that terminate favorably a gradual remission of the symptoms takes place; and 
when the skin becomes cool and moist, and sleep has been procured (phenomena which 
usually occur within 36 hours of the attack), the patient may be regarded as out of 

The predisposing causes of sun-stroke are (1), an unusually elevated degree of tem- 
perature, accompanied by great dryness of the air; (2) The electrical condition of the 
atmosphere that precedes a thunderstorm; (3) A contaminated atmosphere from over- 
crowding; (4) All debilitating causes, such as prolonged marches, previous disease, 
intemperate habits, etc. Death sometimes occurs so suddenly that there is little oppor- 
tunity for treatment, but the general indications in these cases are the cold douche, 
from a height of three or four feet, keeping the surface wet and exposed to a current of 
air, the exclusion of light as far as possible, and the free employment of stimulants. In 
less rapidly fatal cases the outer clothing should be removed, and the douche applied, 
as before, over the head and along the spine. Relaxation of the pupil is the first favor- 
able sign. If the pulse flags the douche must be replaced by the mere application of 
cold to the head. The hair must be cut as short as possible, and the nape of the neck 
blistered as speedily as possible. If insensibility recurs after an interval of ten or twelve 
hours, a blister should be applied to the crown of the head. The extremities and chest 
should be stimulated with mustard poultices. Immediately after the employment of the 
douche, a strong purgative injection should be thrown up the lower bowel by means of 
a long stomach-pump tube (as, for example, a mixture of an ounce and a half each of 
castor oil and oil of turpentine, and two drams of tincture of asafcetida in about half 
a pint of barley-water). Under no circumstances should there be any abstraction of 
blood. The preventive measures are of more importance than the treatment; but this 
is a subject into which we have not space to enter. The advice of the regimental sur- 
geon is too often disregarded by the commanding officer; and the lines which are itali- 
cized in Mr. Russell's account of the cases quoted at the beginning of this article would 
seem to contain a well-devised prescription for the induction rather than the prevention 
of sun-stroke. 

SUONADA (inland sea), an inland sea of Japan, which separates the island of Kiusiu 
and Sikopf from the larger one of Nipon. It is about 250 m. in length from the strait 
of Simonoseki to Osaca; and sir R. Alcock estimates its 'greatest breadth at 50 miles. It 
is studded with innumerable islets and a few rocks. The scenery is picturesque. The 
prince of Nagato and Soulio having, contrary to treaty stipulations, closed this sea to 
foreign vessels and fired upon them, the English, French, and Dutch fleet destroj-ed the 
forts that barred its entrance (Sept. 5 and 6, 1864), with the loss to the allied squadron of 
12 men killed and 60 wounded. 

SUPERANNUATION is a retiring allowance granted under an act of 1859, 22 Viet. 
cap. 26. to all persons not being weekly laborers employed permanently in the civil ser- 
vice of the country. Before the age of 60, retirement can only take place from broken 
health (or ostensibly so), or from abolition of office: after 60 any person may retire. If 
the retirement take place before completing ten years' service, a gratuity only is allowed. 
After ten years, the pension is ^ of the salary at the time of retirement for every year 
of service, up to , which is the maximum allowed, except under very special circum. 
stances, when the treasury may grant larger pensions, never, however, exceeding tha, 
alary vacated. Professional persons appointed later in life than the usual age ma^ 

Supercargo. OA 


have pensions computed with a number of years, not exceeding 20, added to their actual 
service. On the other hand, the treasury may, for grave demerit, diminish a pension 
below the scale granted in the act. A person on a pension is liable to recall to a position 
as good as he vacated up to the age of 60, if in suitable health. A civil servant is denned 
to be one holding appointment direct from the crown, or under certificate from the civil 
service commissioners; and his salary must be paid out of the consolidated fund or out 
of moneys voted by parliament. Weekly laborers are ineligible; but artificers may serve 
for superannuation, provided they are not paid at the full current market rates of wages. 

Superannuation is one of the great boons of the permanent civil service, in which the 
officials are, as a rule, paid salaries lower than they could earn elsewhere ; but to render 
promotion tolerably certain, retirement at 60 should be, not as now voluntary, but com- 
pulsory. At present an official may at his option serve as long as he is capable of attend- 
ing office ; and many actually do die in harness, years after they have become useless. 

SUPERCARGO is an important officer in a merchant vessel, charged with the control 
of all her commercial transactions. The cargo is under his care, and he judges as to its 
disposal and replacement. 

SUPEREROGATION, WORKS OF (Lat, supererogata, over and above things required), 
a class of works which, in the Roman Catholic system, are described as not absolutely 
required of each individual as conditions to his eternal salvation. Roman Catholics 
found this definition on the distinction between what they believe to be commanded and 
what they hold to be only counseled, for an example of which they appeal to the words 
of our Lord to the young man in Matthew xix. 21, which distinguish one class of works 
which are necessary in order to "enter into life," and a further class which must only 
be done if we "would be perfect." Roman Catholics do not profess to recognize in 
works of supererogation any distinctive essential quality by which they differ, whether 
in their physical or their moral entity, from other works, and in virtue of which, by their 
own nature, the individual may found upon them a personal claim to reward. For 
works of supererogation, as for all supernaturally good works, they hold that the assist- 
ance of God's grace is indispensably necessary; and they do not ascribe to them any 
merit, except that which arises from God's own free and gratuitous promise. In one 
word, the only distinctive characteristic of a work of supererogation lies in its not being 
supposed to be prescribed or commanded as absolutely necessary for the salvation of the 
individual, and its being done for the sake of greater perfection ; and the doctrine which 
teaches the possibility of such works is, according to Catholics, a necessary consequence 
of the unequal fervor and unequal degrees of holiness which exist even in the class of 
the virtuous servants of God. A further consequence of this doctrine is that God may 
accept the superabundant works of one in atonement for the defective service of another; 
and hence, in the Catholic theory of indulgences (q.v.), along with what they regard as 
the infinite and inexhaustible treasure of the merits of our Lord, they also regard, al- 
though in a degree infinitely inferior, the superabundant merits of the saints as forming 
part of that "treasure of the church" which is applied in the form of indulgences. 

STJPERFETA'TION, or the circumstance of two distinct conceptions occurring in 
the same woman at an interval of greater or less duration, so that two fetuses of differ- 
ent ages the offspring possibly of different parents may co-exist in the uterus, is a 
subject of great interest both in a scientific and in a medico -legal point of view. A 
couple of centuries ago, there was a universal belief in not only the possibility but the 
comparative frequency of this occurrence. Fifty years ago, it was as universally dis- 
believed; and now again (owing to the investigations of various inquirers, among 
whom Dr. Bonnar of Cupar deserves special mention), we are returning to the belief of 
our ancestors. The cases described as instances of superfetation may be arranged in 
three classes; but as will be presently seen, it is only to the cases of the third class that 
the term superfetation is truly applicable. The first class includes the numerous undis- 
puted cases in which two mature children, bearing evidence, from their different colors, 
that they are the offspring of different parents, are born at the same time. In the slave 
states of America, it was by no means uncommon for a black woman to bear at the same 
time a black and a mulatto child the former being the offspring of her black husband, 
and the latter of her white lover; and the converse has occasionally occurred a white 
woman at the same time bearing a white and a mulatto child. There is no difficulty in 
accounting for these cases, which are examples of contemporaneous conception rather 
than true superfetation. The second class includes those cases in which a twin has been 
aborted, leaving its fellow undisturbed in the uterus, to be matured and born in due 
time, or in which twins have been produced at the same time, one of which was fully 
formed, while the other was small and apparently premature, from being ' ' blighted " or 
arrested in its development at an early period. Cases of these kinds are by no means 
rare ; but there is no reason for believing that the infants were conceived at different 
periods. The third class includes the cases in which a mature child has been born, and 
an immature fetus, the product of a different conception, has either been left in the 
worub until its period of maturation, or, if expelled along with the other, has presented 
no mark of wasting or of arrested development. "In a case of genuine superfetation.'" 

Q1 Supercargo. 


says Dr. Bonnar, "a woman must bear two (or more) mature children, with an interval 
of weeks or months between the birth of each; or, if she part with the whole contents 
of the uterus at the first delivery, the difference of the ages of the fetuses, or the 
mature child and the fetus, as the case may be, must be unmistakable, and there must 
be the absence of all marks of blight of the latter, so as to leave no doubt that, had it 
remained in utero, it would have gone on to perfect maturity." Among the cases of 
superfetation that have been specially discussed by writers on midwifery and medical 
jurisprudence, are the following: (1) Yelpeau quotes from the Becueil de la Societe de 
Mededne the case of a woman named "Aries," who, in 1796, gave birth to a child at the 
full time, and five months afterward to another, which was also thought to be at the 
full time; (2) Dr. Maton, an eminent London physician, communicated to the college of 

physicians the case of Mrs. T , an Italian lady, who was delivered of an apparently 

healthy and mature male child on Nov. 12, 1807, but which lived only nine days. On 
Feb. 2, 1808, or 82 days after the birth of the first, she was delivered of a second child, 
which likewise had every sign of being completely formed and mature. The following 
case, which, as Dr. Bonnar (in his Critical Inquiry regarding Superfetation, Edin. 1865) 
observes, "has been the principal battle-field of the advocates of superfetation and 
their opponents," and has given rise to more discussion than any other, is recorded by 
Dr. Desgrange of Lyon. Madame Yillard had a miscarriage at seven months on May 
20, 1779. In about a month thereafter she conceived again, and on Jan. 20, 1780, she 
brought forth a living child. No milk appeared in her breasts, the abdomen did not 
seem to diminish in size, and other symptoms which normally follow delivery were 
absent. The two surgeons who were in attendance being naturally puzzled, called in 
Dr. Desgrange, who declared, in opposition to their views, that there was still a child in 
the womb ; and his opinion was confirmed by her being delivered of a living child on 
July 6, 1780, 167 days after the first birth. Dr. Bonnar has collected from The Peerage 
a number of cases of probable superfetation occurring in married life. Excluding a 
very few exceptional cases, he adopts Dr. William Hunter's view, that 210 days, or 
seven calendar months, is the minimum period of uterine life at which a child should 
be born in order to be reared, and he assumes that no prolific intercourse can take place 
until at least fourteen days after the first delivery; and with these axioms, he quotes the 
following cases : (1) In the Hamilton (lord Mountflorence) family, a daughter, who was 
born 182 days after the birth of a son who reached maturity, lived to be married, whose 
supposed uterine life was not more than 168 days. (2) In the Aukland family, the hon- 
orable William Frederick Elliot, who was born 178 days after the birth of a sister (who 
lived 60 years), survived 28 years, although his assumed uterine life was only 159 days. 
(3) Lord Cecil J. Gordon, brother to the 10th marquis of Huntly, has a son, Cecil- 
Orosbie, who was born in January 1850 (only 127 days after the birth of a previous 
child). This son came to maturity, and his assumed period of gestation was only 113 
days. "We cannot conceive," says Dr. Bonnar, "how these three cases can possibly 
be* explained except by the doctrine of superfetation;" and Dr. Taylor (Principles and 
Practice of Medical Jurisprudence, page 849) fully adopts his view. Dr. Duncan 
believes, from anatomical investigations, that up to the third month of gestation, a 
second conception may follow the first; and he is of opinion that this will satisfactorily 
account for all the cases of superfetation on record. 

SUPERIOR, in Scotch law, means one who, or whose predecessor, has made a 
grant of heritable property to a vassal, on condition of the latter paying an annual 
duty or sum of money, generally called a feu-duty. The superior is said to have the 
superiority, or dominium directum, and the vassal has the feu, or d'wninium utile. In 
popular language, the superior is a kind of landlord. See FEU In England, the word 
is not used, though in copyhold estates the term "lord'' corresponds to it. 

SUPERIOR, LAKE, the largest body of fresh water in the world, is the highest and 
most western of the great lakes lying* between West Canada and the United States. It 
is situated not far from the center of the North American continent. Its general form is 
nearly semi-lunar, the outer curve being towards the north. Greatest length from e. to 
w., 355 m. ; greatest brenrlth, 160 m. ; area, about 3,200 sq.m. fully that of Ireland. 
The surface of the lake i- about 600 ft. above the level of the sea, and its mean depth 
1000 ft., so that its bottoir. i- 400 ft. below the level of the sea. Its surface has an eleva- 
tion of about 22 feet above :hat of lake Huron and lake Michigan. The greater portion 
of this rise is at the Sault Ste. Marie, a strong rapid about a mile in length, at ,the com- 
mencement of the river St. Mary, which transmits the waters of lake Superior to lake 

Lake Superior, being situated very near the water-shed between Hudson's bay and 
the Mississippi, receives no rivers of importance, although hundreds of small rivers pour 
themselves into it. The largest are the St. Louis river, which falls ino its western 
extremity at Fond du Lac, and is about 110 m. long; and the Neepigon river, on the n. 
side, which, with the lake of the same name, has a length of about 200 miles. One of 
the branches of the Mississippi in Minnesota approaches to within 20 m. of the western 
extremity of lake Superior; and a small lake near the head of the Albany river, of 
vhich the waters flow to Hudson's bay, is only 4 m. from a bay opposite the State 
islands on the northern shore, forming a route with little portage, which has long beei* 

Superphosphates. GO 


used by the Hudson's Bay company, for the conveyance of goods from lake Superior to 
the northern country. 

The promontory Kee-wee-naw, near the middle of the s. side, projects far into the 
lake. The islands are not numerous, the largest being Isle Royale, 44 m. long. 

The country around lake Superior is generally bold and hilly, with the exception of 
the peninsula lying between it and lake Michigan; but few of the hills rise more than 
1000 ft. above the level of the lake, and most of them are far below this height. On the 
southern shore, 100 m. w. of the Saute Ste. Marie, are the Pictured rocks, cliffs of gray 
and red sandstone, from 100 to 200 ft. high, in many places presenting fantastic forms, 
and marked by numerous perpendicular stripes of red and yellow, from ferruginous 
waters trickling down the face of the rock. 

The boundary between the United States and West Canada, starting from the outlet 
of the lake at the Sault Ste. Marie, sweeps toward the n., so as to include in the United 
States even the Isle Royale, which is only 13 m. from the British coast, and strikes 
inland from the mouth of Pigeon or Arrow river, on the n.w. shore. 

The only obstacle to navigation between lake Huron and lake Superior is the Sault 
Ste. Marie, which is overcome by a canal of about a mile in length, with two locks, on 
the American side, This is, perhaps, the finest canal in the world. The sides and bot- 
tom are lined with stone throughout its whole length, the locks are admirably contrived,, 
and the largest ships can pass through it with ease. The trade is increasing so rapidly 
that a canal on the British side will also be required at no distant day. 

The water of lake Superior is remarkable for its coldness, purity, and transparency, 
although the affluents on both sides are either turbulent or deeply colored by vegetable 
matter from swamps and forests. 

A rise or fall in the level of the water, amounting to several inches in a few hours, is 
frequently to be observed along the shore, and has been supposed to be due to a regu- 
lar tide, but is probably caused by the wind. Fresh water being more easily moved 
by the wind than salt water, great waves arise in lake Superior with wonderful rapidity; 
and even in summer, large steamers are compelled to take shelter in some bay, or under 
the lee of an island. Owing to the low temperature of the water, compared with that of 
the air, in summer, fogs are prevalent, resting on the water at night, and vanishing an 
hour or two after sunrise. 

Lake Superior never freezes over, but the bays are sealed up in winter, and a rim of 
ice extends to some distance all around the shore. 

The rocks around the lake are very ancient, belonging principally to the Laurentian 
and Huronian systems of the Azoic series, overlaid in some places, especially on the s. 
side, with patches of the lower Silurian. The prevalent Laurentian rock is orthoclase 
gneiss. Among the Huronian rocks are greenstones, slates, conglomerates, quartzites, 
and limestones. The lower Silurian rocks are soft sandstones. There is everywhere 
much evidence of glacial action. 

The Huronian rocks are well stored with useful minerals. The copper and iron 
mines of the s. side are celebrated for their extent and richness, and there is every reason 
to think that the mineral resources of the British side are equal to those of the Ameri 
can, although as yet comparatively undeveloped. The richest copper-mines are situated 
near Kee-wee-naw point. The metal occurs principally native, and sometimes in single 
masses of great size. One was met with in 1853, which measured about 40 ft. in length, 
and was calculated to weigh about 400 tons. Native silver is found associated with. 
the native copper, and sometimes intimately mixed with it. A rich vein in an islet in 
Thunder bay (British side) yielded in 1870-72 silver to the value of $1,230,000. 
Gold has been found in small specks at Namainse on the British side. Lead ore occurs 
in some places. The beds of hematite, or red iron ore, at Marquette, on the s. side, are 
of wonderful extent. The ore is conveyed by a railway to the harbor, thence by ves 
sels td Cleveland, on lake Erie, and thence by rail to Pittsburg, where it is smelted. 

The fisheries of lake Superior deserve notice, The delicious white- fish and the gray 
trout abound, as well as other kinds of fish. The Canadian legislature passed a law in 
1865 to put a stop to the wholesale destruction of them on the spawning grounds. 

The shores of lake Superior are frequented by bands of the Ojibbeway tribe of 
aborigines. They are of very pure blood, retain in a great measuiv their primitive 
habits, and many of them are still pagans. They seem incapable of adapting them- 
selves to the settled life of the white man. 

The white population of the British shore of lake Superior consist as yet only of the 
fishermen and explorers who visit the region during summer; and of miners, who 
extract the silver ore from veins recently discovered on Silver island, near Thunder 
bay. But on the American shore a number of thriving towns have sprung up. All 
these towns are connected with mines, little attention being yet paid to agriculture. 
Marquette, near the eastern end of the lake, is connected by a railway with Green bay, 
on lake Michigan, and thus with Milwaukee and Chicago. A telegraph line has 
been established. 


STTPERTONIC, in music, the note which, in the diatonic scale, is next above the tonia 
or key-note, and forms with it the interval of the second, as D in the key of C major. 

QQ Superphosphates. 


STIPPLE JACK, a name given in the southern parts of the United States of America to 
the berchfmi'.i rnlubiliis, a twining shrub of the natural order rhamnaccce, which is found as 
far n. as Virginia. It has oval leaves, small flowers, and violet-colored berries. It 
abounds in the Dismal Swamp and in similar situations, and ascends to the tops of the 
highest trees. The genus berchtmia contains a number of species of twining shrubs, 
natives of warm climates in different parts of the world. The name Supple Jack is also 
given in the West Indies and tropical America to seijania (or seriana) triternata, a shrub 
of the natural order sapindacece, with a long, flexile, woody stem, which climbs to the 
tops of the highest trees, and is used for walking-sticks. It has poisonous properties, 
and is employed for stupefying fish. 

SUPPLY', COMMISSIONERS OF, persons appointed by the acts imposing the land-tax in. 
Scotland, to assess, and formerly also to collect, that tax. Their principal duty now is 
to assess the land-tax, and apportion the valuation according to the provisions of the 
valuation of lands act, 17 and 18 Viet. c. 19. They are entitled to name a convener, 
who acts as preses of the meeting, and a clerk with a reasonable salary. The qualification, 
as recently modified by 17 and 18 Viet. c. 91, consists in the being named as an ex officio 
commissioner of supply in any act of supply; or the being proprietor, or husband of a 
proprietor, of lands of the yearly value of 100; or the eldest son of a proprietor of land* 
of the yearly value of 400: and a factor of a proprietor of lands of the yearly value of 
800 is empowered to act as commissioner of supply in his absence. 

By act 17 and 18 Viet. c. 91, the commissioners of supply of every county, and 
magistrates of every burgh, must cause a valuation roll to be made up yearly, showing 
the rents of all lands or heritages in the county or burgh, and the names of the proprie- 
tors and tenants; and for this purpose, they are empowered to appoint an assessor or 
assessors. A yearly court is to be held by the commissioners and magistrates, for hear- 
ing appeals against the determinations of the assessors, in which three commissioners of 
supply and two magistrates are to form a quorum, the preses having a casting-vote. 

SUPPLY, COMMITTEE OF. The sums granted in parliament to defray the public 
expenditure for the current year are called supplies. All bills authorizing the expendi- 
ture of public money must originate in the house of commons, and be based on resolu- 
tions moved in a committee of supply, which is alwaj r s a committee of the whole house. 
The house having resolved that a supply be granted to her majesty, resolves itself into 
a committee of supply. The various estimates are submitted to the committee, which 
has to consider what specific grants are to be voted ; and the resolutions of the committee 
are reported to the house, and adopted or rejected. It belongs to another committee of 
the house, the "committee of ways and means," to consider how the sums shall be raised 
which are voted by the committee of supply. See WAYS AND MEANS, PARLIAMENT. 

SUPPORTERS, in heraldry, figures placed on each side of an armorial shield, as it 
were to support it. They seem to have been, in their origin, a purely decorative inven- 
tion of mediaeval seal-engravers, often, however, bearing allusion to the arms or descent 
of the bearer; but in the course of time, their use came to be regulated by authority, and 
they were considered indicative that the bearer was the head of a family of eminence- 
or distinction. The most usual supporters are animals, real or fabulous; but men in, 
armor are also frequent, and savages (q.v.), or naked men, often represented with clubs, 
and wreathed about the head and middle. There are occasionally but rare instances of 
inanimate supporters. On early seals, a single supporter is not unfrequent, and instances 
are particularly common of the escutcheon being placed on the breast of an eagle dis- 
played. The common rule, however, has been to have a supporter on each side of the- 
shield. The dexter supporter is very often repeated on the sinister side, but the two- 
supporters are in many cases different ; when the bearer represents two different fami- 
lies, it is not unusual for a supporter to be adopted from the achievement of each. 

In England, the privilege of bearing supporters as now defined belongs to the sover- 
eign and princes of the blood, peers and peeresses, and the heads of a very few families- 
not of the peerage, whose right is based on an ancient patent, or very early usage. No- 
right is recognized by the college of arms as belonging to the sons of peers bearing cour- 
tesy titles. Knights of the garter and knights grand cross of the bath are dignified with; 
supporters, which, however, are not hereditary. Supporters have also been assigned to 
the principal mercantile companies of London. In Scotland, the use of supporters is 
somewhat less restricted. The distinction was much less wide than in England between, 
the greater and lesser barons (see MINOR BARONS), and the right to supporters was con- 
sidered to belong to the latter, so long as the baronial status conferred a right to sit im 
parliament. The act of 1587, which finally excluded the lesser barons from the Scottish: 
parliament, and established a sj'stematic parliamentary representation, was not held to> 
interfere with this armorial privilege, and it is yet the practice of the lord Lyon to grant 
or confirm supporters to the representatives of all minor barons who had full baronial 
rights prior to that date. A limited number of heads of important families, including 
the chiefs of the larger Highland clans, apart from considerations of barony, participate 
in the right to supporters. Lyon is also considered to have it in his power to confer 
them ex gratia, a prerogative which is but sparingly exercised, one of the instances of 
*uch departure from strict rule having been in favor of sir Walter Scott. Nova Scotia. 

Suppuration. QA 


baronets as such have no right to supporters, though many of them bear them in respect 
of the baronial qualification. 

The lion and unicorn, familiar in the royal arms of the United Kingdom, were 
adopted, the former from the achievement of England, the latter from that of Scotland 
prior to the union of the crowns. 

In the more modern heraldry, supporters generally stand either on an escrol, contain- 
ing the motto, or, more properly, on a carved panel of no definite form, which in Scot- 
land is known by the name of a compartment. 

SUPPURATION is a morbid process which gives rise to the formation of pus (q.v.), 
which, as is well known, is one of the commonest products of inflammation. There are 
two doctrines as to the origin of pus. The opinion universally adopted till very recently 
-was, that it was formed from an excessive exudation of the fluid portions of the blood 
through the walls of the capillaries; in which exudation, under certain conditions, pus- 
cells were developed. This view is now rejected for the doctrine of Yirchow, the emi- 
nent professor of pathology at Berlin, who maintaines that pus-cells are generated from 
the corpuscles of areolar tissue, which he supposes to permeate nearly every portion of 
the body. Pus, according to Virchow, is a young tissue in which, amid the ra^~ . . 
development of cells, all solid intercellular substance is gradually dissolved. A single 
cell of areola or connective tissue may, in an extremely short space of time, produce 
some dozen of puss-cells; but the result is of no service to the body, suppuration being, 
to use his own words, "a pure process of luxuriatiou, by means of which superfluous 
parts are produced, which do not require that degree of consolidation or permanent con- 
nection with one another, and with the neighboring parts, which is necessary for the 
existence of the body." There are two different modes of pus-formation, according as 
the pus proceeds from epithelium (q.y.) or from connective tissue (see CELLULAR 
TISSUE). When puss is formed from epithelium, it is produced without any consider- 
able loss of substance, and without ulceration; but when it is formed from 'connective 
tissue, ulceration must always exist. The mucous membranes vary in their power of 
forming pus. A mucous membrane, according to Virchow, is the more qualified to 
produce pus without ulceration the more completely its epithelium is stratified, those 
with a single layer of epithelium being less adapted for the production of pus. Thus 
the intestinal mucous membrane scarcely ever produces pus without ulceration ; while 
other mucous membranes, containing several strata of cells, are capable of secreting 
enormous quantities of this fluid without the slightest ulceration (as, for example, the 
urethra! mucous membrane in gonorrhea). 

The above cases of suppuration occur on free or exposed surfaces, and are unac 
companied with loss of tissue. Deep-seated pus-formation takes place only in connective 
tissue. The first stage of formation consists in an enlargement of the normal cells, and 
a division and excessive and rapid multiplication of their nuclei. This is soon followed 
by division of the cells themselves, and their conversion into true pus-cells. If this 
process takes place beneath a surface which does not participate in the morbid change, 
or which is capable of resisting it for a time, an abscess is formed; whereas, when pus- 
cells are poured forth from an exposed surface, we have an ulcer. 

Although suppuration is a morbid procees, it often accompanies processes of a bene- 
ficial tendency (such as granulation), and frequently takes the place of other far more 
morbid processes. It further affords a mechanical means of removing foreign bodies, 
such as thorns, splinters of glass, etc., from soft parts into which they may have been 
driven ; and it is possible (as some pathologists believe) that the formation of abscesses 
may sometimes serve to eliminate morbid matters from the system. 

SUPRALAPSA RIAN (Lat. supra, before, lapsus, the fall), the name given to the school 
of divines which maintains that God's absolute decree of election and reprobation is 
antecedent to his foresight of the fall of Adam, and irrespective of it. See SUBLAP- 

SUPRA-RE NAL CAPSULES AND THEIR DISEASES. The supra-renal capsules are two 
small, flattened, glandular bodies of a yellowish color, situated, as their name implies, 
immediately in front of the upper end of each kidney. In weight they vary from one 
two drams. They belong to the class of ductless glands, and on making a perpendicu- 
lar section, each gland is seen (like the kidney) to consist of cortical and medullary sub- 
stance. The blood-vessels and nerves of the glands are exceedingly numerous. Of late 
I years much attention has been drawn to the diseases of these organs from the observation 
of the late Dr. Addison (of Guy's hospital), that such cases are frequently associated with 
the deposition of pigment in the skin, causing it to assume a deep bronze color. The 
following definition of Addison' s disease, or supra-renal melasma, or bronzed skin 
disease, embracing all the most important points in its natural history, is given by Dr. 
Aitken: "A morbid state which establishes itself with extreme insidiousness, whose 
characteristic features are anaemia, general languor and debility, and extreme prostration, 
expressed by loss of muscular power, weakness of pulse, remarkable feebleness of the 
heart's action, breathlessness upon slight exertion, dimness of sight, functional weaknesg 
and irritability of the stomach, and a peculiar uniform discoloration of the skin, which 
becomes of a brownish olive-green hue, like that of a mulatto, occurring in connection 
With a certain diseased condition of the supra-renal capsules. The progress of the 

Q K Suppuration. 


disease is very slow, extending on an average over one year and a half, but may be pro- 
longed over four or five. The tendency to death is by asthenia, the heart becoming 
utterly powerless, as if its natural stimulus the blood had ceased to act." T lie Science 
and Practice of Medicine (3d. ed. vol ii. p. 72), The numerous cases recorded by differ- 
ent physicians of all countries since Dr. Addison's original observations were made, sho^f 
that the connection between bronzing of the skin and various morbid states of the 
supra-renal capsules is a fact beyond all dispute; but the exact relationship and patho- 
logical significance of the morbid states thus connected are still open questions. Tu ; 
special morbid changes in the capsules necessary for the production of the symptoms 
which constitute the disease, are first the deposition of a translucent, softish substance; 
the degeneration of this to a yellowish-white opaque matter; and afterward a softening 
into an abscess, or drying up into a chalky mass. In the way of treatment, nothing can 
be done but attempt to improve the general health by nourishing food, tonics, etc. The 
literature of this very singular disorder is mainly to be found in various memoirs in th 
Guy's Hoxpital Reports. 

SUPREMACY, ROYAL. The term supremacy is, in politics, chiefly used with regard 
to authority in matters ecclesiastical. From the time of pope Gelasius (494 A.D.) to tha 
reformation, the pope exercised a very extensive authority, judicial, legislative, and 
executive, over all the churches of western Europe, somewhat undefined in its limits, 
varying in different countries and at different periods; which continues to be more or 
less recognized in all countries whose inhabitants are in communion with the church of 
Rome. At the English reformation, the papal supremacy was abolished, and act 26 
Henry VIII. c. 1, declared the king and his successors to be the "only supreme head on 
earth of the church of England. " A curious document was at the same time drawn up 
by the government, in which, to avoid misconception, it was explained that the recogni- 
tiou of this headship of the church implies only that the king should have such power 
as of right appertaineth to a king by the law of God, and that he should not take any 
spiritual power from spiritual ministers, or pretend to "take any power from the suc- 
cessors of the apostles that was given them by God." In 1535, the same year in which 
this act was passed, John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, sir Thomas More, and others, 
were beheaded for denying the king's supremacy; and in 1578, John Nelson, a priest, 
and Sherwood, a young layman, suffered flie punishment of death for the same offense. 
The assumption by Henry VIII. of the title of "head of the church," notwithstanding 
the explanation alluded to, was much commented on; andon,the accession of Elizabeth, 
it was thought prudent, while again claiming the supremacy in all causes, as well eccle- 
siastical as civil, to keep that designation in the background. By successive statutes, 
the oath of supremacy was appointed to be taken by the holders of public offices along 
with the oath of allegiance and of abjuration, and these three oaths were consolidated 
into one by 21 and 22 Viet. c. 48. The subject of oaths was, however, revised by th 
legislature in 1868 and 1871; and a new short oath of allegiance, in which the royal 
supremacy in matters ecclesiastical is not in express words specified, was substituted 
for the oath previously imposed upon members of both houses of parliament. See 

SITRABAY'A, a leading sea-port of Java, and capital of a residency, is situated on the 
Karli Miis mouth of the river Kedirie, near the strait of Madura, the citadel being in 
7 4' 30" . lat., and 112 40' 40" e. long. The population of the city and suburbs is about 
90,000. The European town is on the w bank, 5 bridges connecting it with the Chinese 
and Javau quarters on the east. There are 2 Protestant clergymen, a Roman Catholic 
priest and assistant, 4 government and 6 adventure schools for Christian children. There 
are regular steamboat services to Samarang, Batavia, and other places. In 1874 the gov- 
ernment sugar culture in Surabaya employed 57,114 families, and produced 31,445 tons. 
The government coffee amounted to 386^'tons. The residency of Surabaya comprises an 
extensive tract of fertile land in the n.e. of Java, and the island of Madura. On Jan. 1, 
1874, the population amounted in all to 1,526,148, including 5,342 Europeans and 10,515 
Chinese. Rice, coffee, sugar, indigo, cotton, tobacco, and cocoa-nuts are extensively cul- 

BURAKAR TA, a residency of Java, s.e. from Samarang, with an area of 2,366 sq.m. ; 
is fertile and well cultivated, producing rice, maize, sugar, coffee, tea, indigo, tobacco, 
pepper, cacao, vanilla, and tropical fruits. In 1874 4,309! tons of coffee were produced. 
Pop. '74, 826,560, including 1906 Europeans. The people are proud, and less obedient 
than in the other residencies, but abjectly submissive to the native emperor, though, in 
many things connected with his government, he must consult the European resident. 

Surakarta, the capital of the empire, and seat of the residency, lies on the left bank 
of the Solo, in T 31' 30" s. lat., and 110 46' 7" e. long., covers a" large space, and has a 
population of over 50,000. Many princes and nobles have their palaces in Surakarta; 
that of the emperor is of great extent and splendor, 10,000 persons, belonging to, or in 
the service of the royal family, living within the wall. North-east from the royal park* 
lies the European town, in front of which, surrounded by the parade ground, and com- 
manding the palace, is a square fort, with broad canal and drawbridges at the four cur- 
tains, and mounted with 30 pieces of heavy artillery. There is a normal school for train- 
ing Javanese teachers; a government school, with 80 pupils; and an adventure girls* 

Surat. Q(\ 


school, with 40 pupils. A railway was completed in 1870, from Samarang to Surakarta, 
by which the produce is easily conveyed to the port of shipment and an impulse given to 
trade and agriculture. 

SUKAT (Sans. Saurashtra, good country), a large but declining city of British India, 
capital of a district of the same name, 150 m. n. of Bombay, and about 17 m. from the 
mouth of the Tapti, in the gulf of Cambay. It is 6 m. in circumference, and it is sur- 
rounded on the landward side by a brick wall. The river at Surat is said to be fordable, 
although at high tide it can float vessels of 50 tons burden. The English and Portuguese 
factories, the former now used partly as a lunatic asylum and parti}- as hospital, are both 
imposing edifices of great strength and solidity. Surat is said to have contained but this 
is probably an exaggeration S00,000 inhabitants at the close of the 18th c., about which 
time its markets were crowded with the costliest wares, brought ~by merchants from the 
remotest countries. Its trade and manufactures, once almost extinct, revived during the 
American civil war, and it still exports cotton and grain to Bombay. Surat is a place of 
considerable military strength, and the residence of a British military commandant and 
other dignitaries. Pop. '71, 107,149. 

Surat was long thought to be one of the most ancient cities of Hindustan, but this 
opinion is now abandoned, and it is believed to have been a mere fishing-village as late as 
the 13th century. It first rose into importance as the spot whence the Mohammedans of 
Hindustan embarked on their religious voyage to Mecca. Surat was sacked in 1512 by 
the Portuguese soon after their arrival in India. In 1612 an English force arrived here 
in two vessels, under the command of capt. Best, who defeated the Portuguese, and 
obtained a firman from the Mogul emperor, authorizing the residence of a British min- 
ister. The Dutch trade with Surat commenced in 1016, when a Dutch factory was estab- 
lished. A French factory was founded in 1668. In the course of time, the English 
influence began to predominate. In 1759 the castle and fleet were made over to them; 
and from the year 1800 the government of the settlement has been entirely vested in their 




STTEFACE GETJB, the caterpillar of the great yellow undenting inoth (triphana pronuba), 
& pretty large moth, with the upper wings deep brown or pale tawny, the under wings 
bright orange with a blacl* border. This moth abounds in hay -fields in Britain at the 
season of haymaking. The caterpillar, when full grown, is nearly an inch and a half 
long, pale green with a tinge of brown, dotted with black, three pale lines down the 
back, and seven black spots on the inside of each of the two outer ones. It often does 
great mischief to the roots of cabbages and turnips, and also devours the roots of grass. 

STJEFDTTCK, or SURF SCOTER, Oidcmia perspicillata, a species of scoter (q.v.) extremely 
plentiful on the coasts of Labrador, Hudson's bay, and other very northern parts of 
America, from which great numbers migrate southward in winter. It is a rare visitant 
of the coasts of Britain and other parts of Europe. In size it is about equal to the mal 
lard. The plumage is black, except two patches of white on the head and back of the 
neck. It is never seen on lakes or rivers, but only on the sea-coast. It dives so quickly 
that it is very difficult to shoot except when on the wing. Its flesh is rank, and has a 
fishy taste. 

SUEGEON, ARMY AND NAYY. In the army, surgeon is the grade in which an officer 
enters the medical department, and from which he is promoted in about 15 ye:,- s to the 
rank of surgeon-major. He may be attached to a regiment, or serve with a district hos- 
pital ; pay and duty being practically the same in either case. The pay rises gradually 
from 182 10s. to 319 7s. 6d. a year; and the surgeon ranks as a lieut. for six years, and 
afterward as a captain. In the medical department of the navy, surgeon is also the junior 
rank, reckoning for precedence as a sub-lieut. for six years, and afterward as a lieut. 
The pay varies from 200 15s. a year to 310 5s 

STJEGEONS. COLLEGE OF. The present "Royal College of Surgeons of England" 
dates its origin from the year 1460-61, when Edward IV. "did, at "the supplication of 
the freemen of the mystery of barbers of the city of London using the mystery or faculty 
I of surgery, grant to them that the said mystery, and all the men of the same mystery of 
| the said city, should be one body and perpetual community." In 1500, four masters of 
surgery were appointed, under the title of "Magistri sive Gubernatores mistere Barbi- 
tonsorum et Sirurgicorum" (sic), and six years after this date the barber-surgeons of 
j Edinburgh were incorporated by a charter from James IV. Although the original 
charter granted to the company of barbers of London was confirmed by several succeed- 
ing kings, many persons practiced surgery independently, and apparently in defiance 
of the company; and in order to check unqualified persons, it was enacted in the 3d 
year of Henry VIII. (1511) " that no person within the city of London, or within seven 
miles of the same, shall take upon him to exercise or occupy as a physician or surgeon 
except he be first examined, approved, and admitted by the bishop of London, or by 
the dean of St. Paul's, calling to him four doctors of physic, and for surgery other expert 
persona in that faculty." Hence arose a company called the surgeons of London. la. 

Q >7 Stir at. 


the 32d year of Henry VIII. (1540), the company of barbers of London and the com- 
pany of surgeons of * London were united ' ' by the name of the masters or governors 
of the mystery and commonalty of the barbers and surgeons of London." It was not 
till the 18th year of George II. (1745) that the surgeons of London were by act of 
parliament separated from the barbers of London, and made a distinct corporation under 
the name of "The Master, Governors, and Commonalty of the Art and Science of Sur- 
gery of London." In the 40th year of George III. (1800), this company was dissolved, 
and replaced with their former and additional privileges by "The Royal College of Sur- 
geons of London." A new charter was granted to the college in the 7th year of Victoria 
(1843), in which it is declared "that it is expedient to create a new class of members, to 
be called fellows," and "that from henceforth the corporate name or style of the said 
college shall be THE EOYAL COLLEGE OP SURGEONS OF ENGLAND." Power was given 
to the council to elect not less than 250, nor more than 300, members of the college to be 
fellows. These "first fellows" were mainly elected from the London and provincial 
hospital surgeons. Other fellows might subsequently be elected from the members, "after 
having complied with such rules and regulations as shall be considered expedient, and 
after having passed a special examination." Those who are admitted to the fellowship 
by examination are distinguished in the college calendar by the letters Ex being prefixed 
to their name. By an addition to the charter, obtained in 1852, power was given to the 
council, subject to certain regulations, to appoint members of 15 years' standing to the 
fellowship without examination. The college was likewise empowered to test the fitness 
of persons to practice midwifery and to grant certificates of such fitness; and in 1859 it 
was similarly authorized to test the fitness of persons to practice as dentists, and to 
grant certificates of such fitness. 

The government of the college is vested in a council of twentj'-four persons, includ- 
ing one president and two vice-presidents; and none but fellows of 14 years' standing 
are eligible as members of council. Three members of council go out annually by rota- 
tion, and the vacancies are filled up on the first Thursday of July. There is a board and 
a court of examiners, each consisting of ten members, including a chairman at the 
former, and a president at the latter; and as the examiners, who receive large emolu- 
ments (the fees to the court of examiners for the professional examination of members 
for the year ending June 24, 1878, were 10,110 15s.), are elected by the council, whose 
remuneration is slight, a position in the council is eagerly sought for as a stepping stone 
to an examinership. Besides the court of examiners, there are special boards of exam- 
iners in midwifery, in dental surgery, and in classics, mathematics, and French for the 
preliminary membership and fellowship examination. There are four professorships in 
connection with the college viz., that of human anatomy and surgery, the Hunterian 
professorship of comparative anatomy and physiology, the chair of surgery and path- 
ology, and that of dermatology. A Hunterian orator is appointed every second year. 
The college sends a representative to the general council of education and registration. 
A candidate for the membership of the college is required to pass a preliminary exam- 
ination in tke usual branches of a liberal education. The fee for the anatomical exam- 
ination is 5, 5s., and that for the surgical, or pass-examination, is 16, 15s., making a 
total of 22. The fellowship fee is an additional 10 guineas. For details, see the 
Calendar of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 

The museum of the college of surgeons is incomparably the finest museum of its 
kind in the United Kingdom. The Hunterian collection (see HUNTER, JOHN), which 
forms its basis, was purchased by a parliamentary vote of 15,000, and presented to the 
college in 1799. The edifice in Lincoln's Inn Fields (the germ of the present pile of 
buildings) was completed in 1813. The Hunterian collection was estimated to consist of 
13,682 specimens; the total number of specimens was recently reckoned at above 40, 000. 
The library contains 36,000 volumes. Both the museum and library are readily acces- 
sible to visitors. 

SURGEONS OF EDINBURGH, ROYAL COLLEGE OF, was originally an association of 
those professing "surregerie and barbour-craft,"who obtained their first civic charter in 
1504, and had it confirmed by James IV. next year. About 1589 began the custom of 
granting leave to barbers to practice their profession, without admitting them to the 
full freedom of the incorporation. For a century and a half the members of the craft 
wen- sole teachers and almost sole professors of the surgical art in Edinburgh, and con- 
trived to hold their own against the physicians, who, both before and after their incor- 
poration as a royal, college in 1681, made efforts to secure authority over the surgeons. 
In 1637 the surgeons granted the apothecaries a civil status in alliance with themselves; 
the nominal connection with the barbers was dissolved in 1732. A patent of 1694 settled 
the relations between the surgeons and the physicians, making amicable terms possible; 
and in 1778 the surgeons became formally a royal college too. Nevertheless they 
remained, much against their will, one of the incorporations of Edinburgh, till the act 
of 1851 dissolved wha't survived of their civic rights, and set the college free from the 
galling control of the town council. The college, which in 1879 had more than 410 fel- 
lows, sanctions the lectures of a staff of its own members as qualifying for examination 
candidates for its diploma of licentiate, and appoints a board of examiners. This exam- 
ination is now usually taken in connection with that for the diploma of the college of 

U. K. XIV. 7 


SURGERY. There can be no rational doubt that surgery (Gr. chtir, the hand; ergon, 
work, signifying the manual interference, by means of instruments or otherwise, in cases 
of bodily injury, as distinguished from the practice of medicine, which denotes the treat- 
ment of internal diseases by means of drugs) is as old as man himself. Passing over the 
very little that is known regarding the state of surgery among the early Egyptians and 
the Jews, and the skill ascribed to Chiron and other mythical personages among the 
early Greeks, we may regard the true history of surgery as commencing with Hippoc- 
rates, who flourished in the oth c. B.C. He was acquainted with the ordinary means of 
counter-irritation, as issues, a kind of moxa, and the actual cautery. He seems to have 
performed the capital operations with boldness and success; he reduced dislocations and 
set fractures, but clumsily and cruelly ; extracted the fetus with forceps when necessary, 
and both used and abused the trepan. He did not perform lithotomy, the practice of 
which seems at that time to have been well known, but to have been confined to a few, 
who made it their exclusive study. From the time of Hippocrates we may pass over a 
couple of centuries, when, on the death of Alexander the great, Alexandria became the 
great school of anatomy, surgery, and medicine. Herophilus and Erasistratus (300 B.C.) 
were as distinguished for their surgical skill as for their anatomical knowledge. One 
member of this school, Ammianus, invented an instrument by which he broke down 
stones in the bladder, thus anticipating by about 2,000 years Civiale's discovery of lithot- 
rity. When the great Alexandrian library was destroyed by fire, Rome became tha 
headquarters of science in all its departments. The early Romans of all ranks held 
surgeons and physicians in abhorrence, and trusted for cures, even in cases of disloca- 
tion and fracture, to spells and incantations. The first regular surgeon who settled iu 
Rome was Archagathus (220 B.C.), a student of the Alexandrian school. At first his 
skill procured for him a high reputation, but the old prejudices soon revived, and he 
was banished from the Roman capital. The first Roman surgeon of real merit was 
Celsus, who flourished at the beginning of the Christian era, who improved the mode of 
performing lithotomy and amputation, described the operation for cataract, and first 
recommended the application of ligatures to wounded arteries, for the purpose of arrest- 
ing hemorrhage. His works contain an exact representation of surgical knowledge up 
to his own time. Aretaeus of Cappadocia, who practiced in Rome during the latter half 
of the 1st c., was the first to employ blisters, using cantharides (as we still do) for that 
purpose. Rufus of Ephesus, who lived half a century later, first tied an artery which 
had become aneurismal in consequence of being wounded in venesection. Galen, who 
practiced in Rome in the latter part of the 2d c., mainly obtained his great reputation 
by his medical practice. His surgery was confined for the most part to fomentations, 
ointments, and plasters for external application; to the art of bandaging, and to the 
employment of complicated machinery in fractures and dislocations. There is little to 
record for several future centuries. Aetius, in the 6th c., recommended scarification of 
the legs in dropsy, tried to dissolve urinary calculi by internal remedies, studied the dis- 
eases of the eye, and is the first writer who notices the guinea- worm. Paulus ^Egineta, 
in the 7th c., opened internal abscesses by caustics, improved the operation of lithotomy, 
described several varieties of aneurism, extirpated the breast, performed laryngotomy 
and tracheotomy, and was the originator of the operation of embiyotomy. His sixth 
book is regarded as the best body of surgical knowledge previous to the revival of letters. 
Rhazes, an Arabian, who had charge of an hospital at Bagdad, at the end of the 9th c., 
was the first to describe spina bifida, but lie did not understand its real nature ; he cau- 
terized the bites of rabid animals, and gave a better account of hernia than any of his 
predecessors. To Avicenna, who lived a century later, we probably owe the first use 
of the flexible catheter, and of the instrument now generally known as Hey's saw. 
Albucasis (died 1122) describes an instrument for the cure of fistula lachrymalis, the 
removal of tumors by ligatures when the knife is inexpedient, the suture of wounded 
intestines, the use of the probang in obstruction of the gullet, etc., and is the only 
ancient writer on surgery who describes the instruments used in each special operation. 
In 1271 Pitard, an eminent surgeon of his time, laid the foundation of the college of 
surgeons of Paris. In our own country, Gilbertus Anglicanus, who lived about the 
beginning of the 14th c., is the first known surgical writer; he was shortly followed by 
John of Gaddesden, author of the Rosa, Anglica. In the middle of that century Guy de 
Chauliac, the first to describe the Caesarian operation, practiced at Avignon ; and con- 
temporary with him was John of Ardern, who is regarded as the first surgeon of his 
time. During the 15th c. the local application of arsenic for cancer was proposed by 
Taranta, a Portuguese surgeon practicing at Montpellier; and lithotomy was removed 
from the hands of itinerant quacks into the department of pure surgery, by Colot, a 
surgeon to the French court. Moreover, the college of surgeons dates from this century, 
having been founded in 1460-61 ; while at the commencement of the next century (1505) 
the Edinburgh college was founded. The surgery of the 16th c. may be said to be 
represented by Ambrose Pare (q.v.). His works, first published in 1535, exerted a most 
beneficial influence on the profession. Toward the close of this century, Fabricius ab 
Acquapendente (q.v.), to whom we are indebted for the modern trephine, and for the 
use of the tube in tracheotomy, published his Opera Gkirurgica, which passed through 
17 editions. Early in the 17th c. (1612), a Scotchman named Lowe published .4 Discourse 



n the whole Art of Chirvrgery; and about 50 years later Wiseman, who has been appro- 
priately termed "the Pare of England," and "the true father of British surgery," 
flourished. He was sergeant-surgeon to Charles II., and his surgical works, published in 
1676, may still be read with interest. He was the first to dispel the dangerous belief 
that gun-shot wounds were of a poisoned nature, and had consequently to be treated 
wiili the most painful kinds of dressing. Contemporary with him were James Young 
of Plymouth, who first performed the flap-operation in amputation; Scultetus (a Ger- 
man), the author of Armamentarium Chirurgicum; frere St. Cosme, commonly known 
us frere Jacques, a French monk, who considered himself specially commissioned by 
heaven to cut for stone, and who has the merit of having converted the tearing into a 
cutting operation ; Rau of Leyden, one of the most successful lithotomists of any age, 
and a pupil of f rere Jacques; and Roonhuysen, who divided the sternomastoid muscle 
for wry-neck, and may thus be regarded as the inventor of tenotomy. The 18th c. pro- 
duced,' in England, White, the originator of excision of joints; Cheselden and Douglas, 
famous as lithotomists; Percival Pott, John Hunter, and Hey of Leeds; in Scotland, 
Monro, Benjamin Bell, and John Bell; in Ireland, O'Halloran and Dease; in France, 
Petit and Desault the former celebrated for his work on diseases of the bones, and the 
latter distinguished for his improvements in surgical instruments of various kinds: in 
Germany, Richter and the illustrious Haller; and in Italy, Lancisi, Morgagni, and 
Scarpa. Moreover, in this century (1784) the royal college of surgeons in Ireland was 
founded. Never was surgery so brilliantly represented as during the present century. 
The London medical schools can point with equal pride to the names of Abernethy, 
Blizard, Brodie, Astley Cooper, Dalrymple (the oculist), Earle, Guthrie and Hennen (the 
great military surgeons), Aston Key, Liston, Stanley, Travers, Tyrrell (the oculist), Ware 
(the oculist), James Wilson, and many other nearly equally celebrated surgeons of an earlier 
date; and to the more recent ones of Arnott, Bowman, Erichsen, Fergusson, Prescott Hew 
ett, Hilton, Lane, Lawrence, Luke, Paget, Spencer Wells, and a host of others. In Edin- 
burgh were sir Charles Bell, Lizars, Miller, Syme (whose name will ever be associated with 
& special amputation of the foot, and with the operation for stricture), and Simpson, dia- 
coverer of the application of chloroform to surgical practice. Among the most recent inno- 
vations and improvements in surgical practice may be mentioned the practice of antiseptit 
surgery, with which the name of Joseph Lister is so worthily associated. The principle 
of prof. Lister's method consists in the exclusion of septic matter usually existing in 
the form of germs, and derived from the atmosphere from raw or wounded surfaces. 
Wounds are dressed under carbolic acid spray, and with other preparations of this and 
other antiseptic substances, care being taken in dressing the wound to exclude ordinary 
atmospheric air. The results of this practice have been on the whole surprising; and 
recoveries from many serious operations have taken place in remarkably short periods, 
and with an absence of suppuration and other secondary effects of the inflammatory 
process. Among the surgical celebrities of Dublin must be mentioned Peile, the inventor 
of Peile's lithotorne and staff; Todd (the father of the late eminent Dr. Todd, of Lon- 
don), who was the first to successfully revive the treatment of aneurism by compression; 
Colles, the first to describe the fracture known as Colles's fracture of the radius ; Car- 
michael, distinguished for his opposition to the indiscriminate use of mercury in syphilis; 
Bellingham, and Hutton, whose names are associated with the full development of ths 
revived treatment of aneurism by compression ; Cusack, Porter, McDowel, and sir Philip 
Crampton ; Adams (well known for his treatise On the Diseases of the Joints, and Chronit 
Rheumatism), R. W. Smith (celebrated for his researches on fractures and neuroma), and 
Jacob (the discoverer of the membrana Jacobi). It would be impossible to mention a 
tithe of the names of those who have attained high surgical celebrity in the provinces 
during the present century. The barons Dupuytren and Larrey, and MM. Amussat, 
Chassaignac, Civiale, Brasdor, Broca, Desmarre (the oculist), Nelaton, Roux, Sichel the 
oculist), Velpeau, etc., have honorably sustained the reputation of French surgery. 
Beer (the oculist), Chelius, Dieffenbach, Von Giife (the oculist), Gurlt, JSger (the ocu- 
list), Langenbeck, Stromeyer, and Wiitzer, constitute but a small portion of the eminent 
surgeons of Germany. Callisen of Copenhagen, Porta of Pavia, and Perogoff of St. 
Petersburg, may be taken as the surgical representatives of their respective countries. 
Among American surgeons, the names of Valentine Mott, the Warrens, Marion Sims, 
and Gross deserve special notice. To understand what surgery now is, and to trace ito 
recent progress, the reader should study the standard surgical treasures of Erichsen, Fer- 
gusson, Miller, and Syme; and the comprehensive and most valuable System of Surgery, 
edited by Mr. Holmes, and contributed to by many of the most eminent authorities on 
surgery. He will also do well to read Fergusson 's Lectures on Conservative Surgery, and 

Svme's Address on Surgery, delivered before the members of the British Association in 

''Aug., 1865. 

With the increase of knowledge, specialities naturally develop themselves; and such 
has been the case hi surgery. The diseases of the eye, the diseases of the ear, the diseases 
peculiar to women, the diseases of children, and deformities (the treatment of which is 
termed orthopedic surgery), more or less separate themselves, at least in large towns, 
from general surgery, and constitute special departments, of which dentistry may b 
considered one; as most of the eminent dentists of the present day are regularly edu- 
cated and qualified surgeons. 

Surlcate. -| AA 


It, is deserving of record that within recent years nearly all the British universities 
have commenced to give surgical as well as medical degrees. 

For further information on the history of surgery, the reader is referred to the old 
histories of Le Clerc (Geneva, 1696) and Freind (Lond. 1725), to Moir's Outlines of the 
Ancient History of Medicine, to Sprengel's voluminous History of Medicine (in German), 
and to the admirable " Historical Notice of Surgery" in the lute prof. Miller's Principles 
of Surgery, from which we have borrowed many of the details incorporated in this 

SU'RICATE, the Ryzcena capenm, a carnivorous animal of s. Africa and the cape of 
Good Hope, sometimes called zenick. It belongs to the family viverridm, and is, therefore, 
allied to the civet (q.v.), genet (q.v.), ichneumon (q.v.), and paradoxurus (q.v.). The 
generic characteristics are: feet rather long, and toes with robust claws adapted to bur- 
rowing habits ; tongue furnished with horny papilla; ears small; tail long, slender, and 

O O -1 -j K K 

pointed. Dental formula i - -; c T- -y; m - - = 36. The genus ryzaena resembles 

the ichneumons in the tinting and stripes of the coat; but the legs are longer, there are 
only four toes on each foot, and the dentition differs in not having small molars imme- 
diately behind the canine (111). The R. capensis is about 2 ft. long, including the tail; 
fur, a mixture of brown, white, yellowish, and black. The color of the hair is brown at 
the bottom, black near the tips, and hoary at the points; those on the back undulated; 
inside of the legs, yellowish-brown; tail, tufted with black. According to Pennant it is 
called the meer-rat at the Cape. It also resembles the ichneumons in habits, and its 
urine is very fetid. It eats flesh, preys on mice, and devours quantities of cock- 
roaches. Sometimes it is domesticated for the purpose of exterminating vermin. 



SURMOUNTED, in heraldry, a term used to indicate that one charge is to be placed 
over another of different color or metal, which may respectively be blazoned: Sable, 
a pile argent surmounted by a chevron gules; and, argent, a cross gules, surmounted 
by another or. 

SURMULLET, Mullus, a genus of acanthopterous fishes of the family mullidce, a small 
family formerly included in percidce, but distinguished by having two dorsal fins widely 
separated from one another, the first spinous; and large, easily detached, strongly ciliated 
scales on the head and body. The genus mullus has no teeth on the upper jaw, but a 
disk of pavement-like teeth on the front of the vomer. Two long barbels hang from the 
under jaw, or, when not in use, are folded up against it. Only two species are known, 
both abundant in the Mediterranean, and both found on the British coasts. They very gen 
erally receive the name MULLET, by which they are confounded with a very different genus. 
The STRIPED SURMULLET, or STRIPED RED MULLET (M. surmuletus), is sometimes very 
plentiful on the southern coast of England, but is rarer toward the north. It approaches 
the shores in summer, and many surmullets are then taken in mackerel nets; but at other 
seasons it is only obtained from comparatively deep water by trawl-nets. It sometimes 
attains, in the Mediterranean, a weight of 6 or 7 pounds, but has never been known 
much to exceed 3 pounds in the British seas, and is seldom more than 2 pounds in 
weight. The ancient Romans, who held it in the highest esteem, gave prodigious prices 
for fish of unusually large size. They kept surmullets in their vivaria; but there the fish 
did not increase in size. The color is pale pink, with three or four yellow longitudinal 
stripes; but where any of the scales have been rubbed off, beautiful tints of purple and 
bright red appear, which takes place also during the struggles of the fish when dying, 
and the Romans were therefore accustomed to bring surmullets alive into their banquet- 
ing-rooms, that the guests might see them die, and enjoy the brilliant display of color, 
before eating the fish. The liver was regarded as peculiarly delicious, and was bruised 
in wine to make a garum for the flesh. The surmullet is still regarded as one of the best' 
of fishes. The RED SURMULLET, or PLAIN RED MULLET (M. barbatus), is very rare on 
the coasts of Britain. It is a much smaller fish than that already described. Other 
species of muUidai are found in tropical s"eas. 

SURNAME (either from its beiug an additional name Fr. surnom, Ital. sopranome 
or from the practice of writing it over the Christian name, which is to be seen in the 
court rolls and other ancient muniments), in modern Europe, the family name. The 
Roman cognomen partook somewhat of the same character; but the introduction of the 
surnames of modern time cannot be traced further back than the latter part of the 10th 
century. See NAME, 

SURPLICE (Lat. super pellicium, above the robe of fur), a linen or muslin vestment, 
worn by clerks of all degrees of orders in the discharge of their public religious offices. 
It is by some supposed to be derived from the longer and more flowing vestment which, 
in the Roman Catholic church, is still used in the mass, and is called the "alb;" but in 
that church the surplice is worn not alone by priests, but by all who have been admitted 
even to the church tonsure. Its most ordinary use is for the service of the choir, and it 
is also employed, along with the stole, by priests in the administration of the sacraments, 
and in preaching. The use of the surplice was strongly objected to by the Calvinistic: 


and Zwinglian reformers on the continent, and by the Puritans in England, who regarded 
this vestment as a relic of popery, and made it the subject of vehement denunciations. 
The argument against it is to be found in Beza, Tractat. Thtolog., iii. 29, and its defense 
in Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, book v., ch. 29. Ere ritualism became so common in 
England, no little stir used from time to time to be created by the use of the surplice by 
the preacher in the pulpit, contrary to the more general practice in the Anglican church. 
Preaching in the surplice has been associated in the popular mind with a Romanizing 
tendency, although it is difficult to say on what basis this association rests. 

SURREY (Sax. Suth-rice, the s. kingdom), an inland co. in the s. of England, bounded 
on the n. by Middlesex, and on the e. by Kent. Area, 483,178 acres; pop. '71, 1,091,635. 
The middle of the county is traversed from w. to e. by a well-marked ridge of the North 
downs, which rises in Botley hill, above Titsey, to the height of 880 feet. On the n. 
side of this range, the land slopes gradually to the banks of the Thames, which runs 
along the northern border; but on the s. side, the descent is rugged and broken, afford- 
ing pleasing and sometimes romantic scenery. S. of the main range, and about 4 m. s. 
of Dorking, is Leith hill, 993 ft. high, the most important elevation in this quarter of the 
country. Stretching along the southern bank of the Thames, and extending over a space 
about 6 m. in breadth, is a tract which belongs to the London clay formation; further s., 
and likewise extending from w. to e., there is a tract of plastic clay, varying in breadth 
from 1 to 5 miles. Chalk, weald-clay, and iron-sand formations occupy the s. of the 
county. The principal streams are the Mole and Wey, tributaries of the Thames. The 
soil of the northern half of the county is fertile; in the w. and s.w. the land is, to a great 
extent, covered with heath. The climate is soft and mild in low-lying districts, and is 
favorable to the production of corn and grass. More than four-fifths of the entire area 
are under culture. In the n., in the vicinity of London, there are numerous market- 
gardens, the produce of which is sent to supply the markets of the metropolis. Hops, 
wheat, and the ordinary crops are raised. The county contains much wood, and the beauty 
of the scenery, and the facility of communication with London, have attracted many 
residents to Surrey, which is consequently studded over with mansions and villas. 
Manufactures are carried on in Southwark and in the other southern suburbs of London, 
as well as in Croydon, Guildford, Kingston, and Reigate, which are the principal towns. 
The county returns four members to the house of commons. 

SURREY, HENRY HOWARD, Earl of, 1516-47; b. England; son of the -third duke of 
Norfolk. His youth was spent in France, and at the court of Henry VIII. In 1540 and 
for some years later, he served in France and gained the title of field marshal; he cap- 
tured Boulogne, was made its governor, and gained other victories, but was recalled to 
England after some slight reverses at St. Etieune. His influence at court was no longer 
as powerful as in the life of the duke of Richmond, Henry's natural son; charges of 
treasonable ambition were constantly urged against the duke of Norfolk and Surrey by 
the Hertford faction; and in 1546 the two werp arrested; Norfolk was sent to the Tower, 
and Surrey was beheaded, 1547. As a poet he was the first to introduce the sonnet and 
blank verse in English poetry. He wrote many sonnets, amatory verses, and elegies, 
and an elegant translation of parts of the ^ffiiieid. 

SURROGATE, an officer having jurisdiction over the personal property of decedents, 
and often a special jurisdiction over their real estate. The surrogate in England was a 
representative of the bishop in the diocesan courts, which down to 1857 exercised juris- 
diction over the probate of wills, and the issue of letters testamentary and of administra- 
tion, as well as in matters ecclesiastical. As the bishop could not always hold his court 
in person, he appointed a "substitute," surrogatus, to represent him. Such substitutes, 
originally ecclesiastics, but in later times lawyers, acted as judges in probate matters; and 
the court of the archbishop of Canterbury held by his surrogate was the principal court 
in probate, admiralty, and marriage matters. A separate court of probate and divorce 
was established in 1857. In New Jersey the surrogate is only an inferior officer of the 
probate court. In New York there is a surrogate's court in each county held by the 
county judge, unless the county has more than 40,000 inhabitants, in which case a 
surrogate is elected for 6 years. See PROBATE. 

STJRTURBRAND, a kind of brown coal (q.v.) found in the north of Iceland, and there 
used for fuel. It has a great resemblance to the black oak found in bogs. It is capably 
of being made into tables and other articles of furniture, but is too brittle to be cut into 
shavings by a plane. 

SURRY, a co. in n.w. North Carolina, drained by the Yadkin and the Ararat riv. 
ers; traversed in the n.w. by the Blue Ridge; about 510 sq. m. ; pop. '80, 15,301 2,061 
colored. The surface is hilly and heavily wooded. The soil is fertile in some portions. 
The principal productions are corn, tobacco, wheat, and live stock. Co. seat, Dobson. 

SURRY, a co. in s.e. Virginia, drained by the James river, which bounds it on the 
n.e., and by the Blackwater river: about 280 sq.m.; pop. 87,391 4,560 colored. The 
surface is irregular and heavily wooded. The soil is sandy. The principal productions 
are corn, peas, and pork. Co*, seat Surry Court House. 

SUEVEY'ING. Land-surveying may be considered the earliest practical application 
of the art of geometry or earth measurement, and must have been in some more or lest 


rude form coeval with agriculture and the division or appropriation of the soil. In 
Rome, surveying was considered one of the liberal arts, and the measurement of lands 
was intrusted to public officers who enjoyed certain privileges; and it is probable that 
the system of measurement practiced by them was very similar to our plane surveying 
\vi:h the chain and cross-staff of the present day, and has been handed down to us 
through the feudal period. An examination of ancient records and title-deeds will show 
that both areas and boundary-lines of the different inclosures forming fields, hundreds, 
town lauds, etc., are often laid down with a considerable degree of accuracy. 

Laud -survey ing may be considered under the following heads: (a.) Plane surveying 
with the chain, and without the aid of angular instruments, except the cross-staff or fixed 
angle of 90. (b.) Modern engineering surveying, in which angular instruments are 
used, (c.) Coast and military surveying, (d.) Trigonometrical survej'ing (q.v.). 

The fundamental rule of every description of land-surveying, from the humble at- 
tempt of the village school-master to lay down an irregular garden-plot, to the trigono- 
metrical survey of a large extent of the earth's surface, when the aid of the most refined 
improvements of modern science is indispensable, is simply to determine three elements 
of a triangle, and thence to calculate its area. 

In plane surveying with the chain, the three sides of a triangle, ABC, are supposed to 
be accessible, and are carefully measured on the ground, and then laid down or platted 
to scale on paper, when an accurate figure of the triangle will be obtained, on which the 
length of the sides can be marked. To get the area, however, it will be necessary to de- 
termine the length of the perpendicular line AD, and this is 
usually done (when possible) on the ground by means of a 
simple instrument called a cross, which consists of two sights 
or fine grooves at right angles to each other, and being placed 
on the line BC (keeping B and C visible in one of the sights), 
nearly opposite the angle A, is moved gradually till the angle 
A is intersected by the other sight. The line AB can be also 
laid down on the drawing, and its length found by scale, and 
afterward verified on the ground, or it may be at once laid down 
on the ground by the use of the chain alone. An improved re- 
flecting instrument, called an optical square, is also often used for this purpose. Any 
boundaries along the lines or sides of the triangle, ABC, can be determined by the use 
of offsets (q.v.) or insets, as they occur on right and left of line. No matter "what the 
form of the surface to be surveyed may be polygon, trapezium, or trapezoid it may 
thus be determined by a judicious subdivision into triangles; and when the survey is 
not of a very extended nature or character, and when no serious obstructions exist, chain 
surveying is both accurate and expeditious, especially if proof or tie-lines are properly 
introduced, for the purpose of testing the accuracy of" the work. 

In every description of surveying, it is best to make the original triangle as large as 
possible, and to work from a whole downward, rather than build up a large triangle by 
the addition of several small ones. It would be impossible here to lay down rules to 
meet the many difficulties which arise in the practice of surveying, and indeed the best 
test of a good surveyor is the ease with which he will overcome local obstructions, which 
appear almost insurmountable to a novice, or even to a theoretical surveyor with little 
field practice. 

Where buildings or other impediments are found in the measurement of a straight 
line, they are generally passed by the erection of short perpendiculars sufficient to clear 
the obstacles, and a line parallel to the original measured as far as they exist, when the 
origmal line can be again resumed. Differences of level, occurring in measuring a line 
where no instruments are used, are generally compensated or allowed for by the judg- 
ment of the surveyor. 

In registering the dimensions taken on the ground, such as sides of triangles, offsets, 
intersections of roads, fences, etc., and everything necessary to make a perfect delinea- 
tion or plan of the surface, surveyors use what is called a field-book, the mode of 
keeping which varies very much with individual practice. Some surveyors use hand 
sketches or rough outlines of the form of the ground, and mark the dimensions on 
them, while others use the ordinary form of field-book, or a combination of the two 
methods, which perhaps is the best when any dimcult complications happen on the 
ground, such as the frequent occurrence of buildings, enclosures, water, etc. , along the 
line. In the ordinary field-book, the center column, commencing from the bottom, rep- 
resents the length of any line or side of a triangle ; and the figures in the column, the 
distance at which the offsets to the right or left are taken, or where roads, streams, 
fences, etc., cross the line, or buildings adjoin the same. We give below the field-book 
of the assumed survey of the triangle ABC, with the different offsets and insets on its 
sides, and where roads, fences, streams, etc., cross them, the detail of which can be 
obtained by subdividing the triangle into smaller internal ones The figure can thus be 

laid down from the book, and its area calculated by the formula - and the off- 

. A 

sets and insets calculated, added, or deducted, by the methods given in OFFSETS. 

Ponds, plantations, and enclosures of different kinds may be surveyed with a chain, 



ru i . 












/ Fcnoe. 



^r Bead. 

f|f 8 


km A 


10 S *> 

8 feet from ( 


Una, \ 8 





From B 



To OB 






*y Fence. 









... Fence. 



*^f Stream 



^ I Here p 


8f Din 





/ Fence. 





A, for pr 



.^ _ 



^^^ AO&XJ cr 








' . . .A 


J go to R. 

from Don A 

Here a gravel pit, o', 
10 /eet diameter. 


From 6 



Too A 




_ 600 










goto A 

The line a 6 may be similarly booked and platted, and any lines intersecting shown. 

especially if their form be such that they 6an be conveniently included in the area of a 
triangle, the correctness of which, being proved by proper tie-lines, the form, area, etc., 
may be ascertained by offsets, or rather insets from the sides. 

STJB7A, in Hindu mythology, the god of the sun. His wife is, in later mythology, 
Swrya, who, in order to escape his embraces, transformed herself into a mare, but never- 
theless became the mother by him of the twin _4s'wz's, afterward the heavenly physi- 
cian's. Besides SuryS, he had several other wives, by one of whom, Sanjnd, he begot 
Yama, the god of death, and the river Yamuna", or Jumna. By Kunti, before her mar- 
riage with P&n'd'u (q.v.), he had Karn'a, who, therefore, was an elder brother of the 
Pan'd'u princes, but in the conflict between the PaVd'us and the Kurus, sided with the 
latter, and was killed by Arjuna. Surya became also, by his other progeny, the ances- 
tor of a royal dynasty, called after him Suryavans'a, or the solar race. Surya is repre- 
sented with a lotus flower in his hand, on a chariot drawn by seven horses, and conducted 
by his charioteer Arun'a, the god of the dawn, who is represented without legs. 

Surville. 1 f)A 


is said to be the writer of poems first collected iu 1803 by Yanderbourg. Some ascribe 
them to one of her descendants, the marquis Joseph Etienne de Surville, and others 
think these poems were written by the publisher Vanderbourg himself. 

SUS, a district in Morocco, on the Atlantic ocean, between the Asaka river and the 
Atlas mountains; about 11,000 sq.m. ; pop. about 750,000. The surface is mountainous. 
The soil is rich. The principal agricultural productions are grapes, figs, olives, almonds, 
dates, and the ordinary grains and vegetables. Lead and copper are found. The 
climate is salubrious. The principal city is Tarudant, on the river Sus. The inhabit- 

ants of Sus are mostly Arabs or Berbers. 

SU'SA (Shushan in Daniel, Esther, etc., derived by some from shoshan, a lily), prob- 
ably the modern Sus or Shusn, iu lat. 32 10' n., and long. 48 26' e., situated between. 
the Chapses or Eulseus (Ulai in Daniel), and the Shapur, anciently the capital of Susiana 
(the Elam of Scripture, mod. Khusistan), and one of the most important cities of the old 
world. Its foundation is variously ascribed by ancient writers to Darius Hystaspes, or to 
Memnon, the son of Tithonus; and its name, together with its ground-plan, is traced on. 
Assyrian monuments at the time of Assur Bani Pal, about 660 B.C. At the time of Dan- 
iel's vision "at Shushan in fhe palace," it was under Babylonian dominion, but came, 
at the time of Cyrus, under Persian rule; and the Achaemeuian kings raised it to the 
dignity of a metropolis of the whole Persian, empire, and as such ^schylus, Herodotus, 
Ctesias, Strabo, etc. , speak of it. At the Macedonian conquest it was still at its height, 
and Alexander is reported to have found in it vast treasures, together with the regalia. 
On Babylon becoming the principal city of Alexander and his successors, Susa gradu- 
ally declined, but seems still to have contained enormous wealth at the time of its con- 
quest by Antigonus (315 B.C.). It was once more attacked by Molo in his rebellion 
against Antiochus the great; and during the Arabian conquest of Persia it held out 
bravely for a long time, defended by Hormuzan. The rums of its ancient buildings, the 
palace described in Esther among them, cover a space of about three miles. The prin- 
cipal existing remains consist of four spacious artificial platforms above 100 ft. high. 
Traces of a gigantic colonnade were laid bare by Mr. Loftus, with a frontage of 343 ft., 
and a depth of 244. Cuneiform inscriptions exist, together with many other relics sim- 
ilar to those found at Persepolis (see PERSEPOLIS; compare also CUNEIFORM). The 
" tomb of Daniel " shown near Susa is a modern Mohammedan building. 

SU'SA, a city of northern Italy, province of Turin, stands on the right bank of the 
Dora Riparia, at the foot of the Cottian Alps, 32 m. w. of Turin. It is an episcopal see, 
and has a cathedral consecrated in 1028, with a baptistery of one single block of green 
marble. Among its other notable buildings are the episcopal palace, the town-hall, and 
the Borgo de' Nobili. The surrounding country produces wines, fruits, mulberry-trees, 
and wood. The road over Mont Cenis, opened in 1810, begins at Susa. Pop. 3,300. 

Susa, called by the Romans Segusio, is a very ancient city ; it was founded by the 
Celts, and was, in the reign of Augustus, the capital of the Celtic chief Cottius, from 
whom the Cottian Alps received their name, and during the empire was the starting- 
point for crossing Mont Cenis. A triumphal arch, erected by Cottius in honor of Augus- 
tus, still remaii, 

SUSAN N AH, ^ s VTJORY OP, The Judgment of Daniel, also Susannah and the Elders, are 
the different titlesxu a well-known story, which forms one of three apocryphal additions 
to the book of Daniel; the other two being The Song of the Three Holy Children, and 
The History of Bel and the Dragon (q.v.). It relates how Susannah, the wife of 
Joiachim, and daughter of Hilkiah, celebrated alike for her beauty and her virtue, 
was falsely accused of adultery by certain " lovers, " whose advances she had spurned; 
and how, being condemned to death on their evidence, she was saved by the wise 
Daniel, who tore the mask from her enemies, and caused them to experience the fate 
they had designed for her. The question not a very. important one certainly has been 
much debated, both in the early and later times of the church, whether or not the story 
of Susannah is true; and arguments (of various weight) have been adduced to show that 
the book is a fabrication, a fable, a legend, and a history. The most probable view, 
perhaps, is that which regards it as a tradition of something that did happen in the life 
of Daniel, but which has been molded into a moral fiction by the hand of a literary artist. 
The original is believed to have been Greek and not Hebrew. In most MSS. it precedes 
the first chapter of the book of Daniel, and so we find it in the old Latin and Arabic 
versions ; but the LXX., the Vulgate, the Complutensian Polyglot, and the Hexaplar 
Syriac place it at the end of the present book, and reckon it as the 13th chapter. 

SUSIANA, an ancient province of Persia, on the Persian gulf; bounded n. by Media, 
occupying most of the region between the Tigris and the Zagros mountains. The 
Elymcei, supposed to be the Elamites of the Bible, were its earliest inhabitants. The 
Susii were the dwellers on the plains, and there were many tribes of mountaineers. 

SUSPENSION, in music. A note is said to be suspended when it is continued from 
one chord to another to which it does not properly belong, and to a proper interval of 
which it must eventually give way. Thus we have here the note Q extended from the 

IfkK Surville. 


firgt chord into the second, in which it is first suspended, and then resolved into the 

n_g_. fl !_JI 

chord FA CF : F/m~~ "^ -- E" 1 ^ " I- This example is a suspension from above, in 
which a descent is necessary for its resolution ; but a note may also be suspended from 
below, when it is resolved by an ascent : 

SUSPENSION AND INTERDICT, in Scotch law, is a process by which the suspender, 
who initiates the proceeding, seeks to stop or interdict some act, or to prevent some 
encroachment on property or possession, or in general to stay any unlawful proceeding. 
The first step is to present a note of suspension and interdict to the lord ordinary, who 
grants interim interdict either with or without caution, and orders the note to be 
answered, or refuses interdict. When the note is answered, the lord ordinary passes or 
refuses the note, and continues or recalls the interdict as the case may be. 

SUSPENSION BRIDGE, a village in w. New York, a port of entry in Niagara co. ; 
pop. '70, 2,276. It is on the Niagara river, nearly opposite the lower rapids, 2 in. below 
the cataraet, at a junction of a branch of the New York Central railroad with the Great 
Western of Canada, which cross the river on a suspension bridge more than 800 ft. long, 
and 240 ft. above the water. The first work was done on the bridge in 1852; the first 
locomotive crossed in 1855. It has 821 ft. span, is 24 ft. wide, and contains 400 tons of 
'iron combined with 600 tons of wood. The railway bridge is 18 ft. above the bridge 
used for carriages and foot passengers. An important trade with Canada passes through 
this port. In one year the exports and imports amounted to $12,649,729, and the duties 
collected to $491,785.48. It is the seat of De Veaux college, and contains six churches, 
several hotels, a newspaper, a stone custom-house and post-office. It owes its prosperity 
largely to the number of tourists attracted by the falls. 

SUSPENSION BRIDGES. In these bridges the roadway is suspended from chains 
passing over piers or towers, and firmly fixed at their extremities. When the roadway 
is equally loaded over its length, the curve of the chain is a parabola. The weight of 
the roadway being known, the strain upon the chain, and its requisite strength, are 
readily determined. For example, hi 
fig. 1, if A be the center of the bridge, 
and it be required to find the strain upon 
the chain at the point B, it is evident that 
the weight of the roadway between A 
and B is supported by the chain at B; we 
have then to find what strain in the direc- FIG. 1. 

tion of the length of the chain will support this vertical load. By the principles of 
mechanics, if we draw a right-angled triangle BCD, of which the side BC is a tangent 
to the curve at B, CD is vertical, and BD horizontal; and if the lengtl- of CD represent 
numerically the load on AB, then BC will represent numerically tho" iin on the chain 
produced by that load, and BD will be what is called the horizon^ M_,Jniponent of this 
strain. This horizontal part of the strain is the same for every jfeJt of the curve; it is 
the total strain on the chain at the center A, and the strain carried over the towers and 
balanced by the backstays, which are firmly anchored to the ground behind them. In 
this manner the conditions of strength and stability of a bridge uniformly loaded are 
easily determined, but when we have a rolling load which is heavy in proportion to the 
weight of the bridge, as for example a railway train, the case is very different, for when 
the train only occupies one half of the bridge, the chain will be depressed toward that 
side, and raised at the center; thus an undulation will be produced in the bridge, which, 
if the train be moving rapidly, would endanger its stability. Various combinations 
have been devised to overcome this difficulty. The most simple, and practically the 
best, is to stiffen the roadway so that the strain of the passing load is distributed over a 
considerable length of the chain. In this manner large railway bridges have been con- 
structed in America ; among them is that over the Niagara above the falls, with three 
lines of rails on it, of which the span is 822 ft., and the height of the platform above the 
river, 250 feet; it is supported by four wire cables, each containing 3,640 wires. Trains 
pass over it at the rate of 10 m. per hour. An ordinary suspension bridge is liable to 
both vertical and horizontal oscillations, the former taking place when a train or other 
load is passing over it, and the latter being due to the action of the wind. These oscil 
lations cannot be altogether prevented, but can be so reduced as to be harmless by the 
use of stays, stretching both from the towers and from points on shore to various parts 
of the bridge. Suspension bridges are generally used in positions where the span is 
great, and the rolling loads neither great in proportion to the weight of the bridge itself, 
nor very rapid in their motion. Many beautiful examples are to be seen in this country; 
among others, we may instance the Menai bridge, 580 ft. span, and the Clifton bridge, 
near Bristol, 703 ft. span 

Suspension. 1 fiA 



SUSQUEHAN NA, an American river, which has its origin in Otsego and Canandaigua 
lakes, in western New York, and, flowing eastward, receives the rivers Unadilla and Che- 
nango, then, turning south, enters Pennsylvania, where it receives the Pittston, the 
Tioga, the West Branch, and the Juniata, and empties itself into the Chesapeake bay, 
at Havre de Grace, Md., 400 m. from its source, and 153 from its junction with 
the West Branch, It is a shallow, rapid, mountain river, with varied and romantic 
ecenery. A canal follows its course, and great quantities of timber are floated down in 
the spring freshets. Near the mouth it is famous for water-fowl, especially the canvas- 
back duck, and has important fisheries. 

SUSQUEHANNA, a co. in n.e. Pennsylvania, adjoining New York; drained by 
the Susquehanna river and several creeks; traversed by the Delaware, Lackawanna and 
Western, and the Erie railroads; about 850 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 40,357 36,743 of American 
birth, 219 colored. The surface is uneven but not rugged. There are fine dairy and 
stock-breeding farms; oats, corn, wheat, potatoes, butter, and cattle are staples. Co. 
seat, Montrose. 

STJSETITA is one of the great medical authorities of ancient India. See Medicine, 
under SANSKRIT LITERATURE. His work is called Ayurveda, and consists of six books. 
It was edited by S'rl Madhusudana Gupta, in 2 vols. (Calcutta, 1835-36). 

SUSSEX, a co. in s. Delaware, adjoining Maryland, bounded on the e. by the 
Atlantic ocean and the Delaware river; drained by Indian and Nanticoke rivers, and 
Mispillion creek; traversed by the Delaware and the Junction and Breakwater railroad; 
about 950 sq.m.; pop. '80, 36,031 5,698 colored. The surface is level and heavily 
wooded. The soil is generally fertile. The principal productions are corn, wheat, and 
cattle. Co. seat, Georgetown. 

SUSSEX, the n.e. co. of New Jersey, bordering on New York, separated from 
Pennsylvania on the w. by the Delaware river; 600 sq.m.; pop. '80, 23,553. The sur- 
face is hilly, and the soil very fertile. This county produces the largest amount of but- 
ter of any in the state. It contains large deposits of iron, zinc, slate, limestone, and 
franklinite a rare mineral. Co. seat, Newton. 

SUSSEX, a co. in s.e. Virginia, drained by Stony creek, Nottaway and Blackwater 
rivers; 420 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 10,06210,032 of American birth, 6,701 colored. It is inter- 
sected by the Petersburg and Weldon, and the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio railroads. 
[ Its surface is hilly and largely covered with forests, which supply the lumber which is 
the principal source of revenue. The soil is fertile, producing grain, tobacco, and dairy 
products. Co. seat, Sussex Court House. 

SUSSEX (South-Saxons), a maritime co. in the s. of England, bounded on the n. by 
Surrey and Kent, on the s. by the English channel, and on the w. by Hampshire. Area, 
936,911 acres; pop. '71, 417,456. The South downs (see DOWNS) traverse the county from 
w. toe., ending about 20 m. e. of Brighton, in the lofty cliff of Beachy head. The 
northern escarpment of the Downs is precipitous, but leads down to the fertile and richly 
wooded district of the Weald (see DOWNS). A remarkably productive tract, from 2 to 7 
m. in breadth, extends w. from Brighton along the coast to the Hampshire border; and 
in the s.e. of the county the rich marsh lands that line the coast, and which are 30,000 
acres in extent, make excellent pasture-grounds. Of the Down-land there are about 
50,000 acres, covered with a fine, short, and delicate turf, on which the well-known 
breed of Southdown sheep, to the number of 300,000, are pastured. Of the Weald dis 
trict, which formerly was covered with dense forests, there are within the county 425,- 
000 acres; a considerable tract has been brought under cultivation. Irrespective of the 
less productive districts, there are in the county 120,000 acres of rich arable land; 150,- 
000 acres are occupied by woods, which abound chiefly in the Weald, and in the forest 
ridge in the n.e. of Sussex, where are St. Leonard's forest (10,000 acres), and Ashdown 
forest (1800 acres). The chief rivers are the Arun, Adur, and Ouse, which have their 
origin in the n. of the county, and flow s. into the channel. In the s. of Sussex the cli- 
mate is mild, and several large towns (see BRIGHTON and HASTINGS) are largely resorted 
to by those who seek health or relaxation. Seaford and Pevensey bays are much fre- 
quented by vessels, and the e. portion of the coast is defended by martello towers. The 
county has for centuries been divided into the six rapes of Lewes, Pevensey, Hastings, 
Chichester, Arundel, and Bramber. It returns four members to parliament. Capital, 

SUSTENT ATION FUND, a fund provided in the Free church of Scotland for the sup- 
port of the ministers of the church. The idea of such a fund was probably derived 
by Dr. Chalmers from the system of the Wesleyan Methodists, and a scheme devised by 
him was made public before the disruption, so that arrangements had been made, and a 
small sum already collected, when that event took place. The scheme was afterward 
carried into operation throughout the whole of Scotland, and continues unmodified to 
the present time. The members of the church are called upon to contribute, according 
to their own will and ability, to a common fund; of which, after payment of expenses, 
payments to a fund for widows and orphans, pensions to retired ministers, etc., an equal 
division is made among the ministers of the church, with a few exceptions, chiefly in the 


case of newly formed congregations. The amount of the fund has gradually increased 
from 68,704 in 1843-44, to 166,427 in 1877-78, when 776 out of 1075 ministers 
received an equal dividend of 157, the surplus being divided among the ministers (724) 
of those charges whose contributions amounted to a certain average sum per member. 
Congregations are permitted to supplement the stipends of their own ministers, and if 
able are expected to do so. The supplement in some congregations in towns much 
exceeds the dividend from the fund; but in many parts of the country, the whole, or 
almost the whole stipends of the ministers are derived from it. The question had been 
much discussed, whether an equal dividend ought to be made, or a proportion estab- 
lished between the liberality of a congregation and the amount paid to its minister. 
The subject of the sustentation fund is of interest, not only to the Free church of Scot- 
land, but to all unendowed churches. 

SUTHERLAND, a co. in the extreme n. of Scotland, is bounded on the e. by Caithness 
and the North sea, on the n. and w. by the Atlantic, and on the s. by Ross and Cromarty. 
Area, 1,207,188 acres; pop. '71, 23,686, or 12| per sq. mile. The coast-line is 60 m. in, 
extent; and the shores, rugged on the n. and w., where they are broken by the force of 
the Atlantic, are comparatively flat on the east. The southern and central regions of 
Sutherland are the most elevated; and rivers, mostly from the middle of the county, 
flow e. and s.e. to the North sea, and n., n.w., and w. to the Atlautic. The principal 
mountain peaks are Ben More in Assyut (3,243 ft.), and Ben Clibrigg (3,158 ft.). The 
chief rivers are the Oikel and the Shin which, with other affluents, unite to form. 
Dornoch firth the Brora, Helmsdale Water, and Naver. Extensive moors, the haunt 
of herds of red deer, stretch across the county; and the rivers and lakes, the chief of 
which is loch Shin (q.v.), form numerous low-lying valleys or straths. In the interior 
and western districts, the climate is cold, and the county is often deluged with continu- 
ous rains; but in the eastern districts the climate is mild, and the soil very fertile in 
all agricultural produce. In 1876 there were 28,346 acres under crops, of which 10,383 
acres were under corn, 5,058 acres green crops, 6,691 clover and other artificial grasses, 
and 6,018 acres permanent pasture. The number of cattle in the same year was 13,057; 
sheep, 228,503; and swine, 1239. Coal, granites of various colors, marble, limestone, 
etc., are found. In Nov., 1868, traces of gold were found in a burn in Sutherland. 
A number of " diggers" were attracted to the district, but the gold found, though of 
excellent quality, was hardly sufficient to repay their labor. The Highland railway 
passes through the county. Manufactures are inconsiderable. There are good salmon, 
herring, and white fishings. Sutherland is well supplied with churches. The schools 
are well attended, and Gaelic is rapidly giving way to English. Almost the whole 1 of the 
county belongs to the duke of Sutherland. The present duke is eminent for the zeal 
with which he has devoted himself to the improvement of Sutherland, spending large 
sums in the reclamation of land by steam-plows, the construction of railways, etc. 

Sutherland receives its name from the Northmen, who frequently descended upon 
and pillaged it prior to the 12th c., and called it the southern land, as being the limit on 
the s. of their settlements. The condition of the people of Sutherland before 1811, in 
which year the county began to be opened up by roads, was miserable. Their sustenance, 
dependent mostly upon their half-starved flocks, was very precarious, and would have 
failed them often had not charity administered relief. A former duke of Sutherland 
effected what are known as the "Sutherland clearances," by compelling such of his 
tenants as could not support themselves, owino; to the uusuitability to agricultural pur- 
poses of the districts upon which they dwelt, either to remove to more fertile districts, 
where they received land at a merely nominal rent, or to emigrate at his expense to 

Duke of Sutherland; b. England, 1828; succeeded to the dukedom on the death of his 
father, the second duke of the name, 1861. His mother, Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana, 
1806-68, daughter of the earl of Carlisle, was noted for her beauty and as the patroness 
of the English anti-slavery society and of other movements of reform and benevolence. 
The present duke was a member of the house for 10 years before his elevation to the 
peerage, has immense estates in Sutherlanclshire, Staffordshire, Shropshire, and Ross- 
shire. At the present time (May, 1881), he is on a visit to this country, mainly for the 
purpose of examining our railroad system. 

STJT'LEJ, or SUTLUJ, an important river in the n.w. of India, the eastmost of the five 
rivers of the Punjab, rises in the sacred lakes of Manasarovara and Rawau-Hrad in Thi- 
bet, lat. 30 45' n. long. 81 15' east. At its outfall from lake Manasarovara, at between 
19,000 and 20,000 ft. above sea-level, it is a rapid torrent 30 ft. broad. It flows n.w. for 
150 in., when turning to the s.w. it receives the Spiti or Li, a larger stream than 
itself. The Spiti is 8,592 ft. above sea-level, when it joins the Sutlej, and the scene 
of the confluence of the two rivers is sublime in the highest degree. Continuing a 
s.w. course, the Sutlej breaks through the mountain-rampart of ^the Himalaya, and 
after flowing in all about 850 m., in the course of which it is joined by the Beas 
and the Chenab, it falls into the Indus in lat. about 29 north. Its upper course is 
supposed to be identical with the Hesudrus, and its lower course (in which it is 
called the Ghara) with the Hyphasis of the ancients. 

ntlr. 1 AC 


SUTLER, is a vendor of provisions allowed by the quartermaster-general to follow 
an army iti the field, for the purpose of supplying the soldiers with such luxuries 
as they .can afford to purchase. Sutlers are under martial law, accompany the bag- 
gage on a march, and are narrowly watched, and severely punished if found guilty 
of any irregularities toward either the soldiers or inhabitants of the country. In the 
French army a soldier in each regiment is licensed to act as sutler, and is called 
vivandier. See also CANTEEN. 

SUTRA (from the Sanskrit siv, to sew, literally, therefore, a thread or string) is, in 
Sanskrit literature, the technical name of aphoristic rules, and of works consisting of 
such rules. The importance of the term will be understood from the fact, that the 
grmmdworks of the whole ritual, grammatical, metrical, and philosophical literature 
of India are written in such aphorisms, which therefore constitute one of the peculi- 
arities of Hindu authorship. The object of the Sutras is extreme brevity; and, 
especially in the oldest works of this class, this brevity is carried to such an excess, 
that even the most experienced would rind it extremely difficult, and sometimes 
impossible, to, understand these aphorisms without the aid of commentaries, which, 
however, are fortunately never wanting, wherever a work is written in this style. 
Though there is no positive evidence as to the cause or causes which gave rise to 
this peculiarity of Hindu composition, the method of teaching in ancient India an 
account of which is afforded in some of the oldest works renders it highly proba- 
ble that these Sutras were intended as memorial sentences which the pupil had lo 
learn by heart, in order better to retain the fuller oral explanation which his teacher 
appended to them. But it is likewise probable that this method of instruction itself 
originated in the scarcity or awkwardness of the writing material used, and in the 
necessity, therefore, of economizing this material as much as possible; for that writ- 
ing was known and practiced at the remotest period of Hindu antiquity, is now 
placed beyond a doubt, though a startling theory was propounded, some years ago, 
to the effect that writing was unknown in India, even at the time of the great gramma- 
rian Pan'ini. The manner, however, in which, up to this day, the Hindus are in the 
habit of keeping the leaves of their books together, seems to throw some light on the 
name given to this aphoristic literature. The leaves generally narrow, and even at 
the present time often being dried palm leaves, on which the words are either writ- 
ten with ink or scratched with a style are piled up, and, according to the length of 
the leaves, pierced in one or two places, when, through the hole or holes, one or two 
long strings are passed to keep them together. The name of Sutra was probably, 
therefore, applied to works, not because they represent a thread or string of rules, 
but on account of the manner in which these Works were rendered fit for practical 
aise; just as in German a volume is called band, from its being "bound." That a 
habit deeply rooted outlives necessity, is probably also shown by these Sutra works, 
for while the oldest Avorks of this class may be called Sutras by necessity, there are 
others which convey the suspicion that they merely imitated the Sutra style after 
the necessity had passed away, more especially as they do not adhere to the original 
brevity of the oldest Sutras; and the Sutras of the Buddhists (see PIT'AKA), conspicu- 
ous for their prolixity, could scarcely lay claim to the term, if compared with the 
Sutra of the Brahmanical literature. 


SUTTEE' (an English corruption from the Sanskrit sati, a virtuous wife) means the 
practice which prevailed in India, of a wife burning herself on the funeral pile, either 
with the body of her husband, or separately, if he died at a distance. 

The practice of suttee is based by the orthodox Hindus on the injunctions of their 
Sa"stras, or sacred books, and their can be no doubt that various passages in their Pura- 
nas (q.v.) and codes of law countenance the belief which they entertain of its merito- 
riousness and efficacy. Thus, the Brahma-Purana says : " No other way is known for a 
virtuous woman after the death of her husband ; the separate cremation of her hus- 
band would be lost (to all religious intents). If her lord die in another country, let the 
faithful wife place his sandals on her breast, and, pure, enter the fire. The faithful 
widow is pronounced no suicide by the recited text of the rigveda. " Or the code of 
Vyasa: " Learn the power of that widow who, learning that her husband has deceased, 
and been burned in another region, speedily casts herself into the fire," etc. Or the 
code of Angiras: "That woman who, on the death of her husband, ascends the same 
burning pile with him, is exalted to heaven, as equal in virtue to Arundhati (the wife of 
Vasishtha). She who follows her husband (to another world) shall dwell in a region of 
joy for so many years as their are hairs on the human body, or 35 millions. As a ser- 
pent-catcher forcibly draws a snake from his hole, thus drawing her lord (from a region 
of torment), she enjoys delight together with him. The woman who follows her hus- 
band to the pile expiates the sins of three generations on the paternal and maternal side of 

that family to which she was given as a virgin No other effectual duty is known 

for virtuous women, at any time after the death of their lords, except casting themselves 
into the same fire. As long as a woman (in her successive transmigrations) shall decline 
burning herself, like a faithful wife, on the same fire with her deceased lord, so long 
hall she be not exempted from springing again to life in the body of some female aui- 

1 AO Sutler. 


mal. When their lords have departed at the fated time of attaining heaven, no other 
way but entering the same fire is known for women whose virtuous conduct and 
whose thoughts have been devoted to their husbands, and who fear the dangers of sepa- 
ration." See for other quotations, H. T. Colebrooke, Digest of Hindu Law, vol. ii. p. 451, 
ff. (Lond. 1801); and his " Essay on the Duties of a faithful Hindu Widow," reprinted 
from the Asiatic Researches, in his Miscellaneous Essays, vol. i. (Lond. 1837). But how- 
ever emphatically these and similar passages recommend a wife to burn herself together 
with her deceased husband, it should, in the first place, be observed, that manu, who 
among legislators of ancient India, occupies the foremost rank, contains no words which 
enjoin, or even would seem to countenance, this cruel practice; and, secondly, that no 
injunction of any religious work is admitted by the orthodox Hindus as authoritative, 
unless it can show that it is taken from or based on, the revealed books, the Vedas (see 
SRUTI). An attempt has of late years been made by raja Kadhakaut Deb, to show that, 
in a text belonging to a particular school of the "black Yajurveda (see VEDA), there is 
really a passage which would justify the practice of suttee; but in the controversy which 
ensued on this subject between him and the late prof. H. H. Wilson, it clearly trans- 
pired that the text cited by the learned raja is of anything but indubitable canonicity; 
moreover, that there is a verse in the rigveda which, if properly read, would enjoin a 
widow not to burn herself, but, after-having attended the funeral ceremonies of her hus- 
band, to return to her home, and to fulfill her domestic duties; and it seems, at the same 
time, that merely from a misreading of a single word of this verse from the rigveda, that 
interpretation arose which ultimately led to a belief and an injunction so disastrous in 
their results. SeeH. H. Wilson, "On the supposed Vaidik Authority for the Burning of 
Hindu Widows, and on the Funeral Ceremonies of the Hindus," reprinted from the 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. xvi., in his wovks, vol. ii., edited by Dr. Rost 
(Lond. 1862). That an immense number of widows have fallen victims to this erroneous 
interpretation of the oldest Vedic text, is but too true. Some fifty years ago, how- 
ever, the East India company took energetic measures to suppress a practice which it 
was perfectly justified in looking upon as revolting to all human feelings, and which it 
would have likewise been entitled to consider as" contrary to the spirit of the Vedic 
religion. This practice may now be said to have been successfully stopped; for though, 
from habit and superstition, even nowadays cases of suttee occur, they are extremely 
rare, and all reports agree that the enlightened natives everywhere, except, perhaps, in 
certain native states, support the action of government to repress this evil of bygone 

SUITER, a co. in n. central California; drained by the Sacramento and Feather 
rivers; traversed by the Oregon division of the Central Pacific railroad; about 680 sq.m. ; 
pop. '80, 5,159 4,201 of American birth. The surface is mostly level prairie, without 
timber. The soil is fertile. Wheat, barley, wool, wine, and fruits are the principal 
productions. Co. seat, Yuba Dam. 

SUTTEE, JOHN AUGUSTUS, 1803-80, b. Baden; an officer in the Swiss service, who 
emigrated to this country in 1884, and became a trader at Santa Fe. In 1838 he made 
his way to the Pacific coast, thence to the Sandwich islands, and thence to Alaska, on 
his voyage from which down the coast, he was wrecked in San Francisco bay in 1839. 
Obtaining a grant of Mexican land, he established in 1841 a settlement called New Hel- 
vetia, where the city of Sacramento now stands. He was governor of the n. district of 
California under the Mexicans, and alcalde and Indian agent after it passed to the United 
States. In Feb., 1848, while enlarging his saw-mill race, he discovered gold. The 
discovery, however, brought him disaster. Gold diggers pre-empted his lands, and besides 
an annual pension of $3,000, he received nothing" else. He settled in Pennsylvania in 

SUTTON, AMOS, 1798-1854, b. Kent, England; in 1834 became a missionary to 
India where nearly all his life was spent. He compiled various text books in the Oriya 
language, and translated the Bible and many tracts into the same tongue. He also 
published a hymn book and several religious books in English. 

STTTIJKE (Lat. sutvra, a seam) is a term employed both in anatomy and surgery. In 
anatomy, it is used to designate the modes of connection between the various bones of the 
cranium and face. A suture is said to be serrated, Avhen it is formed by the union of two 
edges of bone with projections and indentations (like the edge of a saw) fitting into one 
another. The coronal, sagittal, and larnbdoidal sutures (see SKULL) are of this kind. 
A suture is termed squamous, when it is formed by the overlapping of the beveled (or 
scale-like) edges of two contiguous bones. There are also the harmonia and schindyksis 
sutures, the former being the simple apposition of rough bony surfaces, and the latter 
being the reception of one bone into a fissure of another. 

In surgery, the word suture is employed to designate various modes of sewing up 
wounds, so as to maintain the opposed surfaces in contact. As it may fall to the lot of 
any person, on an emergency, to have to sew up a wound, the following general rules, 
applicable to all forms of suture, should be attended to. In passing the needle, the 
edges of the wound should be held in contact with the fore-finger and thumb of the left 
liand; and the needle should penetrate the surface at about an angle of 50 (rather more 

8u vorof. 


than half a right angle), and should, at least, pass through the whole thickness of the 
skin at each stitch. The distance from the edge of the wound at which each stitch 
should enter and leave the skin, must vary with the depth of the wound ; but there 
should never be less than the eighth of an inch between the margin of the wound and the 
entrance or exit of the needle. Sutures should not include vessels, nerves, muscles, or 
tendons. The line of the thread should cross that of the wound at right angles. For 
incised wounds on the surface of the body, when the edges can only be transfixed from 
the cutaneous surface, or when the opposite margins can both be traversed by one 
plunge, a curved needle (such as a common packing-needle) is most convenient, 
whereas a strong straight needle is more convenient for the completely free margins of 
extensive wounds, such as are left after amputation. Various forms of needles are used 
by surgeons. In the twisted suture, as used in the operation for hare-lip, the wound is 
transfixed by pins, around which, beginning with the uppermost, a thread is twisted. 

STTVOROF, ALEXANDER VASSILIVITSH, Count, Prince Italiiski, a Russian field- 
marshal, and the most famous of Russian generals, was descended from a family of 
Swedish origin, and was born in Finland, Nov. 13 (O. S.), 1729. His father, who was 
an officer of the Russian army, and rose, in after times, to the rank of general and sena- 
tor, enrolled young Suvorof at the age of 13, in the Semenof regiment, where he remained 
till 1754, when he was promoted to the grade of lieutenant. Suvorof was present in the 
Russian army engaged in the seven years' war (q.v.), and for distinguished behavior at 
Kunersdorf, received the grade of colonel. By a constant succession of eminent ser- 
vices in the Polish civil war (1768), in the war against the Turks (1773-74), in suppress- 
ing internal disturbances, and in subduing the Tartars of the Kuban (1783), he continued 
to grow in reputation, and rose to the rank of general. In the Turkish war (1787-92) he 
was commander-in-chief, for the first time brought the bayonet prominently into use in. 
the Russian army, and decided by it the bloody battle of Kinburu (1787), which would 
otherwise have been a total rout. At the siege of Otchakof (1788), where he narrowly 
escaped being made prisoner, the battle of Fokshany (Aug. 1, 1789), which he gained 
in conjunction with the Austrians, and the decisive victory of Rymnik (Sept. 22, 
1789), his headlong bravery, and peculiar system of rapid and repeated attack by over- 
whelming numbers, secured him complete success. For this last victory, which saved 
the Austrians under Coburg from annihilation or capture, Suvorof was created, by the 
emperor Joseph II., a count of the empire, and from his own sovereign received the 
title of count Suvorof -RymniksM. His last great achievement, and the one which has 
given a predominant coloring to Suvorof 's reputation in western Europe, was the cap- 
ture of Ismail (q.v.). Suvorof 's report of his success was couched in the following terms: 
" Glory to Grod and Your Excellency; the town is taken; I am in it." He was then 
appointed (1791) governor of the newly conquered provinces; was afterward sent (1794) 
to complete the annihilation of the Polish monarchy, which he effected by repeated 
victories over the Polish armies, the capture of Praga by storm, and the repossession of 
Warsaw (Xov. 19), where a horrible massacre of the inhabitants took place. The grade 
of field-marshal, and presents of rare value, rewarded these successes. Under Paul, he 
fell into disgrace (1798), from his impatience of the emperor's fantastic military regula- 
tions, and was deprived of his rank; but being restored through English influence, he 
commanded the Russian auxiliary army sent to co-operate with the Austrians in Italy. 
In April, 1799, he reached Verona; compelled Moreau to retire behind the Adda with 
immense loss, including more than 8,000 prisoners; entered Milan in triumph (April 
29); again defeated the French under Macdonald. after a desperate three days' conflict, 
at the Trebbia (June 17-19), and a third time at Novi (Aug. 15), depriving them of the 
whole of northern Italy. His campaign in Switzerland, which promised to bring him 
face to face with Massena, then the best general in Europe, was rendered abortive by 
the tardiness of the Austrians, and the Russians, in spite of Suvorof's remonstrances, 
were soon after recalled. His escape from the Schackcnthal, where he was hemmed in 
by the French, is considered by many to be the most brilliant and daring retreat ever 
executed. While on his return to St. Petersburg, where a brilliant reception was await- 
ing him, he fell dangerously ill in Lithuania, and though, on his recovery, he found him- 
self a second time in disgrace, he continued his route, and arrived privately in the capi- 
tal, where he died sixteen days afterward, May 17, 1800. His remains were honored 
with a magnificent funeral, and the czar Alexander erected a statue to his memory on the 
Champ-de-Mars. This most extraordinary man had naturally a weak constitution, but 
rendered it almost invulnerable by exercise, strict temperance, and the regular use of 
cold baths. His mode of life was of Spartan simplicity, and though the oddity of 
many of his habits seemed only calculated to encourage ridicule, they, in combination 
with his paternal care of his men, gave him a powerful" hold on the affections of an army 
at once so ignorant and so thoroughly national in sentiment as the Russian. Suvorof, 
was inflexible in his resolutions and promises, and of incorruptible fidelity. His skill as 
a general has often been doubted, on the strength of his favorite remark, that all military 
tactics could be expressed in three words, stoupaiibi, "forward and strike;" but his 
career shows him to have been possessed of all needful military knowledge though he 
hated idle maneuvering and to have excelled in promptitude and ingenuity of concepr 
tion, and boldness and rapidity of execution. 

-J11 Snvorof. 


SUWAN'NEE, a co. in n. Florida, drained by the Suwannee, which bounds it on 
the w. and s.w; intersected by the Jackson, Pensacola and Mobile railroad; about 700 
eq.m. ; pop. '80, 7,162 7,125 of American birth, 3,140 colored. The surface is mostly 
level. The soil is sandy. The principal productions are cotton, corn, and sugar. Co. 
seat, Live Oak. 

SU'ZERAIN (Fr. from Lat. supremus), a feudal lord. According to the feudal sys- 
tern, as developed in northern Europe, every owner of allodial (q.v.) lands was compelled 
to acknowledge himself the vassal of a suzerain and do homage to him for his lands. 
The term was applied less to the king than to his vassals, who had sub-vassals holding 
of them. 

SVENIGOROD'KA, a t. of Russia, in the government of Kiev, 150 m. s. from Kiev, on 
an affluent of the Southern Bug. Pop. '67, 11,201. 

SWABIA, SUABIA (Ger. Schwaben), or SUEVIA, an ancient duchy, in the s.w. of Ger- 
many, so named from a horde of Suevi, who spread over it in the 5th c., and amalga- 
mated with the Alernanni, its previous inhabitants. It existed as a great duchy of the 
Frank empire till the 8th c., when Alsace and Rhsetia were separated from it, and the 
remainder, retaining its name of Swabia, was thenceforth governed by nuntii camera, 
or royal delegates, one of whom having, in 915, usurped the title of duke of Alemaunia, 
was condemned by the German diet and decapitated in 917. Swabia at this time was 
bounded on the w. and s. by the Rhine, on the e. by the Lech (which separated 
it from Bavaria) and Franconia, n. by the palatinate of the Rhine and Francouia, and 
contained about 13,000 English sq. miles. In 918, however, Swabia was acknowledged 
as a ducal flef of the empire; and, after changing hands several times, was (1080) 
bestowed upon count Frederick of Hohenstaufen (q.v.), the founder of the illustrious 
house of this name, also known as the house of Swabia. Under the rule of this prince 
and his successors, Swabia became the most rich, civilized, and powerful country of 
Germany, and the ducal court was the resort of the minnesingers (q.v.); but the wars 
of the Guelphs and Ghibellines, and the quarrel with the French respecting Naples, put 
an end to the dynasty in 1268. The ducal vassals in Swabia rendered themselves almost 
independent, and professed to acknowledge no lord but the emperor. During these 
dissensions arose the lordships of Wilrtemberg and Baden, with numerous lesser states, 
holding direct of the crown, and opposed to them the cities, which strove also for an 
equal independence, and at last, in reward of important service, obtained in 1347 great 
additional privileges. A number of them united to make common cause against the 
neighboring feudal lords in 1376 (known as the First Swabian League) ; an opposite league 
was formed between Wiirtemberg, Baden, and 17 towns, in 1405, called the league of 
Marbach; and both took part in the war of Swiss independence, the former in support 
of the Swiss, the latter of the Austrians. At last the towns, which had been rapidly 
increasing in wealth and power, decided at Ulm, in 1449, to form a standing army and 
a permanent military commission for the forcible preservation, if necessary, of peace 
and order; and the count of Wilrtemberg, the most powerful of the opposite party, 
having joined them, was appointed military chief of the league, which ultimately grew 
up into the Great Swabian League, and exercised both administrative and judicial author- 
ity over the whole country, effectively repressing feudal quarrels. In 1512 Swabia 
became one of the ten circles into which Germany was now divided, received its com- 
plete organization in 1563, and retained it almost without change till the dissolution of 
the empire in 1806. But during this period the wars of the towns with Wiirtemberg, 
the peasants' war, of which Swabia was one of the foci, the thirty years' war, and those 
between France and the empire, destroyed the democratic constitution of the towns, and 
with it their energy, and then their prosperity disappeared, leaving now no relic which 
could suggest their former great political importance. 

SWAIN, a co. in w. North Carolina, adjoining Tennessee; drained by the Little 
Tennessee river; bounded on the n. by the Great Smoky mountains; about 500 sq.m. ; 
pop. '80, 3,785 549 colored. The surface is even and well wooded. The soil is only 
partly fertile. The principal productions are corn, tobacco, and pork. Co. seat, 

SWAIN, CHARLES, 1803-74; b. Manchester, England; called the "Manchester poet;" 
for 14 years employed in the dyeing establishment of his uncle, afterward became an 
engraver. While connected with the mill he began to write for magazines and annuals. 
He published various poems and sketches, some of which were translated into German 
and French. Dryburgh Abbey, an elegy on sir Walter Scott, was written in 1832; new 
ed. 1868. An edition of his poems, with a portrait, and an introduction by Charles 
Card Smith, appeared in 1857. Wordsworth, Southey, and James Montgomery were 
among his friends. In 1857 he received a civil-list pension of 50 per annum. 

SWAINSON, WILLIAM, b. England, 1789; served in the British army 1807-15. He 
studied natural history; went to South America in 1815, and afterward settled in Lon- 
don. He was at one time attorney-general of Tasmania, whither he had emigrated in 
1841. He began the publication of Zoological Illustrations in 1820, and Exotic (foncJwlogy 
in 1821. Among his many works are Naturalist's Guide (1822); a number of natural his- 
tory volumes in Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia. He was living in 1879. 



SWALLOW, Hirundo, a Linnsean genus of birds of the order insessores, and tribe 
fissirostres, now divided into a number of genera, which form the family Mrundinidce. 
This family consists of birds which prey on insects, catching them in the air, and have 
great powers of flight, now soaring to a great height, now skimming near the surface 
of the ground or of the water, and wheeling with great rapidity. The bill is short 
and weak, very broad at the base, so that the gape is wide ; the wings are very long, 
pointed, and more or less sickle-shaped when expanded; the legs are short and weak, 
and in some the swifts (q.v.) more so than those of any other birds. The tail is gen- 
erally forked. The plumage is close and glossy. The species are very numerous, and 
widely diffused, being found in almost all countries. Such of them as occur in the colder 
parts of the world are summer birds of passage, migrating to warmer regions when winter 
approaches and insects disappear. The family is divided into two groups, swifts, which 
have remarkably long and curved wings, very small weak legs, and short toes, the hinder toe 
generally directed forward, and swallows some of which are also called martins having 
wings not quite so long nor so much curved, rather stronger legs, and longer toes, three 
before and one behind. The COMMON SWALLOW, or CHIMNEY SWALLOW (hirundo rus- 
ticd), exhibits a character common to many other species, in the very long and deeply- 
forked tail, the two lateral feathers of which far exceed the others in length. The plumage 
is very beautiful, the upper parts and a band across the breast glossy bluish black, the fore- 
head and throat chestnut, the lower parts white, and a patch of white on the inner web of 
each of the tail-feathers except the two middle ones. The whole length of the bird is about 
8|in., of which the outer tail-feathers make 5 inches. The nest is made of mud or clay, 
formed into little pellets and stuck together, along with straw and bents, and lined with 
feathers. It is open and cup-shaped, and is generally placed in a situation where it is 
sheltered from wind and rain, as a few feet down an unused chimney, under the roof of 
an open shed, or in any unoccupied building to which access can be obtained. Two 
broods are produced in a year. The migration of this and other British species of swal- 
low, now recognized by all naturalists as an unquestionable fact, was formerly the sub- 
ject of much dispute, and swallows were supposed by many to become torpid in winter, 
although it was difficult to imagine that if so they should not frequently be found in 
that state. The geographical range of these species extends over great part of Europe, 
Asia, and Africa. The WINDOW SWALLOW, or HOUSE-MARTIN (H. urbica, or chelidon 
urbica), is another very common British species, glossy black above, white below, and 
on the rump ; the feet covered with short downy white feathers, which is not the case in 
the chimney swallow ; the tail long, but its outer feathers not remarkably so. The nest 
is built of mud or clay, like that of the chimney swallow, but is hemispherical, with the 
entrance on the side, and is attached to a rock, or, very frequently, to the wall of a house, 
under the eaves or in the upper angle of a window, to the annoyance of housekeepers 
who prefer the cleanness of their windows to the lively twitter of the birds, and the 
opportunity of watching their process of nest-building and their care of their young. 
House-martins congregate in great numbers, as chimney swallows also do before their 
autumnal migration, and disappear all at once. The house-martin is among the birds of 
Lapland and Iceland. The only other common British species of swallow is the SAND- 
MARTIN (H. riparia), smaller than either of the preceding, the toes naked, the tail moder- 
ately forked, the plumage brown on the upper parts and across the breast, the under parts 
white. It makes its nest on sandy river-banks, the sides of sand-pits, and other such 
situations, excavating a gallery of 18 in. or 2 ft., sometimes 3 or even 5 ft. in length, and 
more or less tortuous, in the extremity of which some soft material is placed for the recep- 
tion of the eggs. This wonderful excavation is accomplished entirely by the bill of the 
bird. The floor slopes a little upward from the entrance, so that the lodgment of rain is 
prevented. The sand-martin is more local than the other British swallows; but it is dis- 
tributed over most parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America. The PURPLE 
SWALLOW, or PURPLE MARTIN (H. purpurfa), is a Xorth American species, which has 
in a few instances been known to visit the British islands. The general color, both of 
the upper and under. parts, is shining purplish blue; the wings and tail black. It 
abounds in North America, and is a universal favorite in the northern parts, being hailed 
as the harbinger of spring, and frequenting even the streets of towns. It is a very gen- 
eral practice to place boxes near houses for the martins to make their nests in, which 
are very inartificial, consisting merely of dried grass, leaves, moss, feathers, and the like. 
Boxes nailed to trees are also readily occupied" by the RUFOUS-BELLIED SWALLOW (//. 
erythrogaster), another North American species. But this species which very nearly 
resembles the chimney swallow of Britain, makes a nest of mud and fine hay, in the form 
of the half of an inverted cone, with an extension at the top for one of the parent birds 
to sit in occasionally. The REPUBLICAN SWALLOW, or CLIFF SWALLOW (//. fulva), of 
North America, makes a nest of mud, in form somewhat like a Florence flask, which 
it attaches to a rock or to the wall of a house. Hundreds sometimes build their nests in 
close proximity. The FAIRY MARTIN (H. ariel), a small Australian species, also builds 
a flask-shaped nest, with the mouth below, attaching it to a rock, or to the wall of a 
house, and numerous nests are often built close together. Some of the swallows of tropi- 
cal countries are much smaller than any of the European species. The East Indian 

m Swale, 


swallows which make the edible nests (q.v.), belong to the section of the family to 
which the name swift is given. 

SWALLOWING, THE ACT OP, is accomplished by a set of associated movement* 
which have been divided by physiologists into three stages. In the first stage, the food 
having been previously duly reduced to a pulp by trituration and insalivation, is carried 
back by the contraction of various muscles until it has passed the anterior palatine arch. 
See PALATE. So far, the movements are purely voluntary. The second stage now com- 
mences, during which the entrance of food into the nasal cavities and larynx is most 
carefully guarded against by certain reflex (involuntary) actions, which have been only 
clearly recognized since the introduction of the use of the laryngoscope during the last 
few years. The tongue is carried further backward, the larynx rises so as to be covered 
by the epiglottis, which is depressed and lies horizontally, so that its upper border touches 
the posterior wall of the pharynx. Coincident with these movements, the sides of the 
posterior palatine arch contract by muscular action, and approach each other like a pair 
of curtains, so as almost to close the passages from the fauces into the posterior nostrils; 
the closure being completed by the uvula. A sort of inclined plane is thus formed, and 
the morsel slips downward and backward into the pharynx, which is raised to receive 
it. Very little, if any, voluntary action is here exerted. The third stage the propul- 
sion of the food down the oesophagus then commences, and this process is effected in the 
upper part by means of the constrictor muscles of the pharynx, and in the lower, by the 
muscular coat of the oesophagus itself. At the point where the latter enters the stomach, 
there is a sort of a sphincter muscle which is usually closed, but which opens when suffi- 
cient pressure is made on it by accumulated food, closing again when this has passed. 
See Carpenter's Principles of Human Physiology. 


SWAMMERDAM, JAN, a distinguished naturalist, was b. at Amsterdam, Feb. 12, 
1637. Swammerdam, almost from his boyhood, showed the greatest eagerness in the 
study of natural history. Having entered upon the study of medicine, he particularly 
occupied himself with anatomy, and continued unremittingly to collect insects, to inves- 
tigate their metamorphoses and habits, and, by the aid of the microscope, to examine 
their anatomic structure. He took his degree of doctor of physic at Leyden in 1667, 
and entered upon the practice of his profession, which his bad health, however, soon 
compelled him to relinquish. He continued to be chiefly engrossed with anatomy and I 
entomology. His treatise on bees appeared in 1673 ; a treatise on ephemera in 1675. It is ", 
impossible, however, for us to enumerate his many publications, all of which were first 
published in Dutch, and afterward translated into Latin, and many of them into English, 
French, and German. Swammerdam's discoveries were very numerous, both in human - 
and comparative anatomy. His skill in using the microscope was very great, and his 
manipulation of the most minute subjects extremely dexterous. He succeeded in giving 
distinctness to the forms of very minute viscera, by inflating them with air; a method 
of his own invention. It is melancholy to add, that Swammerdam, who had always 
displayed strong religions feelings, and expressed them in his writings, was at last car- 
ried away by the fanatical extravagances of Antoinette Bourignon (q/v.), began to think 
all his former pursuits sinful, and relinquished them for a visionary religious life of 
mere meditation and devotion. His health rapidly declined, and he died at Amsterdam, 
Feb. 17, 1680. No man of his time contributed more than Swammerdam to the prog- 
ress of natural history and physiology. He was the inventor of the method of making 
anatomical preparations by injecting 'the blood-vessels with wax, and also of the method 
of making dry preparations of the hollow organs, now generally employed. 

SWAN, Cygnus, a genus of birds of the duck (q.v.) family (anatidw), constituting a 
very distinct section of the family. They have a bill about as 'long as the head, of equal 
breadth throughout, higher than wide at the base, with a soft cere, the nostrils placed 
about the middle; the neck very long, arched, and with 23 vertebra; the front toe* 
fully webbed, the hind toe without membrane ; the keel of the breast-bone verylanre; 
the intestines very long, and with very long ca?ca. They feed chiefly on vegetable sub- 
stances, as the seeds and roots of aquatic plants, but also on fish-spawn, of which they 
are great destroyers. They are the largest of the anatidcz. They have a hissing note 
like geese, which they emit when offended, and strike with their wings in attack or 
defense. The common notion, that a stroke of a swan's wing is sufficient to break a ' 
man's leg, is exaggerated. The COMMON SWAN, MUTE SWAN, or" TAME SWAN (C. olor}, is ' 
about 5 ft. in entire length, and weighs about 30 Ibs. It is known to live for at least 50 
years. The male is larger than the female. The adults of both sexes are pure white, with a 
reddish bill; the young (cygnets) have a dark bluish-gray plumage, and lead-colored 
bill. The bill is surmounted by a black knob at the base of the upper mandible, and 
has a black nail at its tip. In its wild state, this species is found in the eastern parts 
of Europe and in Asia ; in a half-domesticated state it has long been a common orna- 
ment of ponds, lakes, and rivers in all parts of Europe. It is an extremely beautiful 
bird when seen swimming, with wings partially elevated, as if to catch the wind, and 
finely curving neck. The ancients called the swan the bird of Apollo or of Orpheus, 
and ascribed to it remarkable musical powers, which it was supposed to exercise partic- 
ularly when its death approached. It ha-s, in reality, a soft low voice, plaintive, and 
U. K. XIV. 8 

Swan. 1 1 A 


with little variety, which is to be heard chiefly when it. is moving about with its young. 
The nest of the swan is a large mass of reeds and rushes, near the edge of the water, an 
islet being generally preferred. From 5 to 7 large eggs are laid, of a dull greenish-white 
color. The female swan sometimes swims about with the unfledged young on her back; 
and the young continue with their parents until the next spring. The swan is now sel- 
dom used in Britain as an article of food, but in former times it was served up at every 
. great feast, and old books are very particular in directions how to roast it and to pre- 
pare proper gravy. The POLISH bwAN (C. im-inutufiilix), of which flocks have occasion- 
ally been seen in Britain in winter, differs from the common swan in its orange-colored 
bill, in the smaller tubercle at its base, and in the shape and position of the nostrils. 
The young are also white, like the adults. It belongs chiefly to the north-eastern parts 
of Europe. Many naturalists regard it as the true wild state of the common swan. The 
WHISTLING SWAN, ELK SWAN, or HOOPER (C.ferus), abounds in the northern parts of 
Europe and Asia. Flocks frequently visit Britain in severe winters, and their migra- 
tions extend as far s. as Barbary. A few breed in the Orkney islands, but the greater 
number in more northern regions. The size is about equal to that of the common .swan, 
-and the color is similar, but the bill is more slender, is destitute of knob, and is black 
at the tip, and yellow at the base. This bird is frequently brought to the London mar 
ket. The names hooper and whistling swan are derived from the voice. The anatom 
ical differences between this species and the common swan are more considerable 
than the external, particularly in the double keel of the breast-bone forming a cavity 
which receives a long curvature of the wind-pipe. BEWICK'S SWAN (C. Beirickii), 
another native of northern Europe, is more rare in Britain, but flocks are sometimes 
seen. It is about one-third smaller than the whistling swan. The AMERICAN SWAN (C. 
^Amenca/nus) nearly resembles Bewick's swan. It breeds in the northern parts of North 
America, and its winter migrations only extend to North Carolina. The TRUMPETER 
SWAN (C. buccinator) is another American species, breeding chiefly within the Arctic 
circle, but of which large flocks may be seen in winter as far s. as Texas. It is rather 
smaller than the common swan. The ancients spoke of a black swan proverbially as a 
thing of which the existence was not to be supposed, but Australia produces a BLACK 
SWAN (G. atratus), rather smaller than the common swan, the plumage deep black, 
except the primaries of the wings, which are white. The bill is blood-red. It has been 
introduced into Britain, and breeds freely. It is very abundant in some parts of Aus- 
tralia. The BLACK-NECKED SWAN (C. nigricollu) is a South American species, as is the 
DUCK-BILLED SWAN (G. anatoides), the smallest of all the species, white, with black- 
tipped primaries, common about the strait of Magellan. It is a curious circumstance 
that the black color appears more or less in all the species of the southern hemisphere, 
and in them alone, except in the approach to it made in cygnets. 

Swans, according to the law of England, are birds royal. When they are found in a 
partially wild state, on the sea and navigable rivers, they are presumed to belong to the 
crown, and this is one of the prerogatives of the crown, though it may be delegated to a 
subject. The royal birds generally have a mark on them, and the king's sWan-herd 
once was an important person. A subject is not entitled to have a swan-mark unless 
he has a qualification of land, and has a grant from the crown, or prescriptive use. But 
any person may have swans in his grounds in a tame state, and then he has a prop- 
erty in them. Whoever steals or destroys swans' eggs, forfeits 5s. for every egg, and 
"whoever steals a marked swan of the crown, or a tame swan, commits felony. In Scot- 
land, there is some trace of the bird having been once treated with royal honors, but 
latterly they have been in the category of other tame birds. 

SWAN, JAMES, 17541831; b. Scotland; came to this country when a boy and 
engaged in business in Boston. He took part in the popular agitation leading to the 
revolution, was one of the Boston " tea party." and aide to Warren at Bunker Hill. He 
afterward served as member of the Massachusetts legislature and adjt.gen. of 
the state. After the war he made a large fortune in Paris, and, 1795-98. visited this 
country and spent money profusely. In 1815, then being in Europe, he was arrested on 
a civil suit, and, refusing to settle, lived for 15 years in Ste. Pelagie prison, Paris, in the 
most magnificent style. He published a number of pamphlets on such subjects as the 
slave trade (1772), fisheries, the commerce of France and the United States, agriculture, 
and manufactures. 

SWANN, THOMAS, b. Va. ; educated at the university of Virginia; afterward stud- 
ied law at Washington, and in 1834 settled in Baltimore, where the greater part of his 
life was spent. He was president of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, 1847-53, and was 
connected with other railroads. In 1858 he was elected may or of Baltimore. He warmly 
supported the union against the rebellion, and in 1864 was chosen governor of the state. 
In 1868 he was elected to congress and served ten years. 

SWAN'SEA (Welch, Abertawy), a market t. , municipal and parliamentary borough, 
and sea-port of the county of Glamorgan, South Wales, stands on the right bank and at 
the mouth of the Tawe, 60 m. w.n.w. of Bristol. The harbor is formed by means of 
piers of masonry projecting from either side of the mouth of the Tawe into Swansea 
bay, a wide inlet of the Bristol channel. The vast resources of the coal-field in the 
amidst of which the town is situated beijan to be explored and turned to commercial 


account about the year 1830; and since that time the progress of Swansea has been so 
rapid that it is now the most important town in South Wales. The houses and public 
edifices and institutions are of recent erection. A good public hall was erected in 1864, 
and a spacious and well arranged infirmary in 1867. Smelting and refining copper is the 
staple trade of the town, and the chief source of its prosperity. The coal obtained in 
the vicinity is peculiarly adapted for smelting purposes, and great quantities of ore are 
brought hither to be smelted, not only from the copper-mines of Britain, but from Cuba 
and the west coast of South America. In the immediate vicinity of the town, there are 
suielting-works, in which about 185,800 tons of copper, copper ores, silver ores, and zinc 
ores (equal in value to about 4.000,000) are smelted annually. Of the whole amount of 
copper manufactured in Great Britain, seven-eighths are smelted at Swansea and in its 
immediate vicinity. In 1859, a large floating dock, 13 acres in extent, was opened by 
the side of the harbor. Its north side is lined with warehouses for the shipment of 
coals which are brought to the wharfs by railway. An excellent system of water-works 
was completed in 1868 at a cost of upward of 70. 000. Patent fuel, composed of a mix- 
ture of culm and tar, and compressed into the shape of bricks, is an important article of 
manufacture and trade. There are extensive potteries, and tin, silver, and china works, 
breweries, rope-walks, and tanneries. In 1877, 5,075 vessels, of 704,914 tons, entered 
the port, and 6,857, of 975,079 tons, cleared. There are abundant means of communi- 
cation landward by canals and railways. Pop. 1851, of municipal and parliamentary 
limits, 31,461; 1861, 41,606; 1871, of mun. bor., 51,702; of parl. bor., 56,995. Of the 
old castle of Swansea, the ruined remains are used as a military store. Swansea unites 
with Aberavon, Kenfigg, Loughor, and Neath in sending a member to the house of 

SWARGA is the paradise of the Hindu god, Indra (q.v.). It is the residence of some 
of the inferior gods and deified mortals, who there rest in the shade of the five wonder- 
ful trees Manddra, Pdrijdta, Sanldna, Kalpaur'iksha, and Hanchandana, drink Am- 
r'ita, or the beverage of immortality; and enjoy the music of the Gandharvas, and the 
dancing of the heavenly nymphs, the Apsarasas. 

SWARMING, a peculiar mode of reproduction which has been observed in some of 
the convervacece, desmidece, etc. The granules which form the green matter in the 
plant, or in one of its joints, become detached from each other, and move about in the. 
cell with great rapidity. The external membrane swells in one point and finally bursts; 
there, when the granules escape into the surrounding water to become new plants. At * 
first they issue in great numbers, but those which remain last move about within their 
cell for a long time before they find the way out. Their motion is supposed to be 
due to cilia. After escaping, they continue their movements for some time, and most 
of them finally become grouped together in little masses on some substance before begin- 
ning to vegetate. 

SWATOW, or CHAr-CHAU, a sea-port I. on the coast of China, in the province of 
Quang-tung, 212 m. n.e. from Canton. It is one of the ports which were opened to for- 
eign trade by the treaty of Tien-tsin, and has a resident British consul. The trade is 
rapidly increasing. In 1875-77 the imports were valued at 1,787,000, and the 
exports at 367,400. Half the total is direct trade with foreign ports. Opium is the 
chief article of importation, next to which rank cotton and woolen goods, metals and 
cotton yarn. The chief exports are sugar, rice, tea, and paper. Swatow is pleasantly 
situated on a sheltered bay. 

SWAYNE, JOHN WAGER, b. Columbus, Ohio, 1835; son of judge Noah H. ; gradu- 
ate of Yale college, 1856; studied law and commenced practice in his native town. In. 
the war of the rebellion he wasmaj. 43d Ohio infantry, 1862; raised to col. after effective 
service at luka and Corinth. He served through the Georgia campaign, lost a leg at 
Salkahatchie, where he greatly distinguished himself, and was made maj.gen., 1865, 
and assigned to the commission on refugees, freedmen, and abandoned lauds. He was 
commissioned col. 45th infantry, 1866; retired, 1870. 

SWAYNE, NOAH HAYNES, LL.D., b. Va. ; admitted to the bar in 1824, and began 
practice in Ohio. He was a member of the state legislature in 1829, and again in 1836. 
He was U. S. district-attorney, 1830-39, and was appointed a justice of the U. S. supreme 
court in 1861. 

SWE ABORG, or SVE'ABOKG, a great Russian fortress in the principality of Finland, 
and government of Viborg, sometimes called " the Gibralter of the north," protects the 
harbor and town of Helsingfors, from which it is only 3 m. distant. The fortifications 
extend over seven islands, the Nylandischen Skdren, but the grand central point is the 
island of Wargoe. The islands are connected with each other by means of bridges, and 
between two of them lies the single narrow entrance to the harbor, which can hold from 
70 to 80 ships of the line. Swe'aborg has a civic pop. of about 3,000, the greater part of 
whom are manual-laborers, ship-carpenters, and traders, and a garrison of some 5,000 
men (including women and children). During the Crimean war the Anglo-French fleet 
in the Baltic made a reconnoisance of the place, and bombarded it for two days (Aug. 
9 and 10, 1855), but found the defenses too formidable to be reduced by the means 
at their disposal. 

Swearing. 1 1 ft 


SWEARING, PROFANE, according to the law of England, is an offense for which the 
party may be convicted by a justice of the peace according to a scale of penalties. A 
day laborer, common soldier, sailor, or seaman forfeits Is per oath; every other person 
under the degree of a gentleman, 2s; and every person above the degree of a gentleman, 
5s for a second offense double these sums; for a third treble, etc. If the cursing take 
place in the presence of a justice of the peace, the latter may convict the prisoner then 
. and there, without further process or evidence; and in all cases a constable may appre- 
hend a profane swearer, and carry him before a justice. On a recent occasion a man 
swore a volley of oaths, twenty times repeating the oath, and the justices fined him 3s 
for each repetition, making in all 2, and this was held a proper conviction. The jus- 
tices of the peace in Scotland have a similar jurisdiction intrusted to them, to convict of 
profane swearing, and fine according to the rank of the party. 

SWEAT (A. S. swat, Sansc. svaidas, Lat. sudor; Gr. Jiydor, moisture ;Lat. ud(us) wet), 
or perspiration. The nature, composition, and uses of this fluid in the normal state 
have been sufficiently noticed in the article SKIN. It may be additionally remarked, in 
connection with the physiology of sweat, that the composition of this fluid varies mate- 
rially according to the part of 'the body from which it is secreted. Thus Funk found 
the sweat of the feet was richer in fixed salts than that of the arm, in the ratio of 5 to 3; 
and Schotten found a considerable preponderance of potassium in the former. In the 
negro, Dr. Copland and other observers have found that both the gaseous exhalations 
from the skin, and the solid matters contained in the sweat, were much greater than in 
the white races. It has been shown in the article SKIN that the sweat-glands, like the 
lungs and kidneys, act as depurating organs, and separate and carry off effete matters 
from the blood. This eliminating action of the skin is modified in various diseases; in 
some cases being diminished, as in the early stage of fevers, in inflammations before 
suppuration commences, in scurvy, diabetes, sunstroke, etc., while it is more or less in- 
creased in the sweating stage of ague, in acute rheumatism, in Asiatic cholera, in certain 
adynamic fevers, in the advanced stages of pulmonary consumption, in the formation of 
matter in internal parts, etc. The sweat is naturally acid in health, but in prolonged 
sweating the secretion becomes neutral, and finally alkaline. Little is known with cer- 
tainty regarding the coloring matters of sweat. In cases of jaundice, the sweat some- 
times communicates a yellow tinge to the body-linen ; and instances of blue, red, and 
bloody sweat are on record. Cases of sweat of these colors are recorded in Simon's 
Animal Chemistry (Syd. Soc. Trans.), (London, 1845), vol. ii., p. 110. Cases of unilateral 
sweating, stopping abruptly at the middle line, have been occasionally noticed, espe- 
cially in aneurism of the aorta. See Gairdner's Clinical Medicine, page 557. Dr. Dmitt 
has pointed out the use of hot water as a remedy for profuse perspiration. He has found 
it serviceable in (1) oversweating in good health and hot weather; (2) undue sweating in 
special parts of the body, as the hands, feet, or armpits; (3) true hectic; and (4) ordinary 
eight sweats in phthisis not preceded by hectic symptoms. To be of any service, the 
water must be applied at as great a heat as the patient can possibly bear (see his paper 
on this subject in the Medical Times for March 4, 1865). For a very interesting and 
learned discussion on our Saviour's bloody sweat during his passion, the reader may con- 
sult Stroud On, the Physical Cause of the Death of Chi-ist, and Trusen's chapter Von dem 
Mutschiceisse Chi-ist in his Darstettung der Bibli&chen Krankheiten, 1843. 

SWEATING SICKNESS, THE, is the term given to an extremely fatal epidemical dis- 
order, which ravaged Europe, and especially England, in the 15th and 16th centuries. 
It derives its name " because it did most stand in sweating from the beginning vntil 
theendyng," and " because it first beganne in Englande, it was named in other countries 
the Englishe sweat. " The Boke ofjhon Caius against the Sweating Sicknes. It first appeared 
in August, 1485, in the army of Henry VII., shortly after his arrival at Milford in South 
Wales from France, and in a few weeks it spread to the metropolis. It was a violent 
inflammatory fever, which, after a short rigor, prostrated the powers as with a blow; 
and amid painful oppression at the stomach, headache, and lethanric stupor, suffused 
the whole body with a fetid perspiration. All this took place in the course of a few 
hours, and the crisis was always over within the space of a day and night. The inter- 
nal heat^which the patient suffered was intolerable, yet every refrigerant was certain 
death. " Scarce one amongst a hundred that sickened did escape with life." Holinshed, 
vol. it. p. 482. Two lord mayors of London and six aldermen died within one week ; 
and the disease for the most part seized as its victims robust and vigorous men. It lasted 
in London from the 21st (some authorities say the middle) of September to the end of 
October, during which short period "many thousands" died from it. The physicians 
could do little or nothing to combat the disease, which at length was swept away from 
England by (as many supposed) a violent tempest on New Year's day. The disease did 
not re-appear till the summer of 1506, when it broke out in London, but does not seem 
to have occasioned any great mortality. In July, 1517, it again broke out in London in a 
most virulent form; it being so rapid'in its course that it carried off those who were at- 
tacked in two or three hours. Among the lower classes, the deaths were innumerable, 
and the ranks of the higher classes were thinned. In many towns a third, or even a 
half of the inhabitants were swept away. On this occasion, the epidemic lasted about 
six months. In May, 1528 the year in which the French army before Naples was de- 



stroyed by pestilence, and in which the putrid fever known as Trmme-galant decimated 
the youth in France the sweating sickness again broke out in the metropolis, spread 
rapidly over the whole kingdom, "and fourteen months later, brought a scene of horror 
upon all the nations of northern Europe scarcely equaled in any other epidemic. 
Hecker's Epidemics of the Middle Agen, (Syd. Soc. Trans.), p. 238 How many lives were 
lost in this epidemic, which has been called by some historians the great mortality, is un- 
known; but the mere fact that the king (Henry VIII., who, whatever his faults, was 
never accused of cowardice) left London, and endeavored to avoid the disease by contin- 
ually traveling, shows the general feeling of alarm that existed. In the following sum- 
mer (July 25, 1529), having apparently died out in England, it appeared in Germany, 
first at Hamburg, where it is recorded that 8000 persons died of it, and shortly after at 
Lubeck, Stettin, Augsburg, Cologne, Strasburg, Hanover, etc. In September, it broke 
out in the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, whence it penetrated into Lithu- 
ania, Poland, and Livonia. By January of the following year, after an existence of 
three months, it had entirely disappeared from all these countries. For three-aud- 
twenty years the sweating sickness totally disappeared, when for the last time (April 15, 
1551) it burst forth in Shrewsbury. The banks of the Severn seemed to be the focus of 
the malady, which was carried from place to place by poisonous clouds of mist. There 
died within a few days 960 of the inhabitants of Shrewsbury, the greater part of them 
robust men and heads of families. The disease spread rapidly over the whole of Eng- 
land, but seems to have disappeared by the end of September. The deaths were so nu- 
merous, that one historian (Stow) states that the disorder caused a depopulation of the 
kingdom. The very remarkable observation was made in this year, that the sweating 
sickness uniformly spared foreigners in England, and on the other hand, followed the 
English into foreign countries. The immoderate use of beer among the English was 
considered by many as the principal reason why the sweating sickness was confined to 
them. "By the autumn of 1551," says Hecker, "the sweating sickness had vanished 
from the earth; it has never since appeared as it did then and at earlier periods; and it 
is not to be supposed that it will ever again break forth as a great epidemic in the same 
form, and limited to a four-and-twenty hours' course; for it is manifest that the mode of 
living of the people had a great share in its origin, and this will never again be the same 
as in those days." Epidemics of the Middle Ages (Syd. Soc. Trans.), p. 306. 

SWE'DEN, Sverige, the eastern portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, constitutes 
witli Norway (q.v.) one joint kingdom. It is situated in 55 20' 69 3' n. lat., and 11" 
24 e. long., and is bounded on the n. and w. by Norway; on the extreme s.w. and s. 
by the Cattegat. which separates it from Denmark; on the s.e. and e., as far as 66 n. 
lat., by the Baltic and the gulf of Bothnia; and from thence to the extreme n. by Russia. 
The area is nearly 170,000 sq.m. ; and the pop. was, in '71, 4,204,177. Its length is 969 
in. , and its greatest width from 150 to 280 miles. Sweden is divided into three provinces 
viz., Norrland, the largest and most northern; Sweden Proper, or Scea-rike (land 
of the Swedes), in the center; and Gotland or Gota-rike (land of the Goths), to tho. 
south. The following are the areas and populations of the 25 la'n into which the 
inces are subdivided' (in '78 the total pop. was estimated at 4,485,000): 


Area in Geog. 
Sq. Miles. 

Population in 
Dec. 1871. 




TJpsala . . 







194 9 




























Elfsborg. . . 









164 7 

169 319 




528 7 





447 5 

136 939 

921 2 

71 338 


1122 5 

93 154 




City of Stockholm 



Total population 



In 1878 Sweden ceded her only colony, St. Bartholomew (q.v.), to France (to which 
country it once belonged) on payment of the purchase money agreed on. 

Unlike Norway, Sweden possesses few high mountains, but contains numerous lakes 
of large dimensions. The coast skirting tbe Baltic, and the adjoining islands, are for the 
most part low and sandy, although in some parts, as in the vicinity of the outlet of lake 
Maelar into the sea (in about 58 n. lat.), the shores are steep; and on the s. and w. coast, 
the generally low, alluvial lands are replaced by more rocky formations. 

In the northern parts the land rises gradually from the gulf of Bothnia to the Kjolen 
range, belonging to the great Norwegian Fjeldmark, which constitutes the true water- 
shed and natural boundary between Sweden and Norway. South of 62 n. lat., the slope 
is directed southward, attaining its lowest level in the vicinity of the three great lakes 
of Vener, Maelar, and Hjelmar, which, together with the great Vetter lake, nearly 
intersect the country from e. to w. ; and s. of these great inland waters, the surface is in 
general level, though ranges of high ground and detached hills occur. 

Sweden may be considered to be divided into three distinct parts viz., the northern 
or alpine region, the central or lake district, and the southern or mining district. The 
extreme s. includes the only level and fertile tract, in which wheat can at all times be 
advantageously and extensively cultivated. The lakes of Sweden have been computed 
to cover nearly th of the entire area of the country. The largest are lake Vener (q.v.); 
lake Vetter (q.v.); and the Maelar lake (q.v.). The rivers are generally short and rapid, 
and only made navigable by art. The largest is the Angermann Elv, which flows into 
the gulf of Bothnia. The Cattegat is connected with the Baltic by means of an admirable 
system of canals, etc. 

Temperature, Natural Products, etc. The differences of climate in Sweden are neces- 
sarily very great, considering that its most northern parts are more than 2 within the 
polar circle, and its southern extremity 11 s. of it, besides which many districts are so 
nearly surrounded by seas and lakes as to have tbe conditions of an insular position. 
Great extremes of temperature are common in different parts of Sweden ; thus, while 
Stockholm has a mean annual temperature of 42.2Fahr., and Gotteborg 46. 3, the sum, 
mer temperature of the former is 60.4 Fahr., and that of the later 62. 13; and the win- 
ter temperature of the former only 25. 8, and that of the latter 31. 5 Fahr. 

The heat of the summer, which is scarcely separated from the cold of the winter by 
either spring or autumn in the extreme northern districts, enables the inhabitants to cul- 
tivate barley, which is reaped within two months of the time of its sowing, although even 
the hardier cereals, as oats and rye, will not ripen above the parallel of 66 n. lat. Indeed, 
the climate of Sweden generally is unfavorable to the growth of grain, the annual yield 
of which frequently falls short of the wants of the population. The principal articles of 
cultivation are, in addition to the various cereals, potatoes, hemp, flax, tobacco, and 
hops, which are generally grown in sufficient quantities for home consumption. The 
forests are of great extent, covering nearly one-fourth of the entire surface, and rising 
at some spots to an elevation of 3,000 ft. above the level of the sea. The birch, fir, pine, 
and beech are of great importance, not only for the timber, tar, and pitch, which 
they yield, but also from their supplying charcoal and firewood. Above the parallel of 
164, stunted bushes, berries, dwarf -plants, and lichens are the only forms of vegetation 
to be met with. The common fruit-trees, as cherries, apples, and pears, grow as far 
north as 60, but the fruit seldom comes to great perfection except in the southern prov- 
inces; cranberries and other berries abound, however, in all parts of the country. 
Bears and beavers, which were formerly often met with, are becoming scarce; but 
wolves, lynxes, foxes, martens, squirrels, eagles, reindeer in the Lappmarks, etc., are 
still common ; while the elk and deer are found in some of the forests, which abound in 
hares, woodcock, blackcock, and various other kinds of small game; and lemmings 
(q.v.) occasionally descend from the mountains in large numbers, and lay waste the low 
country. The lakes yield a great abundance of fish, 88 differentkinds of sea and fresh- 
water fish being brought to market. In 1870, there were in Sweden 428,446 horses, 
1,965,800 horned cattle, 1,780, 000 sheep and goats, and 354.303 swine. 

The mineral products of Sweden, which are extremely rich, include some gold and 
silver (which, however, do not pay the cost of working), copper in abundance, iron of 
the finest quality, alum, vitriol, marble, sulphur, lead, plumbago, cobalt, nickel, zinc, 
and some coal of very inferior quality. 

Next to agriculture, mining constitutes the most important branch of national indus- 
try, and in some provinces is the principal employment, The Danemora mines, in 
in Upsala Lan, yield a metal which is capable of being converted into the finest steel, 
and which is for the most p:irt purchased for the English market. At Gellivare in south 
Lapland enormous quantities of iron ore of superior quality have recently been 
extracted from mines, which promise to rival those in Upsala. 

Ship-building forms an extensive branch of local industry. The merchant-sailing 
marine numbered in 1874. 4,368 vessels with a tonnage of about 450,000; the number of ' 
vessels that cleared the Swedish ports in 1876, was 16,775, with a tonnage of about 
2,533,500, of which one-third belonged to Sweden. 

Exports and Imports. The chief articles of export are iron and timber, copper, 
cobalt, alum, hemp, oil, birch-bark, hides, furs, paper, tobacco, home-spun linens, pitch 



and tar, etc. The Baltic lands, Great Britain, France, Portugal, and the Brazils take 
the greater part of these articles. The imports include yarn, wool, cotton, leather, coals, 
salt, machines, manure, textile fabrics, wines, and the ordinary colonial produce. The 
value of the imports in 1874 was 306,810,000 rixdalers, or about 18,111,670; that of 
exports, 243,332,000 rixdalers, or about 12,962,914. 

In 1858 the decimal was introduced into Sweden, when the standard foot, which was 
retained, was divided into 10 in. of 10 lines, and the old standard pound made the 
basis of the hundredweight of 100 pounds. The rixdaler rixmynt = 100 oere, or about 
Is. 3d., now usually called krona, has been made to supersede the old rixdaler-banco of 
150 oere. 

Beveniie, etc. The revenue is derived from direct and indirect taxation, state 
property, railways, customs, etc. The budget for 1877 gave the annual receipts at 
78,258,000 rixdalers, or about 4,347,670, and the expenditure at the same figure; of 
which about 10,000,000 rixdalers were for extraordinary expenses. The frequent sur- 
plus of expenditure, which is almost invariably due to the prosecution of national and 
public works, is formally sanctioned by the diet, which annually provides means for 
covering the deficit by the appropriation of certain state funds for the purpose, and 
by the levying of a general income-tax. At the end of 1877 the national debt of Sweden 
was 182,157,84 rixdalers or crowns, nearly four-fifths of which are held by foreigners. 

Army, Navy, etc. The Swedish army, which is nominally rated at about 150,000 
men, has a special and peculiar organization, as it consists, in addition to the varfvade 
or enlisted troops, of the "indelta," or cantoned militiamen, who are maintained at the 
cost, and on the property, of the landed proprietors: each estate being mulcted accord- 
ing to its value or extent to maintain one or more men, and provide them with " torps" 
or cottages, a certain portion of land, and a fixed rate of payment. In return these 
reserve soldiers, who are for the most part married men, serve the proprietor as field- 
laborers in times of peace, except during the four weeks of each year in which they 
are called out for drill. In case of war they can be sent with the companies in which 
they are enrolled into active service, and they are then paid by the crown. The rest 
of the army is made up of volunteers, who serve for six years, every Swede between 
the age of 20 and 25 years being, moreover, bound to serve in the bevdring or national 
guard. In addition to these corps, companies of volunteer free-shooters were created 
in 1861 for the general defense of the country, and placed under the command of 
officers appointed by the crown. The fleet consisted in 1878 of 150 vessels (of which 
52 were steamers), carrying in all about 400 guns. There are on an average 7,800 men 
engaged in active service : while in time of war, a coasting merchant fleet of 3,200 vessels 
can be called into requisition, together with a reserve of 25,000 men. The principal 
fortresses are Karlssten, Karlskrona, and Vaxholm near Stockholm. The military and 
other orders are the Seraphim, the Sword, the Northern Star, and the Order of Vasa. 
The order of Charles XIII. embraces the highest rank of freemasons in Sweden. 

Form of Government. Sweden is a hereditary and constitutional monarchy, based 
on the fundamental law of 1809, by which it was decreed that the succession should 
be in the male line; that the sovereign should profess the Lutheran faith; and have 
sworn fidelity to the laws. The diet, which meets every year, and remains sitting for 
three or four months, is composed of two chambers, which are both elected by the 
people. The first chamber consists of 127 members, who receive no payment, and are 
elected for nine years, their number being, however, dependent upon the amount of 
the population. They must be possessed of an income of about 225, and have attained 
the age of 35. The second chamber is composed of 194 members, elected for three 
years, on a lower scale of qualification as to property and age; and receiving payment 
for their attendance during each session of the, diet" and for their traveling expenses. 
Election to both chambers is by ballot. The diet exercises a strict control over the 
expenditure of the revenue, fixes the budget, and has power to take cognizance of the 
acts of the ministers and crown officers. The king's person is inviolable, and he can 
exercise a veto on the decrees of the diet. He is the supreme head of the law courts, 
nominates to all appointments, can declare war, make peace, and conclude foreign 
treaties. He is assisted by a council of state composed of 10 members, who are respon- 
sible to the diet. 

Law, etc. The administration of the law is independent of the state, and presided 
over by the chancellor of justice, jmtitie kanslar, appointed by the king, and an attorney - 
general, juslitie ombudsmann, appointed by the diet. There were 587,581 cases brought 
before the courts in 1875, the large proportion of which were merely for slight offenses 
against the law. The expenses incurred annually for the support of the poor are 
about 6,000,000 rixdalers, which is nearly covered by the regular income obtained by the 
rates imposed for the purpose. 

Sweden is divided administratively into 25 lans, presided over by lansmen or chief 
magistrates, and subdivided into 117 fogderin, and 517 lansrnans districts. There are 
90 chief towns (stader), only a limited number of which have the right of trading with 
foreign ports, and 19 market-towns (Kopinger). Besides Stockholm, the capital (q.v.), 
only one town, Goteborg (71,000 in 1877), has a pop. of more than 50,000. Next in rank 
come Malmo, with 34, 439; Norkopiug, with 27,226; Gefle, with 18,137; and Karlskrona, 


with 17,787 inhabitants. Upsala, a cathedral and university town, which is the mst 
interesting spot in the kingdom, as the original seat both of Christianity and of the 
ancient Odinic faith, has a pop. of only 13,446. 

Religion, etc. The predominant form of religion in Sweden is the Lutheran; the 
official tables of the census for 1870 showing only 6,440 persons who belonged to other 
forms of faith, of whom 1918 were Baptists, and 1886 Jews. The affairs of the church 
are administered by 1 archbishop (of Upsala) and 11 bishops, whose collective dioceses 
include about 2,500 parishes, with about 3.500 pastors. 

Education, etc. Education is universally diffused among the Swedes by the agency 
of fasta (regular) and Jlyttanda (ambulatory) schools in all the country districts. There 
were, in 1869, 2,303 of the former and 1206 of the latter kind, together with 3,410 infant 
schools, which were attended in all by 679,128 children, and instructed by 5,030 male 
and 2,115 female teachers. Public instruction is compulsory for all children, and the 
cost is defrayed by the nation. Ample means are supplied for a higher form of instruc- 
tion in the larovaVk or gymnasia of the towns, and at the universities of Upsala and 
Lund. The Karolingska institute at Stockholm is the medical college of Sweden ; and 
there are numerous technical, military, and other special collegiate institutions in the 
principal towns of the kingdom. The transactions of the two learned societies, the 
" Svenska Vetenskaps Selskap," and the " Svenska akademie," afford honorable testi 
monjr to the advanced condition of scientific inquiry in Sweden. The royal library of 
Stockholm and those of Upsala and Lund number about 100,000 vols. each. That 
of Upsala is contained in a special building, Carolina Redivim, to which is attached a 
botanical garden arranged on the Linnsean system. 

Roads, Railways, etc. There were, in 1878, 12,000 English miles of high-roads in 
Sweden, and nearly double that length of way in parish and by-roads. In 1877 a length of 
3,010 English miles of railway had been opened. In the year 1871 the number of passengers 
conveyed was 1,659,204, and the receipts from this branch of the traffic were 2,896,184 
rixdalers; while the whole of the returns were 7,784,860 rixdalers (432,490). In 1875 
the telegraphic lines measured 4,991 English miles, and, besides the 170 government tele- 
graph stations, there were 351 stations in connection with railways and belonging to 
companies; 1,009,539 messages were transmitted, of which number 645,913 were from 
and for Sweden; and the receipts were for the same year 1,953,109 rixdalers. There 
passed 16,250,000 letters through the post-offices of Sweden in 1875, when the receipts 
were 3,650,000, and the expenses of the department 3,700,000 rixdalers. 

History. The legendary history of Sweden forms part of Scandinavian history. 
When we first hear of Sweden the country was inhabited by numerous tribes, kindred 
in origin but politically separate. Two principal groups, however, are recognizable 
Goths in the south and Swedes in the north. These possessed in common a national 
sanctuary, the temple of Uppsala, which laid the basis of a later unification, for gradu- 
ally the royal chieftains of Uppsala extirpated the inferior princes, the Harads find the 
Fylkis. Ingiald Hrada, the last ruler of the old royal family of the Ynglingar, who 
drew tlieir origin from Njord, sought to establish a single government in Sweden, and 
perished in the attempt. To the Ynglingar followed in Upland the dynasty of the 
Skioldungar, which claimed to be descended from Skjold, son of Odin Erik Edmunds- 
son, who belonged to this dynasty, is said to have acquired the sovereignty of the whole 
of Sweden about the end of the 9th century. The dawn of Swedish history (properly 
so called) now begins, and we find the Swedes constantly at war with their neighbors 
of Norway and Denmark, and busily engaged in piratical enterprises against the eastern 
shores of the Baltic. See NORMANS and RUSSIA. Efforts to introduce Christianity (see 
ANSGAR) were made as early as 829 A.D., but it was not till 1000 A.D. that Olof Skot- 
konung, the Lap-king, was baptized, nor did the struggle between heathenism and the 
new religion cease till the burning of the temple of Upsala in the reign of Inge (1080- 
1112). In 1155 Erik, surnamed the saint, gave a powerful impetus To the diffusion of 
Christian doctrines by building churches and founding monasteries. He undertook a 
crusade against the pagan Finns, and, having compelled them to submit to baptism, and 
established Swedish settlements among them, he laid the foundation of the union of 
Finland with Sweden. Erik's defeat and murder in 1160 by the Danish prince Magnus 
Henriksen, who made an unprovoked attack upon the Swedish king, was the beginning 
of a long series of troubles, and during the following 200 years, one short and stormy 
rfeign was brought to a violent end by murder or civil war only to be succeeded by 
another equally short and disturbed. At length, in 1389, the throne was offered by the 
Swedish nobles to Margaret, queen of Denmark and Norway, who, having gladly availed 
herself of the opportunity thus opened to her of uniting the three Scandinavian crowns 
into one, threw an army into Sweden, defeated the Swedish king Albert of Mecklenburg, 
who on the deposition of his maternal uncle Magnus had been called to the vacant throne, 
and by the union of Calmar in 1397 brought Sweden under one joint scepter with Den- 
mark and Norway. In 1523 Sweden emancipated itself from the union with Denmark, 
which during the reigns of Hans and his son Kristian II. (see DENMARK) had become 
hateful to the Swedes, and rewarded its deliverer, young Gustaf Vasa (see GUSTAVUS I.), 
by electing him king and declaring its independence of Denmark. Gustaf Yasa found 
an empty treasury, a kingdom exhausted by war, a haughty nobility and clergy (who 
arrogated the right of electing the sovereign, and who claimed exemption from all 



imposts), and a people overburdened with taxation and bad government and divided in 
regard to religion. On his death in 1560 he left to his successor a hereditary and well- 
organized kingdom (in which the power of the nobles had been circumscribed, and that 
of the clergy broken, by the abrogation of Catholicism and the firm establishment of the 
reformed church under the jurisdiction of the state), a full exchequer, a standing army, 
and a well-appointed navy. Trade, manufactures, art, learning, and science owed their 
advancement in Sweden to this patriotic king. 

The colossal labors of the great Yasa in raising a semi-barbarous state to an honor- 
able place among the civilized monarchies of Europe, were rendered almost useless by 
the crimes and misfortunes of his son and successor, Erik XIV., whose high intellectual 
powers were clouded by a wayward and revengeful nature, leading him finally to in- 
sanity. His cruelties and excesses led to his deposition in 1568, when his younger 
brother Johan ascended the throne, which he occupied for nearly a quarter of a century, 
dying in 1592, after a stormy reign, stained by the cruel murder of his unfortunate 
brother Erik, and distracted by the internal dissensions arising from his attempts to force 
Catholicism on the people, and to carry on war with the Danes, Poles, and Russians. 
Johan's son and successor, Sigismund, who had been elected king of Poland through the 
influence of the relatives of his Polish mother, after a short and stormy reign of eight 
years, which were spent in attempting to restore Catholicism in Sweden, was compelled 
by the diet to resign the throne in 1599 to his. uncle Karl, the only one of Gustaf Vasa's 
sons who inherited any share of his legislative and administrative talents. The policy of 
Karl IX., was to encourage the burgher classes at the expense of the nobility; and by his 
successful efforts to foster trade in furtherance of which he laid the foundation of 
Goteborg and other trading ports develop the mineral resources of the country, and re- 
organi/e'the system of Swedish jurisprudence, he did much to retrieve the calamitous 
errors of his predecessors. The deposition of Sigismand gave rise to the Swedo-Polish 
war of succession, which continued from 1604 to 1660; and on the death of Karl in 1611, 
his sou and successor, the great Gustavus Adolphus, found himself involved in hostilities 
with Russia, Poland, and "Denmark. By the ability of his minister, Oxenstierna, the 
young king was soon enabled to conclude treaties of peace with his northern neighbors, 
and to place the internal affairs of his kingdom in order (see GUSTAVTS II.); and al- 
though he justly ranks as one of the greatest military commanders of his age, the extra- 
ordinary number of benefits which he conferred on every department of the administra- 
tive system of Sweden, entitle him to still greater renown as the benefactor of his native 
country. His death in 1632, on the field of Liitzen, would have proved an irreparable 
calamity to Sweden, had not the able administration of Oxeustierna, during the minority 
of Gustavus's daughter, Christina, maintained the renown of the Swedish arms abroad, 
and the political reputation of the country among the other states. The reign of Chris- 
tina (q.v.) was disastrous in every act but that of her abdication. The short reign of 
Karl X. was occupied in generally unsuccessful wars against Poland and Denmark; 
while the minority and long rule of his son, Karl XI. from 1660 to 1697 was charac- 
terized by success abroad, and in the augmentation of the regal power, which was de- 
clared by an act of the diet to be absolute. His son Karl, known to us as Charles XII. 
(q.v.). succeeded, at the age of 15, to the power and dominions which his father's abili- 
ties had consolidated, but which, notwithstanding his own brilliant genius, he so deeply 
imperiled by his insatiable ambition, that at his untimely death in 1718, at the siege of 
Frederikshald, after a brilliant career of glorious but checkered military achievements, 
he left his country overwhelmed -with debts, and disorganized by prolonged misrule. 
With him the male line of the Yasas expired, and his sister and her husband, Frederick 
ox Hesse-Cassel, were called to the throne by election, but were the mere puppets of the 
nobles, whose rivalries and party dissensions plunged the country into calamitous wars 
and almost equally disastrous treaties of peace, and, under the leadership of the two 
great factions of the "Hats," or French party, and the "Caps," or Russian part}-, de- 
moralized all ranks of society. The weak Adolphus Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp, who 
was called to the throne on the death of Frederick in 1751, and died in 1771, did little to 
retrieve the evil fortunes of the state; but his son, Gustavus III. (q.v.) (1771-92), skill- 
fully turned to account the general dissatisfaction of the people with the nobles, to de- 
stroy the factious of the Hats and Caps, and to recover the lost power of the crown 
His extravagance, dissoluteness, and insincerity detracted, however, from his merits as 
a ruler, and raised up numerous enemies against him, through whose agency he was 
assassinated in 1792. His son and successor, Gustavus IV. (q.v.) lacked the ability to 
cope with the difficulties of the times, and after suffering in turn for his aliance with 
France, England, and Russia, was forcibly deposed in 1809, and obliged to renounce for 
himself and his direct heirs the crown in favor of his uncle, Charles XIII., who saw 
himself compelled at once to conclude a humiliating peace with Russia by the cession of 
nearly a fourth part of the Swedish territories, with l million of inhabitants. The early 
part of the reign of Charles, who was childless, was troubled by domestic and foreign 
intrigues to regulate the choice of an heir to the throne ; and when, under the erroneous 
idea of conciliating Napoleon, the dominant party in Sweden elected General Bernadotte 
to the rank of crown prince, the latter assumed the reins of government, and by hi? 
steady support of the allies against the French emperor, secured to Sweden at the con- 
gress "of Vienna, the possession of Norway, when that country was separated from Den- 

S vedemborg. 

mark. Under the able administration of Bernadotte, who, in 1818, succeeded to tha 
throne as Charles XIV., the united kingdoms of Sweden and Norway made great ad- 
vances in material prosperity and political and intellectual progress; and although the 
nation at large entertained very little personal regard for their alien sovereign, his son 
and successor, Oscar (1844-59), and his grandsons, the late king, Charles XV., and 
the present king, Oscar II., who came to the throne in 1872, have so identified them- 
selves with their subjects that the Bernadotte dynasty has secured the loyal affections of 
every section of the united nations of Sweden and Norway. 

SWE DENBOEG, EMANUEL, was b. in Stockholm, Jan. 29, 1688, and died in Lon- 
don, Mar. 29, 1772. His father was Jesper Svedberg, subsequently bishop of Skara. 
Swedenborg's lifetime divides itself into two distinct periods; the first, ending with his 
55th year, was given to business, science, and philosophy; the second, of nearly 30 
years, was consecrated to theology and spiritualism. Swedenborg was educated at 
Upsal, and traveled for four years in England, Holland, France, and Germany. On his 
return to Sweden, he was appointed by Charles XII. to an assessorship of mines; and 
rendered some service to that monarch as military engineer. The Swedenborg family 
was ennobled in 1719, and the name changed from Svedberg to Swedenborg. Sweden- 
borg is sometimes styled count and baron, but erroneously; he was neither, though he 
had a seat in the Swedish house of nobles. His mind at this time was busy with 
mechanical and economical projects. He published short treatises on algebra, giving 
the first account in Sweden of the diilereutial and integral calculus; on a mode of find- 
ing the longitude at sea by the moon; on decimal money and measures; on the motion 
and position of the earth and planets; on the depth of the sea, and greater force of the 
tides in the ancient world; on docks, sluices, and salt-works; and on chemistry as atomic 
geometry. In 1724 he was offered the professorship of mathematics at Upsal, which he 
declined from a dislike of speculative science. Abandoning his desultory studies, he 
remained silent for eleven years, and devoted himself to the duties of his assessorship 
and to a systematic description of mining and smelting, and the construction of a theory 
of the origin of creation. The result appeared at Leipsic in 1734, in three massive 
folios, beautifully illustrated, entitled Opera Philosophies et Mineralia. The second and 
third volumes describe the manufacture of copper, iron, and brass, and contain au 
exhaustive record of the best methods in use in last century. The first volume, entitled 
Principia, or the First Principles of Natural Things, being new Attempts toward a Philo- 
sopJiical Explanation of the Elementary World, is an elaborate deduction of matter from 
"points of pure motion produced immediately from the infinite." This was followed 
in 1734 by a treatise on The Infinite, and the Final Cause of Creation; and the Intercourse 
between the Soul and the Body, carrying the doctrine of the Pnncipia into higher regions, 
and resolving the soul into points of motion, and one in substance with the sun. Dis- 
satisfied with his conclusions, he determined to track the soul to its inmost recesses in 
the body. His studies in human anatomy and physiology with this end in view, 
appeared as (Economia Begni Animalis, in two volumes, 1741, and as Begnum Animate, 
in three volumes unfinished, 1744 45. At this point, his course was arrested, and he 
entered on his career as seer, by which he is known to fame. The particulars of the 
.transition lay in obscurity until 1858, when G. E. Klemming, royal librarian, Stock- 
holm, discovered Swedenborg's diary, kept in 1744. It contains the record of a variety 
of dreams, visions, and strange communings. After that date, he professed to enjoy 
free access to heaven and hell. He resigned his assessorship in 1747, that he might 
devote himself to his office of seer. In 1749 he made his first public appearance in his 
new character in the issue in London of the Arcana Codestia, completed in 1756 in eight 
quartos. His life henceforward was spent between Stockholm, London, and Amster- 
dam, in writing and printing a variety of works in exposition of his experience and 
doctrines. There is little in any of these which is not comprised in the Arcana Cadestia, 
and a few notes on its contents may serve as a description of the whole. With many 
digressions, the Arcana Codestia is a revelation of the inner sense of Genesis and Exodus. 
The early chapters of Genesis are a fragment of an older word, preserved at this day in 
Tartary, and are not historical in a man ner-of -fact sense. Adam signifies the most 
ancient church, and the flood its dissolution; Noah, the ancient church, which falling 
into idolatry, was superseded by the Jewish. The spiritual sense pervades the Scrip- 
tures, with the exception of Ruth, Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, Proverbs, 
Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Epistles. No fault 
is found with these books, but inasmuch as they do not possess the internal sense, they 
are not the word. The Scriptures are read in heaven in the spiritual sense, but as that 
sense treats exclusively of God and the human mind, it is void of every reference to 
earthly scenes, persons, and events. By reason of its symbolism of the inward sense, 
the letter of Scripture is holy in every jot and tittle, and has been preserved in immacu- 
late perfection since the hour of its divine dictation. The Jewish dispensation having 
reached its period, God appeared in Jesus Christ. He assumed human nature in its 
basest condition in the Virgin, wrought it into conformity with himself, "glorified and 
made it divine." The effluence from the redeemed humanity is the Holy Spirit. In a 
sense the reverse of Socinian, Swedenborg was a Unitarian. He saw God in the 
Savior, and regarded him as the sole object of worship. The church initiated by the 
divine advent came to an end in last century, and Swedenborg witnessed the last judg- 


ment effected in *he roar 1757 in the world of spirits. Then commenced a new dis- 
pensation, signified by the Xew Jerusalem in the Revelation, of which Swedenborg was 
the precursor, and his writings the doctrine. To the objection, that the doctrine is 
strange and novel, he replied, that mankind were not prepared for its reception, and 
that the early Christians were too simple to understand it. 

One of the chief ends of his mission was the revival of the lost science of correspon- 
dences the science of sciences in the most ancient times. The law of correspondence 
is universal; the natural world is the outbirlh of the spiritual world, and the spiritual 
world of the invisible mental world. Unseen evil is manifested in things hurtful and 
ugly; unseen good, in things useful and beautiful. Man is a summary of nature; na- 
ture is man in diffusion ; all things, therefore, in nature, in fire, air, earth, and water 
every beast, bird, fish, insect, and reptile every tree, herb, fruit, and flower, represent 
and express unseen things in the mind of man. The Scriptures are written according 
to correspondences, and by aid of the science their mysteries are unlocked. By it, too, 
the constitution of heaven and hell is revealed. There are three heavens, consisting of 
three orders of angels; the first distinguished for love, the second for wisdom, and the 
last for obedience. All angels have lived on earth; none were created such. They are 
men and women in every respect ; they marry, and live in societies in cities and coun- 
tries just as in the world, but in happiness and glory ineffable. All in whom love to 
God and man is the ruling principle, go to heaven at death. Between heaven and hell, 
a perfect equilibrium is maintained. As there are three heavens, there are three hells, 
and every angelic society has an infernal opposite. Hell, as a whole, is called the devil 
and Satan; there is no individual bearing that name. All in whom self-love is the ruling 
motive, go to hell. There is no resurrection of the earthly body. Every one passes to 
his final lot at death, some making a short sojourn in an intermediate state, designated 
the world of spirits, where the good are cured of their superficial infirmities and intel- 
lectual mistakes, and where the evil are stripped of all their pretenses to good. 

Swedenborg professed to enjoy a numerous acquaintance with departed celebrities, 
and some of his verdicts on character are appalling; for example, he describes king 
David and St. Paul as among the lost, while Louis XIV. and George II. are distin- 
guished angels. Nor did he confine his intercourse to ghosts from earth, but extended 
it to souls from the moon and planets, with the unfortunate exceptions of Uranus, Nep- 
tune, and the Asteroids. For these visions, enjoyed while sitting in his chamber, he 
had this explanation : although in the spiritual world there are appearances of space, 
there is nothing of the objective reality which here divides London from Melbourne. 
If one spirit desires to see another, the desire instantly brings them together. A good 
man is, as to his mind, in heaven, and an evil man in hell ; and supposing the spiritual 
sight of either was opened that is, if the eyes of the spiritual body, which transfuse 
and animate the material ones, were disengaged from their fleshly vesture he would see 
his spiritual companions and the country where he would abide after death. 

The grand and distinctive principle of Swedenborgian theology, next to the doctrine 
of the divine humanity, is the doctrine of life. God alone lives. Creation is dead 
man is dead; and their apparent life is the divine presence. God is everywhere the 
same. It fallaciously appears as if he were different in one man and in another. The 
difference is in the recipients; by one he is not received in the same degree as another. 
A man more adequately manifests God than a tree; that is the only distinction. The 
life of devils is God's presence perverted in disorderly forms. " All tilings, and each ot 
them to the very uttermost, exist and subsist instantly from God. If the connection of 
anything with him were broken for a moment, it would instantly vanish; for existence 
is perpetual subsistence, and preservation perpetual creation." By this law of life is 
explained man's self-consciousness, freedom, and personality. All these sensations are 
communicated from God to man. He dwells in man so cordially that he gives him to 
feel that he lives of himself, even as he lives. 

Swedenborg made no attempt to establish a sect. When he proclaimed the Christian 
church at an end his expectation was, that a new church would be raised up among the 
Gentiles ; but toward the close of his life he was silent as to that hope, and spent his 
energies in attacking Protestant theology, as if bent on the conversion of northern 
Europe. All his works were written in Latin, and received little attention from his 
contemporaries. Apart from his visions, there was nothing peculiar about Swedenborg. 
He was shrewd in worldly affairs, affable in society, and discussed politics and finance 
in the Swedish diet like a man of the world. He was never married. In diet he was a 

Swedenborgians, or, as they designate themselves, ' ' The New Church signified by 
the New Jerusalem in the Revelation," were first organized as a separate body in 1788 
by Robert Hindmarsh, a printer in Clerkenwell, London, who was elected by lot to 
baptize and to ordain his comrades in the ministry. The Swedenborgians accept Sweden- 
borg's voluminous theological writings as nothing less than revelations from heaven. 
The body has not had a prosperous existence. The number of its registered members 
in Britain is little over 4,000, divided into 58 congregations. These are chiefly in the 
large towns and in Lancashire;' four are in Scotland, but none in Ireland. At one time 
there were reputed to be a number of receivers of the doctrines of Swedenborg among 
the clergy of the church of England. The translator of the Arcana C&lestia was the 



rev. John Clowes, rector of St. John's, Manchester, for sixty -two years. He died in 
1831, and in the pulpit and numerous publications made no s'ecret of his faith. In the 
United States the Swedenborgians have nearly 100 societies, and about 5,000 members. 
They chiefly exist in the northern states ; and their largest congregation is in Boston. 
In France, Germany, Sweden, and Russia, there are Swedenborgiaus, but few and scat- 
tered. There is a Swedenborg society, established in 1810, for printing and publishing 
Swedenborg's works, with a house in London, and an income of about 200 a year. 
See the life of Swedenborg by White (London, 1867), and various Documents, published 
by prof. Tafel (ed. 1875). 

SWEDENBORGIANS organized their first congregation in the United States: 
at Baltimore, 1792; and their general convention in 1817, incorporated under the law of 
Illinois, and having associations, societies, or members, in nearly all the states. It holds 
annual sessions in different cities, has a publishing house in New York, a theological 
school at Waltham, Mass., a Sunday-school union and church music society. Much 
freedom in regard to ecclesiastical forms is allowed, the power to adopt them being 
lodged in the whole body of members. The form generally preferred in this country 
is a modified episcopacy: each state association having its overseer, whose office is per- 
manent. In most of the congregations the worship is partly liturgical, and several 
books of prayer have been issued; yet as each congregation is free to adopt its own 
mode, in some only extemporaneous prayers are offered. There is a congregational 
union, composed of ministers and churches preferring that order, having its headquar- 
ters in Philadelphia, with its own board of publication. There are also independent 
societies and churches not associated together. And, while the number of those who, 
in an open profession of Swedenborgian doctrines, have separated from other Christian 
churches is not large, they believe that in all other denominations many persons have 
adopted more or less of Swedenborg's views. And it is their avowed and cherished 
purpose to enlarge this number everywhere. A large sum of money has been devoted 
to publishing some of the most popular of Swedenborg's books for gratuitous distribu- 
tion to all who apply for them; and in a report, made 1878, it is stated that 36,000 vols. 
had thus been sent to ministers and theological students of all denominations, and of the 
white, black, and Indian races. At the general convention of 1877, 64 societies were 
represented, having about 4,800 members. 



SWEEPS, on shipboard, are oars of great length used in large vessels during a calm, 
to enable the ship to obtain steerage-way. 

SWEETBREAD, the pancreas (q.v.) of an animal, used as food; it is highly esteemed 
as being both delicate and nutritious. 




SWEETMEAT, a general term applied to such articles of food as consist chiefly ol 



SWEETS, a term applied in England, and by the board of inland revenue, to home- 
made wines, for the sale of which a special license is granted. It is also a term in far 
more general use for lozenges, comfits, and other preparations of sugar well known to 
children; they are the confitures of the French. 

SWEETSER, CHARLES HUMPHREYS, 1841-71; b. Mass. ; graduated at Amherst, 1862; 
entered literary life, and was one of the founders of the Round Table, and of the Even- 
ing Mail, with which he was connected until 1869. He wrote a history of Amherst col- 
lege, a collection of college songs, and an Invalid's Guide to the North-west. 

SWEET SOP, Anona squamosa, a fruit of the same genus with the custard apple 
(q.v.). It is produced by a small bush, with lanceolate leaves, a native of the warm 
parts of America, and much cultivated in Brazil, the West Indies, and generally in 
tropical countries. The fruit is greenish, and resembles an artichoke in size, in form, 
and in its scaly covering. The pulp is soft, somewhat mealy, sweet, and lucious; with 
a musky aromatic odor'and flavor. It is much used both in the East and West Indies, 
generally raw, but sometimes cooked. Notwithstanding its foreign origin, it has proved 
the staff of life to the people of Hindustan in seasons of famine. The seeds are acrid, 
and the powder of them is used to destroy insect vermin. 

SWEETWATER, a co. in central Wyoming, having the territorial line of Montana 
for its n. boundary, and that of Colorado on the s., with a small portion of Utah; 35,000 
sq.m. ; pop. '80, 2,561 1445 of American birth, 542 colored. It is intersected in the s. 
by the Union Pacific railroad running through the coal region. It is drained by the 
river Big Horn in the n., the Green river in the s., and the Wind, Big Sandy, and 
Sweetwater rivers. The surface is mountainous, containing th Big Horn and Sweet- 


water ranges of the Rocky mountains, and immense plains in the Wind river country are 
occupied by the Shoshone Indian reservation. Through the Wind river mountain.-', by 
Fremont's peak and the South pass, was formerly the only route from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific. The pass is 7,857 ft. above the level- of the sea, several m. in width, and 
reached by a gradual ascent. Gold is found; also granite and iron ore; and in the co. 
are saw and grist mills. Co. seat, Queen River City. 



SWELL, in music, a set of pipes in an organ with a separate keyboard, and forming 
a separate department, which are capable of being increased or diminished in intensity 
of sound by the action of a pedal on a series of shades or shutters overlapping each other 
like Venetian window-blinds, within which the pipes in question are inclosed. On a 
well-constructed swell, a practiced performer can imitate not only a gradual crescendo- 
and diminuendo, but also a tfo-rzando, a very small opening suffering to make an imme- 
diate burst on the ear; while, when the shutters are closed, an imitation of an echo is 

S WET CHINE, or SVETCHIN, ANNE SOPHIE, 1782-1857; b. Moscow; the daughter of 
Soimonoff, who was one of the founders of the academy of sciences at Moscow. She 
was brought up at the court of Catharine II., and in 1799 married gen. Swetchine. She- 
gathered round her Russians and French emigrants of distinction, and her salon at St. 
Petersburg became very celebrated. In 1815 she was converted to Roman Catholicism, 
and then removed to Paris. After her death, her literary executor, De Falloux pub- 
lished Mme. Swetchine, sa vie et ses wuvres (1859); her Lettres (1862); Journal de sa Con- 
version (1863); and Lettres Inedite (1866). 

SWIETEN, GERARD VAN, 1700-72; b. Leyden, Holland; educated in his native 
place, and at Louvain; studied medicine at Leyden with Boerhaave, who obtained him 
the professorship of medicine in 1725. He was a Roman Catholic, and obliged for that 
reason to resign his chair. He was first physician to Maria Theresa of Austria, 1745, 
who made him a baron of the empire. By his influence the university was rebuilt, and 
a system of clinical instruction established at Vienna. He was opposed to the practice 
of vaccination. For 8 years he lectured on Boerhaave's Institutes, and adapted his sys- 
tem to that of his master; content to engraft the result of his own experience upon it 
instead of founding a school of his own. Besides his comments on Boerhaave, he wrote 
treatises on the diseases of armies and on epidemics. A statue to his memory was placed 
in the university by Maria Theresa. 


SWIFT, Cypm his, a genus of birds of the swallow family. The distinctive characters 
of the group, of which ihe true swifts are the type, are noticed in the article SWALLOW.. 
The swifts, like the swallows, are widely distributed, and some are only found in trop- 
ical countries ; others are birds of passage, and spend the summer in colder parts of the- 
world. Many of the swift group are often popularly called swallows, as that which 
produces the edible nests of the East Indies. In the genus Cypselus, as now restricted, ' 
the tail is generally forked, the legs and toes feathered, and very small and weak, all the 
four toes directed forward. The birds of this genus pass most of their time in the air, 
and even copulate on the wing. The wings are longer than in any other bird; and the 
internal structure, even of the skeleton, is peculiarly adapted to prolonged flight. The 
anatomy more resembles that of humming-birds than of true swallows. The COMMON 
SWIFT (G. apm) is common in almost all parts of the n. of Europe and of Asia in sum- 
mer, retiring to tropical or subtropical regions in winter. It occurs even in Lapland. 
Its residence in its summer quarters is "much shorter than that of swallows ; and it is 
worthy of notice, that the swift is seldom to be seen along with any of the swallows or 
martins, the different kinds choosing different localities, even although very close 
together. The swift is easily recognized in its flight by the remarkably sickle-shaped 
wings, and its slight scream is very different from the twitter of the swallow. It is 
black, with a white throat. It makes its nest in holes of rocks or of walls, often in those; 
of houses. The nest is formed of bits of straw, dry blades of grass, and bents, feathers, 
and other such substances, which are apparently glued together by a mucous secretion. 
The swift sometimes builds in hollow trees. Swifts, like swallows, seem to return to 
the same place to make their nest, year after year, and repair the old nest, instead of 
making a new one. The ALPINE SWIFT, or WHITE-BELLIED SWIFT (C. alpinus), is 
rarely seen in Britain, but is common in the more southern countries of Europe. It 
builds in high rocks, sometimes in steeples. It is larger than the common swift, and is 
the largest of the British Hirundinidce. Its wings are even longer in proportion than 
those of the common swift. Its voice is sweet, not a scream like that of the common 
swift. The AMERICAN SWIFT (Chatura pelasgia) has the hind-toe directed backward, 
and the tail feathers stiff and pointed, as in woodpeckers. It is a small bird, not above 
4| in. in entire length, but 1 ft. in extent of wing. The general color is brownish black, 
with greenish reflections, the throat grayish white, the under parts grayish brown. The 
nest is made of small dry twigs, which the bird breaks off from the tree, and carries 
away in its feet ; and they are attached by means of the saliva, to the rock, wall, or hpl- 
tow tree where the nest is made. From its frequently building in chimneys, this species 



la known as the Chimney Swallow in North America. Great numbers often build 
together, sometimes choosing for this purpose an unused chimney in a town. 

SWIFT, a co. in w. Minnesota, drained by the Minnesota, Chippewa, and Pomme 
de Terre rivers; intersected by the St. Paul and Pacific railroad; about 850 sq.m. ; pop. 
'80, 7,473 4,392 of American birth. The surface is mostly level, with little timber. 
The soil is extremely fertile. The principal production is wheat. Co. seat, Benson. 

SWIFT, JONATHAN, the greatest of English satirists, and the most original writer of 
his age, was born in Dublin, but of English parents, on Nov. 30, 1667. He was a pos- 
thumous child, reared amid circumstances of abject poverty and dependence, the rec- 
ollection of which galled his proud irascible spirit, and embittered much of his future 
existence. He was supported by relatives, and educated at Kilkenny school and Trinity 
college, Dublin. He proved a negligent and turbulent student, more intent on personal 
satires and political rhymes than academical honors : but he remained at college about 
seven years. He then removed to England, visited his mother in Leicestershire, and by 
her recommendation was admitted into the house of sir William Temple, who had long 
known the Swift family. He seems at first not to have conciliated the regard of the 
retired minister, for in the following year (May, 1690), Temple made an offer of the ser- 
vices of his protege to sir Robert Southwell (then about to proceed to Ireland as secretary 
of state), recommending him as diligent and honest, qualified either to wait on sir Rob- 
ert as a gentleman, or to write under him as a clerk. No appointment followed; Swift 
remained with Temple, studying hard, till 1694, when he went to Ireland, took orders 
in the church, and obtained a small living, which he threw up in two years, and returned 
to England, in consequence of Temple, who missed his society and assistance, urging 
him to come back. Temple died in 1698, and Swift in the following year, published his 
posthumous works, after which he again repaired to Ireland, obtaining from lord Berke- 
ley some church preferments, including the vicarage of Laracor, worth in all about 400 
per annum, which was all the professional income he enjoyed till he was appointed dean 
of St. Patrick's, in his 46th year. Before this, he had written the wildest and wittiest 
and most powerful satirical work of the 18th c., The Tale of a Tub (1704), also a few 
essays on ecclesiastical subjects, some inimitable ridicule of astrology under the name of 
Isaac Bickerstaff, and poetical pieces possessing a peculiar vein of humor and descrip- 
tion. In 1710 he went over to the tories, conceiving himself neglected by the whig min- 
isters, and exerted himself strenuously in behalf of his new allies, Harley and Boling- 
broke. He wrote papers in The Examiner (1710); a Letter to the October Club (1711); The 
Conduct of the Allies (1712); The Barrier Treaty (1712), and innumerable pasquinades 
against the whigs, whom he "libelled all round." He had become, as it were, a great 
and formidable power in the state, yet could extort no higher preferment for himself 
than the deanery of St. Patrick's. His party was overthrown by the death of queen 
Anne; and in 1714 Swift "commenced Irishman for life," with strong reluctance and 
disgust. In time, however, he took interest in Irish affairs, and identified himself with 
Irish feelings and prejudices. Hatred to Walpole and the English government quick- 
ened his activity; and his resistance to Wood's copper coinage a scheme for supplying 
Ireland with copper money by an English patentee raised him to the highest pinnacle 
of popular favor. His Drapier Letters (1724) produced quite a ferment in Ireland, and 
compelled the government to abandon the scheme of the coinage. Two rewards of 300 
each had been offered for the unmasking of the Drapier, but not a traitor, as he says, 
could be found to sell him. The triumphant author made his last visit to England in 
1726, and published his Gulliver's Travels, the most universally popular of all his works. 
He next joined with Pope, Arbuthnot, and Gay in publishing three volumes of Miscella- 
nies, after which he returned to Ireland (Oct., 1727), and never left it again. He was 
subject to fits of giddiness and deafness, which increased in frequency and intensity as 
he grew old; he brooded over the anticipated madness which he foreboded would be his 
future lot ; his temper, always irritable and gloomy, became more violent and morose, 
the effect of cerebral disease, and his memory and other faculties gave way. There was 
also a deep and secret grief: the fate of two ladies, known as Stella and Vanessa, had 
been inseparably entwined with his own destiny; both had sacrificed for him all but 
honor, and had sunk under disappointed hopes and blighted affection. We cannot here 
trace the painful story, which is still involved in mystery, but for a time the retribution 
of Swift was terrible. He rallied, however, and wrote some of his best minor pieces 
after this period. Among these are TJie Grand Question Debated; On Poetry, a Rhapsody; 
Ihe Legion Club; Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift; and that extraordinary prose tract, 
The Modest Proposal, a masterpiece of irony, in which he proposes to relieve the distresses 
of the poor Irish by converting their children into food for the rich. The last three 
years of Swift's life were passed in almost total silence in the hands of keepers. He died 
Oct. 19, 1745. 

It would be superfluous to attempt in our brief space to characterize the genius of the 
immortal dean of St. Patrick's. Shakespeare alone among English authors has received 
a greater amount of criticism and annotation. From Johnson to Thackeray, the most 
brilliant critics and biographers have employed themselves in elucidating his strange and 
sad history, and in estimating his writings. As a consummate master of ridicule and 
irony, possessing great powers of wit, invention, illustration, and analogy; possessing 
also the dramatic faculty that enabled him to assume and portray varieties of character; 

m Swift. 


and as writing a pure, perspicuous English style, unsurpassed for strength and simplic- 
ity, Swift must ever be a model in our language and literature. His misanthropy, or 
degradation of human nature his Yahoos, Strulbrugs, daring irreverence, and indeli- 
cacy, are of course indefensible. He had a total incapacity, as De Quiucey remarks, for 
"dealing with the grandeurs of the human spirit, with religion, with poetry, or even 
with science, when it rose above the mercenary practical. " His business was with the 
world with the follies, vices, and absurdities of men. And his poetry is the same as 
his prose; it may come under his definition of a good style, "proper words in proper 
places," applied to ordinary topics, but is wholly wanting in passion, elevated feeling, 
and imagination. A complete edition of his works, in 19 vols., was published by sir W. 
Scott (1815). See also Roscoe's edition (1853), and Life (unfinished), by John Forster 

SWIFT, JOSEPH GARDNER, LL.D., 1783-1865; b. Mass.; in 1802 graduated at "West 
Point, the first graduate from the academy. He was commissioned in the engineers, rose 
to be chief of the corps with rank of colonel, and in the war of 1812 served on Pinckney's 
staff and later had charge of the defenses of New York. In 1815 he was superintendent 
and inspector of West Point; resigned in 1818, and became surveyor of the port of New 
York. From 1829 to 1845 he was engaged in the harbor improvement of the great lakes, 
and in this period superintended the construction of the New Orleans and lake Pontchar- 
train railroad, a work of great difficulty on account of the swamps. In 1833 he was 
chief engineer of the New York and Harlem railroad. 

SWIFT, WILLIAM H., b. Mass., 1800; educated at West Point. He joined Long's 
Rocky mountain expedition in 1818, and was on topographical duty, 1821-32, making sur- 
veys on the Chesapeake and Ohio canal, the Florida canal, and several railroads. For 
the ten years from 1832 he was attached to the geodetic survey of the Atlantic coast, 
\v\ ervising the river and harbor improvements, 1837-42. He was also constructing engi- 
neer of the Western railroad in Massachusetts, 1836-40. He supervised the construction 
of the Minot's ledge light-house, 1847-49. Resigning from the army in 1849, he became 
president of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore railroad, and afterward of the 
Western railroad, and the Illinois and Michigan canal. 

SWILLY, LOUGH, an inlet of the Atlantic on the n. coast of Ireland, in the county of 
Donegal, enters between Dunaff head on the e., and Fanad point, on which there is a 
light-house, on the west. It penetrates the country in an irregular, but generally s. 
direction, is about 25 m. in length, and at its entrance, where it is widest, it is 3f m. 
broad. On the eastern shore is the small town of Buncrana, much resorted to for sea- 
bathing; and in front of which is a roadstead, capable of accommodating the largest 

SWIMMING. The art of swimming is so exceedingly useful, not only as a bracing 
summer exercise, but as a means of preserving life, that it should be acquired by every 
young person. Considering the numerous risks run by all human beings, especially by 
the inhabitants of maritime countries, of being accidentally plunged into the water; and 
how r greatly the chances of being saved are increased by the power of keeping one's self 
afloat for even five minutes, it is surprising that the art of swimming does not form an 
essential element of education among all classes. With our limited space it would be 
needless to attempt giving directions that would be of any practical value. In many 
cities there are now swimming-schools, where professional instruction may be had. 
When these are not available, any acquaintance who can swim will give his aid until the 
elementary movements and the necessary confidence are acquired. Even without help, 
by keeping in safe water, and by perseverence, the art will be acquired as by instinct. 
See Chambers's Information for the People "Out-of-door Amusements;" Routledge's 
Hand-book of Swimming and Skating; and TJie Boy's Own Book. 

SWINBURNE, ALGERNON CHARLES, one of the first of living English poets, is the son 
of admiral Charles Henry Swinburne, by lady Jane Henrietta, daughter of the third earl 
of Ashburnham. and was born in London on April 5, 1837. He entered as a commoner 
at Balliol college, Oxford, in 1857, but left the university without graduating. His first 
literary venture, a volume published in 1861, containing two plays, The Queen Mother 
and Rosamund, attracted little attention; but Atalanta in Calydon, a tragedy, which 
appeared in 1865, at once established his reputation. Afterward came Chastelard, a 
tragedy (1865); Poems and Ballads (1866); A Song of Italy (1867); Siena (1868); Songs 
before Sunrise (1871); Bothwell, a tragedy (1874); Erechtheus (1875); and a new series of 
Poems and Ballads in 1878. Swinburne belongs to what has been aptly called the 
" fleshly school " of poetry, and even those who most admire his power of poetical 
expression, richness of coloring, and happy lyrical effects must deplore the sensuous 
tone of his muse. He has also been severely animadverted upon for the wanton violence 
with which he attacks the most sacred beliefs of his fellow-men. Swinburne is well 
known in the department of poetical criticism. A collection of his Essays and Studies 
was published in 1875; his Note on Charlotte Bronte in 1877. 

SWTITDON, an old market-t. of Wilts, 77 m. w. of London by the Great Western rail- 
way. It contains a handsome church, large corn-exchange, and excellent shops. About 
a mile n. of the town is Swindon junction, the great central establishment and manufac- 
tory of the Great Western railway company. 


A considerable town has risen around the station, called the New Town, and consist- 
ing for the most part of dwellings for the employees of the railway. There are also a 
large and remarkably beautiful church, a" public park, library, and mechanics' institu- 
tion. Pop. of Old Town, '71, 4,092; of New Town, 7,628. 

SWINE. See HOG, ante. 

SWINE-PLAGUE, or HOG CHOLERA, an infectious disease produced by a bacteroid 
schizophyte, a microscopic organism having the power of indefinite multiplication in 
the system. The symptoms and pathological conditions vary considerably, depending 
upon the virulence of the disease, this depending very greatly upon the number of ani- 
mals kept together, crowding greatly aggravating the disease. At the commencement of 
% the attack the animal is generally seized with a shivering, which may last from a few 
* minutes to several hours. There is also frequent sneezing and more or less coughing. 
The temperature of the body is also increased, ranging from 104 to 106 Fahr. but this 
symptom is variable, and not to be relied upon; and it is difficult to ascertain the tem- 
perature of a hog. The shivering, coughing, and sneezing are soon followed by loss of 
appetite and the rough appearance of the coat. Drooping of the ears is characteristic, and 
sometimes the animal attempts to vomit. Swelling of the head often takes place, 
and eruptions appear on the ears and other parts of the body. There is frequently bleed- 
ing from the nose, swelling of the eyelids and partial or total blindness, accelerated 
breathing; sometimes constipation, and sometimes diarrhea. There is rapid emaciation, 
and a vitiated appetite for dung and dirt, and a peculiar, offensive odor to the exhala- 
tions which is characteristic. This odor is so penetrating as to be observed in a large 
herd at the distance of half a mile. On examining the chest by auscultation a rubbing 
sound is heard which indicates inflammation of the pleural membrane. Sometimes there 
is extensive ulceration and sloughing of the snout and gums. If the subjects have been 
recently ringed with wire in the nose, the wounds thus made have a great tendency to 
ulcerate, and the disease may be communicated through wounds or abrasions of any 
kind. Post mortem examinations reveal more or less hepatization of the lungs, with 
accumulation of blood, serum, and exudation in the lung tissue. Sometimes the solidifi- 
cation from hepatization is sufficient to cause the lung to sink in water. Sometimes the 
hepatization occurs only in isolated places, but sometimes extends over the whole lung. 
Gray and red hepatization may exist side by side. The lymphatic a.nd mesenteric glands 
are always more or less enlarged. There is generally more or less exudation of plastic 
material, and more or less.adhesion between the lung and the walls of the chest. Some- 
times the adhesion involves the whole lung. The heart is generally more or less affected. 
Sometimes it is flabby and dilated, but more frequently congested, the capillaries, par- 
ticularly of the auricles, being gorged with blood. Nearly all cases present charac- 
teristic morbid changes in the upper part of the large intestine, consisting of ulcerous 
tumors of the mucous membrane, varying in size from a pin's head to that of a quarter of 
a dollar. The other intestines are similarly affected, although in a less degree. Ulcerous 
tumors are also sometimes found upon the gall bladder and upon the mucous membrane 
of the stomach. The serous membrane of the abdominal cavity is also inflamed, so that 
there will be adhesions between different parts of the intestines, or between them and the 
peritoneal lining of the abdominal walls. Indeed, in the worst cases, it may be said that 
scarcely an organ escapes sufficiently not to exhibit lesions visible to the naked eye. A 
microscopic examination of the blood, or blood serum, or exudations, reveals great num- 
bers of schizophytes in various stages of formation, some in separate minute globules, of 
micrococcus stage, some in aggregated masses, and some in bacillus rods. The disease is 
communicable to other animals by inoculation, and rats may contract it and cause it to 
spread. Dogs appear to have but little susceptibility, but do sometimes contract the 
disease. The extreme cold of winter checks the spread of the complaint, but the dis- 
ease germs, or schizophytes, are not killed by it, although the thermometer may mark 
30 below zero. The above information is chiefly taken from the reports of Dr. H. J. 
Detmers of Chicago to the governmental agricultural bureau at Washington ; and the f ol 
lowing is from a paper read before the state microscopical society of Illinois, April 8, and 
published in Science of May 7, 1881: "1. It has been and can be everywhere observed, 
where swine-plague is prevailing, that the infectious principle floating in the air is 
attracted and taken up by sores, wounds, and even scratches, but does not enter the 
animal organism through the whole skin and through perfectly healthy respiratory 
mucous membranes. 2. Antiseptics, or medicines which are either directly poisonous to 
the lower forms of organic life or destructive to those conditions under which low forms 
of organic life thrive and develop, and among those antiseptics, especially carbolic acid, 
j iodine, hyposulphite of soda, benzoate of soda, thymol, etc. , have proved to constitute 
almost sure prophylactics. . . Further, the various antiseptics which have proved to be 
good prophylactics are very dissimilar in their chemical affinities and actions, and their 
prophylactic effect cannot very well be explained if the infectious principle were a 
chemical agency, a virus, or a poison, but is explained if the same consist in something 
endowed with life and power of propagation. ... 6. If the cause and infectious prin- 
ciple of the swine-plague were a chemical poison or virus, one would suppose a cessa- 
tion of the morbid process would be impossible, and an animal would never recover 
while its organism contained an abundance of the infectious principle in an effective 



condition, as is undoubtedly the ease, because convalescents and animals nearly recovered 
frequently communicate the disease, even in a fatal form, to other healthy pigs. Further, 
the fact than an animal, once recovered, possesses but little predisposition for future 
infection, or is seldom attacked a second time, even if ever so much exposed, and then 
only contracts the disease in a comparatively mild form, could never be explained; but 
the whole presents an entirely different aspect, and admits of explanation if low and 
minute forms of organic life^ such as the schizophytes of swine-plague, which by devel- 
oping and multiplying finally destroy or exhaust in an animal organism the conditions 
necessary to future development and propagation, constitute the cause and the infec- 
tious principle." Dr. Detmers says that the swine-plague schizophytes, although having 
the same general characteristics when cultivated in fluids artificially as when developed 
in the animal, have less uniformity in size and develop rather slower. He conclude* 
that they are less vigorous; and therefore when an animal is inoculated with them the 
disease produced is milder than when propagated in the ordinary manner, or by material 
taken from the body of a diseased hog. Sometimes, however, owing to other circum- 
stances, inoculation with cultivated schizophytes produces a virulent form of the disease. 
In regard to prevention, Dr. Detmers, in his report to the commissioner of agriculture, 
July, 1879, takes the ground that measures of extermination must be thorough. He 
advises: 1, " that a competent and reliable person be appointed in every county, or where 
a great many hogs are raised, and where the country is thickly settled, in every town- 
ship, with authority to institute, superintend, and enforce a strict execution of such 
measures of extinction and prevention as may be authorized by law; 2, that every owner 
of hogs or pigs must be compelled by law to inform the above officer, say within 12 hours 
-after the occurrence, of every case of swine-plague in his herd, or any herd, that may come 
to his knowledge; 3, that every hog or pig showing symptoms of swine-plague must be 
immediately destroyed and buried from 4 to 6 ft. deep, or cremated, and that all exposed 
hogs be kept under quarantine for several weeks or killed; 4, that all infected premises be 
thoroughly cleaned and disinfected, and remain unoccupied for six weeks or two months; 
5, that no' hog or pig be allowed to run at large or to have access to running water if 
swine-plague lias made its appearance within 10 m. ; 6, that railroad companies and 
other public carriers be forbidden to receive and load hogs from any township or county 
after having been notified by the proper officer that swine-plague is there existing, except 
by special permit of such officer, and various other restrictions. The treatment most 
relied on is good care, uncontaminated and pure food and water, perfect cleanliness, and 
separation from sick animals and all other sources of infection. Medicines avail but 
little, and patent quack nostrums arc a curse."' 

SWI NEMTJNDE, a maritime and fortified t. of Prussia, province of Pommern, is 
-ituated on the island of Usedom. at the entrance of the narrow channel of Swine, which 
connects the Grosses Haff (into which the Oder flows) with the Baltic. Swinemunde as 
in some sense the port of Stettin (q.v.\ carries on a considerable commerce, and has also 
valuable fisheries, but it is chiefly noted for its excellent sea-bathing, for which it is 
much frequented. Swinemunde has regular steam-communication with Stettin (daily),. 
Ki'iiren, and Copenhagen. The liffht-house of Swinemunde is the loftiest in the world, 
being 210 feet high. Pop. of Swinemunde '75, 8,043. 

SWING, a cognomen assumed by senders of threatening letters during the period 
when the irritation of the agricultural laborers of England against their employers was 
at its height viz., from 1830 to 1833. The cause of 'this misunderstanding arose from a 
widespread belief on the part of the laborers, that the use of machinery would greatly 
lessen the demand for labor, and consequently produce a general reduction of wages: it 
was also intensified by the savage severity with which the game-laws Avere enforced, and 
by other hardships to which the laboring-classes in the country considered themselves un- 
justly subjected. As any inattention on the part of landlords' or farmers to the demands 
contained in these threatening letters was almost invariably followed by the burning of 
stacks, farm-buildings, etc.. the employers of labor became so terrified that implicit 
obedience was paid to the dictates of " captain Swing." It is not to be wondered at that, 
with such encouragement, " swings " became numerous, and their demands more inso- 
lent; but the apprehension and punishment of a number of them gradually brought 
about a cessation of the outrages. 

SWINTON, WILLIAM, b. Edinburgh, 1833; removed to the United States when ten. 
years old, and pursued his studies at Amherst college. In 1853 he was a teacher in a fe- 
male academy in Goldsborough, N. C. ; but soon after settled in New York, where he 
devoted himself to study, and to making translations from the French, the most impor- 
tant being that of Rousseau's Confessions. On the outbreak of the rebellion he was sent 
to the front as war-correspondent for the New York Times, and served principally with 
the army of the Potomac, of whose career he was afterward a historian. Soon after 
the war he was appointed professor of belles-ltttres in the university of California at 
Oakland. Of late years he has devoted himself to writing educational works. He has 
published Rambles among Words; Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac ; The Twelve 
Decisive Battles of the War; and- geographies, grammars, and reading-books. 

SWISS GUARDS, first employed in the French service in 1616. It was the policy 
*f the royal family co render these guards personally faithful to themselves, and to 
U. K. XIV. 9 



estrange them from the other soldiers and the common people. How well they succeeded 
was shown by the slaughter of 1792 at the Tuileries. The Lion of Lucerne, erected in 
1821, commemorates their valor. The Swiss guard also existed in France under Louis 
XVIII. , and up to 1830. A body of Swiss guards have long acted as the pope's gus* rd at 
the Vatican. 

SWISSHELM, JANE G. C. ; b. Wilkinsburg, Peim., 1816; editor of the Pitlsburg 
Saturday Visitor, 1845-56; of the St. Cloud (Minn.) Visitor, 1858; and of the St. Cloud 
Democrat, 1858. She has been a contributor to Neal's Gazette, The Dollar Newspaper, 
The Spirit of Liberty, The Commercial Journal, New York Tribune, etc.; and pub. Let- 
ters to Country Girls. She deals forcibly with political and social life in the interest of 

SWITHIN, SAINT, an English ecclesiastic of the 9th c., who was chaplain to king 
Egbert, and tutor to his son Ethelwulf, under whom, when he came to the throne, he 
held the office of chancellor. He had the charge of the education of king Alfred, whom 
he accompanied to Rome. lu 852 he was consecrated bishop of Winchester. Accord- 
ing to William of Malmesbury, he was "a rich treasure of all virtues, and those in 
which he took most delight were humility and charity to the poor." He adds that he 
built several churches, and traveled through his diocese with his clergy on foot, and for 
the most part by night, in order to avoid the appearance of ostentation. The origin of 
the tribute called "Peter-pence" (q.v.) has been often assigned to Swithin, and he is 
said to have procured an act of the Wittenagemote, enforcing, for the first time, the 
universal obligation of paying tithes. Swithin died in on July 2, 862, and was buried, 
according to his own desire, in the churchyard of Winchester. A century later he was 
canonized; and the monks, not considering this a fitting place of sepulture for a saint, 
exhumed his body, for the purpose of depositing it in Winchester cathedral ; but this 
translation, which was to have taken place on July 15, was delayed in consequence of 
violent rains, which continued without intermission for 40 days. Out of this circum- 
stance arose the still current belief, that if rain fall on July 15, it will continue to rain 
for 40 days. Experience certainly shows that when a period of wet weather sets in 
about the summer solstice, it generally proves of considerable duration; and we find a 
similar superstition popularly attached in different countries of Europe to the festivals 
of various saints, which occur about the same period of the year. In France, the 
watery saints' days are those of St. Medard (June 8), and St. Gervais and St. Protai* 
(June 19), the meteorological canon being 

S'il pleut le jour de Saint Medard, 

II pfeut quarante jours plus tard ; 

S'il pleut le jour de St. Gervais et de St. Protais, 

U pleut quarante jours apres. 

The rainy saint in Flanders is St. Godelieve, and in Germany there are three saints'" 
days to which this belief attaches, one being that of the Seven Sleepers. 

SWITZERLAND (Ger. Schweiz; Fr. Suisse; It. Svizzera) is an inland country of Europe, 
situated between 45 48' to 47 49' n. lat., and 5 55' to 10 30' e. long. It greatest length 
from e. to w. is 180 m., and its greatest width from n. to s., 130 miles. Its superficial 
area, without including lakes, is 15,233, or one-fourth of that of England and 
Wales. In 1878 the pop. of Switzerland was close on 2,800,000. The following table 
gives the results of the census of 1870: 


Area in English 
Square Miles. 

Population Dec. 













Schwyz . 



Unterwalden (Upper) 



" (Lower) 






Zug . . 









Basel (town) 



" (district) 



Schaffhausen . . 



Appenzell (exterior) 



" (interior). 



St. Gall 









Thurgau . . 



Testin, or Ticino 



















Surface. Switzerland is the most mountainous country of Europe. Its principal 
chains are the Alps (q.v.) and the Jura (q.v.). The former run from e. to w. along its 
.southern or Italian frontier. Their ramifications fill more than one-half of the country, 
.and terminate along a line which may be traced from Vevey, on the lake of Geneva, to 
mount Moleson and mount Napf, across lake Zug, to the southern shores of the lake.-4 
of Zurich and Wallenstadt, and Sargans on the Rhine. The mean elevation of the 
highest chain is from 8,000 to 9,000 feet. The Jura run n.e. from the western corner 
of Switzerland. They consist of a series of parallel ridges inclosing long and narrow 
valleys, and their mean elevation does not exceed 4,000 feet. In the angle formed 
between them and the Alps lies the plain of Switzerland, a table-land 100 m. in length, 
and from 20 to 30 m. in width, with a mean elevation of about 1400 ft. above the sea. 
It is not absolutely level, but covered with elevations, which seem very unimportant, 
however, when contrasted with the huge masses of the Alps and Jura. It has been 
described, and not inaptly, as a corner of southern Germany, penetrating like a wedge 
between France and Italy. The communication between the plain of Switzerland and 
the German valleys of the Danube and Rhine is not, however, continuous. The plain 
on the e. terminates in a third hilly tract the Thur hill-country, which lies between 
the lakes of Zurich and Constance, and which, to some extent at least, forms a barrier 
-between the plain of Switzerland and Germany. The Jura, the plain, and the hill- 
country are, then, the great divisions of northern Switzerland. The divisions of tht 
Alpine region are more strongly marked in nature. A glance at the map will show that 
the chains which overspread it radiate from a mountain knot lying to the w. of the 
Grimsel pass. They isolate and inclose (1) the valleys drained by the Rhone, which 
connect Switzerland with southern France; (2) Ticino, drained by streams which 
descend to the Po, and have at all times brought this country into close communication 
with Italy; (3) The Grisons, the most sequestered valleys of Switzerland, drained by thcs 
tributaries of the Rhine and Danube, and shut out by mountains from the lower basins 
of these rivers; (4) The Bernese Oberland, which slopes toward the western extremity 
-of the Swiss plain ; (5) The district of the forest cantons Schwyz, Uri, and Unterwaldeu 
surrounding the lake of Lucerne, and which slope toward the eastern extremity of tha 
plain, and seem a great mountain fortress erected in the very heart of Switzerland, to 
protect the plain against German invasion. 

Geology is of little importance in explaining the general geography of Switzerland. 
It may, however, be stated that in the southern Alpine region the rocks are crystalline; 
that in the northern Alpine region they belong to the Jurassic and other upper secondary 
strata; and that in the plain and the great part of the hill-country they consist of loos* 
tertiary sands and clays, which supply the best agricultural soils of Switzerland. Thos 
rocks and formations in which mines and coal chiefly abound are absent. 

Climate. In Switzerland the climate chiefly varies with elevation above the sea-level. 
At a height exceeding 9,500 ft., the mountains are covered with perpetual snow, which 
descends along the hollows in glaciers (q.v.) to a much lower level, and in this way covers 
the elevated part of the country with a vast sea of ice. Below the level of perpetual 
snow, the surface of Switzerland has been divided into a series of belts, characterized by 
different climates and productions. The highest of these, lying between the snow and 
the level of 6,900 ft., has been called the upper Alpine region. In it the glaciers fill the 
valleys, but plants clothe the scanty soil of the ridges. The second or lower Alpine belt 
descends to 4,800 feet. It is a country of pastures, in which shrubs but no trees make 
their appearance. The Righi pass, the Grirnsel hospice, and the Spltigen are included 
in it. The third belt descends to 4,350 feet. The meadows still abound in it, but for- 
ests of firs and maples in many parts replace them. It includes Urfenthal and Oberen- 
gadin. The fourth belt sinks to 3,000 feet. The forests still abound, the beech being 
the prevailing tree. The meadows are excellent, and rve and barley are successfully 
cultivated. It includes Weissenstein, Grindelwald, and fengelsberg. The fifth belt lies 
above 1800 feet. In it the oak and walnut are the characteristic forest trees. Spelt and 
the best wheat are cultivated. It includes Bern, Coire, and St. Gall. The last belt sink* 
to 750 feet. In it the chestnut is the characteristic tree ; the mulberry and the vine are 
extensively cultivated, and wheat is the grain chiefly grown. This belt includes the 
greater part of the Swiss plain, and sinks to its lowest level in the valley of the Rhine, 
between Constance and Basel, and the banks of lake Ziirich and the lago Maggiore. 
In the last district the vegetation is that of northern Italy. At a higher elevation than 
6,400 ft., Switzerland is only inhabited by herdsmen during the summer months. At 
this limit, however, permanent abodes begin to make their appearance; and at 4,000 ft. 
there are many villages. The most populous part of Switzerland, however, lies between 
1250 and 2, 150 feet. The temperature of this region is fairly represented by that of 
Zurich, which we will compare with that of London. The temperature of Zurich is 
in winter 30.34; in spring, 47.25; in summer, 64.15; in autumn, 49.05: for the year, 
47.95. The temperature of London is in winter, 38.22; in spring, 48.34; in summer, 
61.74; in autumn, 50.29: for the year, 50.50. 

Pi-oductions. In Switzerland, where good coal is not to be had, and where the houses 
are built of wood, the forests, which cover one-sixth of the whole surface, acquire very 
great importance. Wood-cutting is one of the chief employments of the people. The 
trees cut down in the highlands are deprived of their branches, and shot with inconceiv- 



able rapidity over the slopes to the valleys below, whence they are removed by rafts, not 
only to different parts of Switzerland, but to France and Germany. It is, however, 
the mountain-pastures and the meadows, forming two-fifths of the whole surface 
of the country, that supply the chief occupations of the people those of herds- 
men and shepherds. During the summer the cattle are driven into the mountains, and 
tended by herdsmen, who take up their abode in the rude wooden huts known as chalets, 
and there the butter and cheese are made. In summer it is estimated that there are in 
Switzerland upward of a million of horned cattle, one-fourth of which consists of milch, 
cows. The produce of the dairy annually is valued at between one and two million* 
sterling. The best breeds of cattle are those of Saauen and Simmenthal in Bern, Gruy- 
eres in Freiburg, Schwyz, Zug, Entlebuch, Pralligau in the Grisons, and Glarus. The 
best cheese is made at Emmeu, Saanen, Simmenthal, Gruydres, and Ursern. The sheep 
of Switzerland are of inferior breed, and their wool is short and coarse ; but the goats 
are numerous and fine. More than two-thirds of Switzerland does not supply corn, 
enough to feed its inhabitants. The plain, however, is a fertile agricultural country. 
In Vaud and Neufchatel the cultivation of the vine is the chief occupation of the peo- 
ple; and in the Thur hill-country, more particularly on the shores of the lake of Con- 
stance, there are extensive orchards, in which are prepared cider and kirnchwasser, the 
latter being a liquor largely consumed in Switzerland. It will give some idea of the 
extent to which Switzerland is cultivated to state, that out of every 100 sq.m. of surface, 
30 are occupied by rocks, glaciers, and water; 20 by hill-pastures; 17 by forests; 11 by 
arable lands; 20 by meadows; and 1 by vineyards. In the uncultivated part of the 
country the bear, the wolf, and the larger birds of prey are still met with ; and the 
chamois (q.v.) is hunted. The rivers and lakes abound with fine fish, and more espe- 
cially with trout. 

Manufactures. The manufacturing districts are not scattered over the whole surface 
of the country; they are met with only on the northern frontier. The chief manufac- 
tures are: at Zurich, silk-stuffs, to the value of 1,600,000 annually, and cottons; at St. 
Gall and Appenzell, cottons; in Aargau and Glarus, cottons, linens, silks, and hosiery; 
at Basel, silk-stuffs to the value of 1,400,000, leather, paper, and tobacco; in Aargau 
and Lucerne, straw-plaiting; in Neufchatel, watch-making and cotton-printing; in. 
Geneva, watch-making and jewelry. Although Switzerland is inland, its commerce in 
proportion to population has long exceeded that of any other continental country. The 
chief imports are corn, salt, salt-fish, raw silks, and cotton, fruits and tropical produce, 
and the metals employed in watch-making. The exports are wood and charcoal, cattle,, 
tallow, cheese and butter, silks and cottons, watches and jewelry. Internal communi- 
cation has long been facilitated in Switzerland by excellent roads, and every advantage 
has been taken of the lakes to introduce steam-navigation. The plain is now overspread 
from one end to the other with a network of railways, which in many directions send 
ramifications into the Alpine valleys, thus connecting closely all parts of the country. 

Government. Hitherto, the Swiss have been very much split into distinct communi- 
ties by the great mountain-chains which separate the cantons. One of the results has 
been the weakness of the central power. Each valley has been intrusted with the making; 
of its own laws, and the management of its own local affairs. The cantons are, in fact,, 
to this day in a great measure separate states. They are divided into two classes, abso- 
lute democracies and representative democracies. In the former the chief power belongs 
to the landesgemeinde, an assembly of the whole adult male population, which, meets 
once a year, to pass laws, and to regulate the taxes and expenditure of the canton.. 
Uri, the Unterwaldens, Appenzell, and Glarus have constitutions of this kind. In the 
Grisons and the Valais, the people may be said to possess similar powers, as all measures 
must be approved of by them. In the other, the representative cantons, a great council is 
elected by the people, and to it are deputed most of the powers of the landesgemeinde. 
These local assemblies produce a remarkable effect on the Swiss people. Their debates 
have an importance far beyond that of an English town-council, or even of a colonial 
parliament, for their power is infinitely greater, and the population are more immedi- 
ately interested in them. To the interest they excite is no doubt to be attributed in a 
great degree the intelligence and public spirit of the Swiss. Their greatest disadvan- 
tage lay in the power they formerly had to levy war against each other, and to resist 
the general government in conducting the foreign policy of the country. But these 
defects have been to a great extent remedied by the constitution of 1848, which forms 
the basis of the present constitution, which dates from 1874. It handed over the 
control of the army, the conduct of foreign affairs, the settlement of disputes be- 
ween the cantons, and the management of the police and post-office, to a federal assem- 
bly (bundes versammlung) representing all the cantons. How far this assembly is 
enitled to interfere with the legislative action of the cantons, has not been very 
distinctly defined, but the tendency of legislation since its formation has been rather 
to trench than otherwise on their prerogatives. The federal assembly consists of 
two chambers 1st, the state council (stdnde rath); 2d, the national council (national 
rath). The former is composed of 44 members, 2 representing each canton; the 
latter, of 135 members, elected by the cantons in the proportion of 1 to 20,000 in- 
habitants. These bodies depute the executive authority to the federal council (bundes 
rath), consisting of seven members, and holding office for three years. The president ia> 


merely one of the council, and he has none of the quasi-royal privileges of the American 
president. There is also a court called the federal tribune (bundes gericht), which acts as 
a high court of appeal, and consists of 9 members elected by the federal assembly. 
Different systems of law still prevail in the different cantons, which to some extent re- 
semble each other, the most of them having grown out of the old German codes. 
Except in a few frontier cantons, the Roman law has not been much regarded. Until 
1874 the law of the Catholic cantons prescribed, for certain offenses, various degrees of 
corporal punishment, exposure on the pillory, and public penance in the churches; but 
in that year capital and corporal punishment was abolished throughout the confedera- 
tion. In Switzerland property is much subdivided; of 485,000 Ireads of families, no less 
than 465,000 possess landed property. In the absence of great landed estates there is 
no powerful aristocratic class. There are no titles of Swiss origin, families possess- 
ing such distinctions deriving them from abroad. 

There is no standing army in Switzerland, but every citizen is obliged to serve as a 
soldier, and military drill is taught at all the schools. The Swiss regular force numbers 
120,000; the reserve 92,000. The whole expense of the military establishment was, in 
1878, estimated at 13,298,367 francs. The estimated national revenues amounted (1878) 
to 40,442,000 francs, and the expenditure to 42,818,000 francs. 

L (nrjuarje and Religion. In the sequestered valleys of the Grisons, two-thirds of the 
population still speak a Latin dialect known as the Romaunsh; Italian dialects have pen- 
etrated up the valleys of Ticino; French patois has invaded western Switzerland by the 
Rhine and the valleys of the Jura, to Laufen. the frontier of Soleure, lake Morat, the 
Upper Saane, and Siders in the Valais. In the rest of Switzerland the dialects are 
German. Of every 1000 Swiss, 702 speak German, 226 French, 55 Italian, and 17 
Romaunsh. The Swiss reformation spread chiefly from Basel, Bern, and Geneva, and 
the chief Protestant districts are the countries communicating with these towns. The 
Alpine region is almost entirely Roman Catholic, the seven Catholic cantons being 
Lucerne, Zug, Sclnvyz, Uri, Unterwalden, Valais, and Ticino. Out of 1000 Swiss, 411 
are Roman Catholics, 587 Protestants, and 2 Jews. 

Education. In no country is elementary instruction more widely diffused. Parents 
are compelled to send their children to school, or have them privately taught from six 
to twelve. There are universities on the German model at Basel, Bern, and Zurich, 
and academies on the French plan at Geneva and Lausanne. The number of clubs for 
scientific and literary, musical and social purposes, is most remarkable. There are no 
pursuits to which a class of men can devote themselves which are not represented by 
societies in Switzerland. The local political assemblies and other public meetings give 
ample employment to the newspaper and periodical press. In Switzerland there are 
accordingly 188 political journals, and 167 periodicals devoted to literature and science. 
There are 40 daily papers. This active intellectual life is, however, chiefly confined to 
the Protestant cantons. 

Hixtory. Switzerland was in Roman times inhabited by two races the Helvetii, sup- 
posed to have been Celts, on the north-west; and the Rbsetians (of whose origin we know 
nothing) on the south-east. After the conquest of Gaul, both races adopted the lan- 
guage and habits of Rome. When the invasions took place, the Burgundians settled in 
western Switzerland; while the Alemanni, another Germanic tribe, took possession of 
the country east of the Aar. A third Teutonic people, the Goths, entered the country 
from Italy, and took possession of the country of the Rhaetians, which nearly corre- 
sponded with the Grisons. The Burgundians adopted Christianity in the end of the 
5th c. ; the Helvetii retained their old pagan creed until the 7th c. , when they were con- 
verted by Irish monks, who founded abbeys and churches, which survive to our own 
time. Switzerland, in the early part of the middle ages, formed part of the German 
empire, and feudalism sprang up in the Swiss highlands even more vigorously than it 
did elsewhere. During the llth and 12th centuries, the greater part of Switzerland was 
ruled on behalf of the emperors by the lords of Zahringen (q. v.), who did much to 
check civil wars, and to promote the prosperity of the towns. They, however, became 
extinct in 1218, and then the country was distracted by wars which broke out among 
the leading families. The great towns united in self-defense, and many of them ob 
tained imperial charters. In 1273, Rudolf of Hapsburg, a Swiss nobleman who had 
favored the independence of the towns, became emperor. After doing so, he continued 
the same policy; but his son, Albert I. (q. v.), took another course. He attacked the 
great towns and was defeated. The leading men of the forest cantons, which for ages 
had yielded a merely nominal recognition of the empire, and had acknowledged no 
feudal superior, met on the Rutli meadow, on Nov. 7, 1307, and resolved to expel 
the Austrian bailiffs or landvogte. See TELL. The war terminated in favor of the 
Swiss at Morgarten in 1315. Schwyz, Uri, and Unterwalden, with Lucerne, Zurich, 
Glarus, Zug, and Bern, eight cantons in all, in 1352, entered into a perpetual league, 
which was the foundation of the Swiss confederation. Other wars with Austria fol- 
lowed, which terminated favorably for the confederates at Nafels (q. v.) and Sempach 
(q. v.). In 1415, the people of the cantons became the aggressors. They invaded 
Aargau and Thurgau, parts of the Austrian territory, and annexed them; three years 
later, they crossed the Alps and annexed Ticino, and constituted all three subject states. 
The Swiss were next engaged in a struggle on the French frontier with Charles the 

Switzerland. 1 Q/t 


bold of Burgundy. They entered the field with 34,000 men, to oppose an army of 
60,000, and yet they were successful, gaining the famous battles of Granson and Moral 
in 1476. In 1481 the towns of Freiburg and Soleure were admitted into the confeder- 
acy. In 1499 the emperor Maximilian I. made a final attempt to bring Switzerland 
once more within the bounds of the empire. He sought to draAv men and supplies from 
the inhabitants for his Turkish war; but in vain. He was defeated in six desperate 
engagements. Basel and Schaffhausen (1501), and Appenzell (1513), were then received 
into the confederation, and its true independence began. The abbacy of St. Gall, the 
cities of St. Gall, Miihlhausen, and Bienne became associated states with a vote at the 
diet. Geneva, Neufchatel, Valais, and the Grisons, also became associated states, but 
without a vote. 

New troubles sprang up with the reformation. Zwingli began to preach in the begin- 
ning of the century, and Zurich, in 1523, adopted his opinions, and was followed by 
Bern and other cantons of the north. The forest cantons remained attached to the 
church of Rome. War broke out in 1531 between the Catholics and Protestants, and 
the former were successful at Cappel, where Zwingli was slain. This victory to some 
extent settled the boundaries of the two creeds in eastern Switzerland. In 1536, how- 
ever, Bern wrested the Pays de Vaud from the dukes of Savoy and annexed it to their 
own territory. In the same year Calvin settled at Geneva, and the reformed doctrines 
spread throughout western Switzerland. During the thirty years' war Bern, which had 
become, since the conquest of Vaud, the leading canton, and Zurich, contrived to main- 
tain with great skill the neutrality of Switzerland; and in the treat}' of Westphalia, in 
1648, it was acknowledged by the great powers as a separate and independent state. At 
this period the Swiss, in immense numbers, were employed as soldiers in foreign service, 
and the record of their exploits gives ample evidence of their courage and hardihood. 
Internally there was great stagnation. The constitution of the larger cantons became 
more aristocratic, that is to say, the mass of the people lost their power over the govern- 
ing bodies. In Zurich, Schaffhausen, and Basel the governing councils were elected by 
the corporations; and in Bern, Freiburg, Soleure, and Lucerne, a few families had 
acquired permanent rule. At the end of last century there was widespread discontent 
with this state of matters; but the French revolution broke out, and wars followed, 
which left no time for its manifestation. In 1798 Switzerland was seized by the French. 
At the peace of 1815 its independence was again acknowledged. The new confedera- 
tion was divided into 22 cantons, each of which was represented in a diet, which was 
appointed to hold its annual meetings alternately at Bern, Zurich, and Lucerne. The 
old abuses which had crept into the constitutions of the cantons were revived, and repre- 
sentation in most of them became based on property qualifications. Officials, the aris- 
tocracy, and the clergy joined to oppose innovations, and succeeded in doing so until 
1830, when the French revolution broke out. Armed demonstrations were made against 
the towns, and universal suffrage was generally conceded. Basel town, however, held 
out; but the difficulty was settled by the separation of the town and country districts 
the former remaining conservative, the latter becoming democratic. Geneva and Neuf- 
chatel retained their old constitutions. The result of the changes was, however, that 
two-thirds of the whole population were allowed to take part in public affairs. The con- 
sequences were not what had been expected by the liberals, who found that they had 
not yet the means of stengthening the central power. In 1839 at Zurich, where Dr. 
Strauss had been appointed a professor of theology, a mob of peasants, headed by the 
Protestant clergy, overturned the government. In Aargau a struggle took place between 
the liberals and the Ultramontane party, which wtn settled, after long discussion, by an 
unsatisfactory compromise. In Valais, where universal suffrage had put power into the 
hands of the reactionary party, a war took place, in which the latter were victorious. 
They then ruled with a strong 'hand, and actually forbade the celebration of Protestant 
worship within the canton. In Lucerne, the headquarters of the Jesuits, the Ultramon- 
tane party acted even more extravagantly; they so persecuted their political opponents 
that the latter were compelled to leave the canton. These measures caused the greatest 
discontent. In 1844 a proposal was made in the diet to expel the Jesuits; but that body 
declined to act. The radical party then determined to resort to force; they organized 
bodies of armed men, called the free corps, which invaded the Catholic cantons, but 
they were defeated. Changes favorable to them took place in some of the cantons. 
The Catholic cantons then formed a league, named the Sonderbund, for defense against 
the free corps. There was a general clamor for its suppression, but in the diet only 10 
rotes were in favor of that measure. The ruling party in Geneva had been with the 
majority, and this conduct led to a revolution in that city. One vote was thus gained 
against the Spnderbund. St. Gall added another; and a majority in the diet in 1847 
declared the illegality of the Sonderbund, and decreed the expulsion of the Jesuits. In 
the war which ensued between the federal army and the forces of the Sonderbund, the 
former were victorious at Freiburg and Lucerne. The leagued cantons were made 
liable in all the expenses of the war, the Jesuits were expelled, and the monasteries were 
suppressed. An attempt was made by diplomatic notes to intimidate the Swiss govern- 
ment, but the revolution of 1848 broke out and prevented further interference. In the 
same year the radical party, convinced of the necessity of a more powerful central gov- 
ernment, carried the constitution of 1848, of which we have already taken notice. Sine* 

1 QK Switzerland. 


then the most important event which has taken place in Switzerland was a rebellion 
against the king of Prussia as prince of Neufchatel. The canton was declared a republic, 
with a constitution similar to that of the other Swiss states. The king of Prussia pro- 
tested, but in vain, against the change, and at length he withdrew all opposition, and 
remained satisfied with the bare title of prince of Neufchatel, which he still retains. 

SWITZERLAND, a co. in s.e. Indiana, adjoining Kentucky; bounded e. and s. by 
the Ohio river; about 250 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 13,33612,950 of American birth. The sur- 
face is hilly, except along the river. There are extensive forests. The soil is fertile. 
Corn, wheat, oats, grass, and live stock are the principal productions. Co. seat, Vevay. 

SWIVEL is a gun constructed, as regards its carriage, to turn on a pivot, or on two 
concentric iron rails. Its use is on shipboard or in a fortress. 

SWORD, a well-known weapon of war, the introduction of which dates beyond the 
ken of history. It may be defined as a blade of steel, having one or two edges, set in a 
hilt, and used with a motion of the whole arm. Damascus and Toledo blades have 
been brought to such perfection that the point can be made to touch the hilt and to fly 
back to its former position. In last century, every gentleman wore a sword; now the 
use of the weapon is almost confined to purposes of war. In the British army, all 
officers and sergeants, with troopers of cavalry, wear swords for cutting and thrusting. 
In the navy, all officers wear similar swords; and the men in time of action, heavy- 
backed swords, called cutlasses. In the French service, nearly all troops wear a combina- 
tion of the sword with the baj r onet, called a sword-bayonet. For various sorts of 
swords and their uses, see RAPIER, CUTLASS, BROADSWORD, SCIMITER, SABER, etc. ; 

SWORD-FISH, Xiphias, a genus of fishes of the family sc&mberidw, having the upper 
jaw remarkably elongated and compressed, in the form of a sword or dagger. The 
body is rather of a long shape, and covered with very small scales. There are no teeth. 
There is one long dorsal fin. There are no finlets. The ventral fins are wanting. The 
sides of the tail are very strongly keeled. The tail-fin is large and forked. Only one 
species is known, X. gladius, plentiful in the Mediterranean, and in the warmer parts of 
the Atlantic; sometimes, but rarely, seen on the British coasts. It is bluish black above, 
and silvery white on the belly, the one color passing gradually into the other. It is 
highly esteemed as an article for food, especially when young. It is harpooned by the 
fishermen of the Mediterranean, and is powerful enough to drag a boat about for many 
hours after being struck. It has been said to attack the whale with its sword, but this 
is extremely improbable. Its food consists in great part of squids and cuttle-fish. The 
use of the sword is unknown. Instances not unfrequently occur of ships' bottoms being 
perforated by the sword of the sword-fish, but there is no good reason to think that an 
intentional attack is ever made. Other species of sword-fish, belonging to genera closely 
allied to xiphias, are found in the seas of different parts of the world. 

SYB AP.IS, and CRO TON or CROTONA, two celebrated Greek colonies in Magna 
Graacia (q.v.). The former founded 720 B.C., by Achseans and Trcezenians was 
situated in the s. of the Lucanian territory, between the rivers Crathis (Crati)und Sybaris 
(Coscili) about 3 m. from the Tarentine gulf; and the latter founded 710 B.C., by 
Achseans about 50 m. s.s.e. on the coast of Bruttium. All that is certainly known 
concerning these cities before the destruction of the formor is, that they both rapidly 
increased in size, wealth, and power, extending their dominions across the peninsula, 
and founding other colonies, at the same time preserving the most friendly terms with 
each other. Sybaris is said to have been 6 m. in circumference, and Croton 12 m. ; the 
former being notorious for the excessive and fastidious luxury of its inhabitants (hence 
the term Sybarite), and the Crotoniates celebrated for the perfection they reached in 
athletic exercises the famous athlete, Milo (q.v.), having been a native of Croton. 
Somewhere between 540 and 530 B.C., Pythagoras (q.v.) settled at Croton, and exercised 
very considerable influence over the aristocratic government. About 510 B.C., a demo- 
cratic leader, Telys, deposed the oligarchy of Sybaris, banished 500 of the leading 
citizens, and assumed the tyranny of the city. The banished citizens having taken 
refuge in Croton, Telys demanded their surrender, and on being refused, declared war 
against that city. The Sybarites, with an army said to have amounted to 300,000, met 
100,000 Crotoniates, commanded by Milo, at the river Traeis, were completely routed, 
and their city obliterated by the latter changing the course of the Crathis, so as to sweep 
it away. About 443 B.C., Thurii was foimded near the site of Sybaris. After the 
destruction of Sybaris, Croton appears to have gradually declined, suffering much from 
internal convulsions (see PYTHAGORAS), as well as from the disasters which befell it in its 
wars with the Locrians, Rhegians (480 B.C.). and Bruttians, and also in those of 
Dionysius (q.v.) of Syracuse and Pyrrhus (q.v.). Its ruin was completed in the second 
Punic war; and although, in 194 B.C., it was colonized by Roman citizens, it never again 
rose to be a place of any importance. Croton, in the time of Herodotus, and at a later 
period, was famous as a medical school. 

The modern town of Cotrone, standing very near the site of the ancient town, has a 
pop. of 6,878 


Sydney. . 

SYC AMINE, a tree mentioned in Scripture, ana supposed to be the black mulberrt 

SYC AMOEE, or SYCOMORE, Sycomorus, a genus of trees of the natural order moracea, 
regarded by many botanists as a mere sub-genus of ficus (see FIG), and differing from 
the true figs only in the elongated, straight, thickened, and club-shaped stigma. The 
species are chiefly African, but the geographical range extends also into the w. of Asia. 
Some of them attain a large size and a great age. The EGYPTIAN SYCAMORE (8. anti- 
quorum or ficus^ sycamoruis), supposed to be the sycamore of the Bible, is a large tree, 
very, abundant in Egypt and in some parts of the w. of Asia, often planted near villages 
for the sake of its shade, its wide-spreading head sometimes covering a space 40 yards in 
diameter. The figs are top-shaped, and grow in clustered racemes on the trunk and 
oldest branches. They are sweet, well flavored, and somewhat aromatic. The wood is 
light, porous, and of little value. It has been supposed that the cases of Egyptian 
mummies are made of it, bnt this is disputed. Other species are found in Ai.\>>inia, 
south Africa, etc. 

The sycamore tree of Britain is a species of maple (q.v.). In some parts of North 
America, the same name is given to the plane (q.v.) of that country, platanus occidentals. 

SYD ENHAM, a chapelry in the parish of Lewisham, county of Kent, with a station 
on the London and Croydon railway, 8 m. s. of London. It has become of world-wide 
celebrity in connection with the Crystal palace, which was erected here in 1854, chiefly 
from the materials of the building of the great exhibition (1851). The cost of the erec- 
tion and appointment of the Crystal palace amounted to nearly 1,500,000. The build- 
ing is 1600 ft. long, 380 wide, and at the center transept 200 ft. high. The chief arts 
and sciences illustrated by the collections within the palace and grounds are sculpture, 
architecture, painting and photography, mechanics and manufactures, botany, ethnology, 
paleontology, geology, ana hydraulics. There are two concert-rooms, within the larger 
of which, performances have taken^place at which there were 5,000 vocalists and instru- 
mentalists. The park and gardens occupy nearly 200 acres, and are adorned with 
sculptures, stone balustrades, etc., and fountains which are perhaps the finest in the 

SYDENHAM, THOMAS, a great English physieian, was born of good parentage, in 
1624, at Winford Eagle, Dorsetshire, and was educated at Magdalen hall, Oxford. 
According to the well-known French surgeon, Desault, he afterward studied at Mont- 
pellier. He graduated at Oxford as bachelor in medicine in 1648. Through the 
interest of a near relative, he obtained a fellowship of All Souls college, and there con- 
tinued to prosecute his medical studies. Pie left the university without taking a doctor's 
degree, which, indeed, he did not obtain tilt some time afterward at Cambridge. He 
settled as a practicioner at Westminster, and practiced so successfully that, when only 
36 years of age, he already enjoyed the reputation of being one of the first physicians of 
the period. In his later years he was much afflicted by gout, which at length carried 
him off on Dec. 29, 1689. He was buried in St. James's church. Sydeuham was 
not profoundly accomplished as a man of science; even in his own age, deficient as it 
. was in the advanced development to which the researches on which medicine is based 
aave now attained, he was inferior to several of his contemporaries; but in sagacity of 
observation and accuracy of diagnosis, he was unsurpassed. His skill and his phil- 
osophic cast of mind secured him the admiration and friendship of Locke; and his con- 
tributions to the literature of his profession received the praise of Haller and Boer- 
haave. His writings have been often republished both in England and on the continent, 
the edition entitled Opera Medina, which appeared at Geneva in 1716, being the best. 
Fevers were the department of medicine on which he first bestowed his attention ; and 
before he had been many years in practice, he published, in 1666, his celebrated treatise 
entitled Methodus Curandi Febres Propriis Observationibus Superstructa. This was after- 
ward reprinted in 1675, with the observations accumulated in the interval. His treat- 
ment of the then destructive malady of small-pox was especially felicitous, substituting, 
as he did, for the stimulating regimen in vogue, the antiphlogistic method of cool air 
and salines. The most scholarly translation of his works into English is that of Dr. R. 
G. Latham, published in the Sydenham society's series, to which he gives its name. 

SYDNEY, the capital of New South Wales, and the oldest city in Australia, is situ- 
ated on the southern shores of Port Jackson, in lat. 32 52' s., long. 151 11' e. The first 
party of British settlers that reached New Holland were landed at Botany Bay on Jan. 
20, 1788. The spot which they here selected being found ineligible, it was abandoned 
a few days afterward, and the' infant settlement was transferred to a point about 7 m. 
further to the n., to the place where Sydney now stands. The choice of the new locality 
was chiefly determined by the circumstance of a stream of fresh water being found 
there, flowing into the deep inlet known as Sydney Cove, one of the numberless bays 
into which the basin of Port Jackson is divided. This last-mentioned magnificent 
expanse of water, completely land-locked, and admitting vessels of the largest size, 
extends for some 20 m. inland, ramifying in every direction. Its bold and rocky shores 
present a succession of picturesque and beautiful landscapes. The cliffs which form 
the general outline of the harbor often rise to a height of from 200 to 250 ft. In other 
points, the coast presents a lower level, consisting of a series of terraces and smooth 

m Sycamine. 


sandy beaches. Perhaps there are few positions on the habitable globe more obviously 
suitable for the foundation of a great metropolis. Situated at a distance of about 8 m. 
from the sea, the whole circumference of the buy round which it is built forms a series 
of natural wharves, where vessels of 2,000 tons burden can be moored within a distance 
of 20 yards. The narrow entrance of Port Jackson through what is called the 
"Heads" might easily be made inaccessible to any hostile fleet; whilst the central 
position of Sydney makes it necessarily the permanent emporium of the greater num- 
ber of the British dependencies in the southern hemisphere. The immense coal for- 
mation of east Australia extends n. and s. for some 500 m.. with a breadth of from 80 
to 100 miles. Sydney stands nearly in the center of this great carboniferous basin ; and 
at various points within a radius of from 30 to 100 miles, large quantities of coal are 
raised for colonial consumption as well as for export. The sandstone rock upon which 
the city is erected affords a valuable material for building. 

Since the abolition of transportation, the growth of Sydney has been rapid, the pop. 
in 18(32 amounting to 93,596, and in 1871 to 134,758, including the suburbs. For many 
years Sydney enjoyed a monopoly of the commerce of these antipodean regions. It has 
now formidable rivals in Melbourne, Adelaide, and the settlements of Queensland. It 
must, however, continue the exclusive outlet for the productions and commerce of 
extensive pastoral and mineral districts on the n.w., w. and south-west. The eastern 
shore of Darling harbor has its frontage entirely occupied with wharves and quays. 

The streets in the older parts of the town 'are narrow and irregular: in the newer 
portions, care has been taken to avoid these defects; and several of the modern streets, 
from their breadth and the size and style of the buildings, are not behind those of 
the principal towns of Europe. The shops, warehouses, and private buildings in George 
and Pitt streets present long and compact lines of well-built stone edifices, often 
assuming a very ornate and ambitious style of architecture. The chief thoroughfares 
are paved, and lighted with gas, and a system of underground drainage has been carried 
out at a cost of nearly half a million sterling. There is also an abundant supply of pure 
water, the source of which is a natural reservoir known as the Botany swamps. There 
are numerous parks near the city. The botanical gardens, the finest in the colonies, 
cover 38 acres. Sydney has one ship-building establishment. The Fitzroy dry-dock, 
originally intended for vessels of the royal navy, can take in vessels of the largest size. 
Lately, steps have been taken to put the city in a state of defense, and forts and bat- 
teries armed with powerful Armstrong guns have been erected. The climate of Sydney 
is, upon the whole, temperate and healthy. 

Among public buildings, by far the most important edifice, not only in Sydney, 
but in the whole of the Australian settlements, is the university, which stands on a 
commanding height, and in the center of a domain of about 150 acres. The principal 
facade is 500 ft. in length, and is flanked at its western end by the great hall, the pro- 
portions of which are such that, were it in England, it would rank as the third in point 
of size. Lectures are delivered daily during each term on classics, logic, history, chemis- 
try, natural and experimental philosophy, and jurisprudence. The museum contains a 
collection of Greek, Roman, and Egyptian antiquities presented by. the former chancel 
lor, sir C. Nicholson. There are two suffragan colleges in connection with the univer- 
sity that of St. Paul's, belonging to the church of England; and St. John's, erected 
under the auspices of the Roman Catholic community. The university, erected out of 
public funds, has a permanent endowment of 5,000 a year from the civil list; and each 
of the suffragan colleges receives aid toward its building fund, and the stipend of the 
warden and rector. Eighteen free scholarships, of the annual value of 50 each, are 
established in the university, in addition to several others that have been founded by 
private benefactors. The university is incorporated under an act of the colonial legis- 
lature and by royal charter. It is only empowered, however, to confer degrees in arts, 
law, and medicine; and, so far as the university is concerned, instruction is limited to 
purely secular teaching. The religious training of the pupils is left to the affiliated 
colleges. The metropolitan cathedral of St. Andrew is a handsome building in the later 
perpendicular style of architecture. Many of the churches, upward of 120 in number, 
belonging to different religious denominations, are tastefully designed. Among the 
buildings devoted to secular purposes, the most imposing and effective, in point of size 
and architectural design, are the residence of the governor, the museum, the exchange, 
the custom-house, the town-hall, the new post-office, and the public grammar-school. 
The neighborhood of Sydney, with every nook in the adjacent bays, is studded with 
elegant villas and snug cottages, surrounded by their park-like grounds, and gardens of 
orange-trees, bananas, and numberless semi-tropical plants unfamiliar to the English 
eye of the newly-arrived immigrant. There are numerous manufactories; one with 350 
hands makes boots and shoes,"and 32 make clothing, one steam joinery employs 250 
hands. Sydney has three theaters, several mechanics' institutes, a large hospital for the 
sick, an orphan asylum, and other charitable and benevolent institutions, all liberally 
endowed and supported by public grants or private munificence. Public traffic is car- 
ried by about 600 omnibuses and hackney-carriages. 

SYDNEY, a t. in e. Nova Scotia, co. seat of Cape Breton co. ; pop. about 3,000. It 
Is 285 m. n.e. of Halifax, in the e. portion of the island of Cnpe Breton, and while it 

Sydney. -j OQ 


was a colony was its capital. It has an excellent harbor and lighthouse. It contains 
extensive coal mines 3 m. from the village, and is connected by a railway with the 
Bridgeport mines, 15 m. distant. It is also connected by rail with Louisberg on the s. 
shore of the island. It contains 6 churches, a court-house, 3 branch banks, a masonic 
hall, 2 newspaper offices, and several hotels. The trade with Newfoundland is consid- 
erable; it has a regular line of steamers to Halifax, and there is constant communication 
between this port -&nd the islands of St. Pierre and JVIiquelon. Cattle, coal, and dairy 
products are exported. Besides ship-building, its manufactures are leather, iron, boots, 
and shoes. 



SYENITE, a granitic rock found near the city of Syene, in Egypt. It is composed of 
quartz, feldspar" and hornblende, and differs from true granite in having the mica 
replaced by hornblende. The feldspar is generally red (sometimes it is found of a 
white color), and the hornblende gives a mottled red and dark green color to the rock. 

SYKES, GEORGE, b. Del., 1822; graduated at West Point, 1842; commissioned in 
the infantry and served in the Seminole and Mexican wars, behaving with great gallan- 
try at Cerro Gordo. He was afterward employed on the frontier, and in 1861 was in 
Texas with rank of captain. He was present at Bull Run, and in the Virginia campaign 
in command of regular troops, and also at Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
and Gettysburg; and was brevetted maj. general. In 1866 he was mustered out of the 
volunteer service, and is now a col. in the regular army. 

SYKES, OLIVE (LOGAN), b. New York, 1841; at the age of 13 made her debut on the 
stage in Philadelphia; wife of Edmund A. Delille, 1857-65, went to Europe in 1857; was 
educated in England, and contributed to English and French papers. In 1864 she 
appeared at Wallack's theater, New York, in Eveleen, a play of her own composition ; 
retired from the stage in 1868, and appeared on the platform as a lecturer on woman's 
rights, pursuing her former calling of newspaper correspondent and magazine writer. 
In 1876 she became the wife of Wirt Sykes, U.S. consul at Cardiff, Wales. She has 
published essays and lectures. 

SYLLABUB, a culinary preparation, formerly much more used than at present. It 
consists of sugar and cream flavored with brandy, sherry, and lemon rinu and juice, 
worked into a froth, and served up in that state in glasses. 

SYLLABUS, a document published by pope Pius IX., 1864, condemning as heresies 
80 doctrines which it calls "the principal errors of our times," dividing them into 10 
sections; the 1st includes pantheism, naturalism, and absolute rationalism; the 2d, 
moderate rationalism; the 3d, indifferentism and latitudinarianism ; the 4th, socialism, 
communism, secret societies, Bible societies, and other "pests of this description ;" the 
5th, errors concerning the church and her rights; the 6th, errors concerning civil society; 
the 7th, errors concerning natural and Christian ethics; the 8th, errors concerning 
Christian marriage; the 9th, errors concerning the temporal power of the pope; the 10th, 
errors of modern liberalism. Among the things thus denounced as errors are the 

Srinciples of civil and religious liberty, and the separation of church and state. The 
ocument virtually declares that the pope is infallible ; that Romanism has the exclusive 
right of being recognized by civil governments; that all other forms of religion are 
unlawful ; that the papal hierarchy is independent of all civil authority, and that the 
Roman church has supreme control over education, literature, and science; with the 
right to enforce submission to its decrees. It reiterates all the papal claims of the mid- 
dle ages, and declares war against modern social and national progress everywhere. 

SYLLOGISM, a name expressing a principal branch or department of logic. When 
we reason, or get at truth by means of inference, we are said to proceed either inductively 
(see INDUCTION) or deductively. Deductive reasoning, when fully and methodically 
expressed, takes the form called the syllogism. "This thing will sink in water, for it 
is a stone," is a deductive argument, but not fully stated; the complete form is: " Stones 
sink in water; this is a stone; therefore, this will sink in water" which form is called a 

To a perfect syllogism it is necessary that there should be three, and no more than 
three, propositions (see PROPOSITION); these are the conclusion, or the matter to be proved, 
and two others that are the means of proving it, called the premises. It is also neces- 
sary that there should be three, and no more than three, terms, namely, the subject and 
the predicate of the conclusion, and one, called the middle term, which must occur in 
both premises, being the connecting link for bringing the two other terms together in 
the conclusion. The predicate of the conclusion is called the major term, because it ia 
in its scope the largest of the three; the subject of the conclusion is the minor term, as 
being the smallest in scope. The three terms enter into the premises in this manner : the 
major term and middle term make one premise, called the major premise; the middle 
term and the minor term make the minor premise. In the syllogism above stated, the 
terms are, "a thing that will sink in water" (major), "this thing" (minor), "stone" 
(middle); the premises are, "stones sink in water" (major), "this thing is a stone" 
(minor); the miiclusion is, "this thing will sink in water." 

1 QQ Sydney. 


The form now given, although the regular and fundamental form to prove any amru: 
ative conclusion, is not the only form that an argument may assume. The totality of 
syllogistic forms is divided into figu res, and each figure into moods, which are the dis- 
tinct syllogistic forms, the principle of division being as follows: the figure is deter- 
mined by the position of the middle term, which may be the subject of the major premise, 
and the predicate of the minor (1st figure), the Dedicate in both (3d figure), the subject in 
both (3d figure), the predicate of the major and the subject of the minor (4th figure). 

The word "figure" is borrowed from rhetoric, where it means a departure from plain 
and ordinary speaking, as metaphor, hyperbole, etc. But, as remarked by Hamilton, 
only the last three of the foregoing enumeration should be called "figures." The first 
should be considered as embracing the regular forms of reasoning, and the others as 
properly figures that is, forms more or less inverted, irregular, or unnatural, although 
still correctly representing reasonings that actually occur. These forms may be all 
reduced to forms in the 1st figure; their inversions or distortions being, as Hamilton 
would say, redressed, or restored to the primitive or fundamental type, namely, the syllo- 
gisms of the 1st figure. 

The 4th figure did not belong to the original scheme of Aristotle, and it is usually 
considered as both unnatural and unnecessary, being only an awkward inversion of the 
first. There would then be the natural or standard syllogisms (the 1st fig.), and two 
sets of figurative departures from them (2d and 3d figs.); 

The syllogisms of each figure are said to differ in mood, or according to the quality 
and the quantity of the propositions that is, according as these are affirmative or nega- 
tive (quality), universal or particular (quantity). 

The entire scheme may be presented as follows : The symbols used are P (predicate 
of conclusion), major term ; S (subject of conclusion), minor term ; M, middle term. The 
general type of the first figure or standard is : 

Mis P. 

Sis P. 

When the quality and the quantity of the propositions are expressed, there arise four 
syllogisms of this form two affirmative, and two negative : 

All M are P. ) 

All (or some) S are M. j- Barbara, Darii. 

All (or some) S are P. ) 

All matter gravitates. 
All (or some) air is matter. 
All (or some) air gravitates 

No M is P. 1 Celarent 

All (or some) S is M. [ and 

No S is P ; some S is not P. ) Ferio. 

No matter is destructible. 

All (or some) air is matter. 

No air is destructible ; some air is not destructible. 

The general scheme of the 2d figure is: 


Sis P. 

There are four syllogisms in all, which we may take in pairs thus: 

No P is M. ) Cesare 

All (or some) S are M. \ and 

No S is P; some S are not P. ) Festino. 

"No destructible thing is matter," etc., as in the last form. 

All P is M. ) Camestres 

No S is M ; some S is not M. >- and 
No S is P; some S is not P. ) Baroko 

In this figure there is a certain distortion of the previous or regular figure. In the 
first of the two pairs, the major is, No P is M, instead of the equivalent (1st figure), No 
M is P. In the first form of the second pair, the minor is, No S is M, instead of the 
equivalent, No M is S, which should be the major to be regular; the amended premise 
would then give, in conclusion, No P is S, equal to No S is P. 

All matter is extended. } 

No mind is extended. >- Camestres. 

No mind is matter. ) 

The last form, with a particular conclusion, is exemplified thus : 

All matter is extended. 

Some things are not extended. 

Some things are not matter. 

This is a form technically called Baroko, which is one of two that are especially difficult 
to reduce to the standard forms. 

This figure proves only negatives. 

The scheme of premises in the MJigure is 

M. P. 

M. S. 

Six varieties of syllogism come under this figure; we may arrange them in three 
pairs, the first two pairs having the same major, and the third the same minor: 

All M is P. ) Darapti 

All (or some) M is S. V and 

Some S is P. ) Datisi. 

All planets move. 

All (or some) planets are heavenly bodies. 
Some heavenly bodies move. 

No M is P. ) Felapton 

All (or some) M is S. [ and 

Some S is not P. ) Ferison. 

No solid body is perfectly transparent. 

All solid bodies gravitate. 

Some gravitating things are not perfectly transparent. 

Some M is P ; some M is not P. ) Disamis 
All M is S. > and 

Some S is P; some S is not P. ) Bokarcb. 

The first of the two is merely a standard syllogism (Darii), with transposed premises; 
the second (Bokardo) is more complicated, as in the example: 

Some men are not fit to rule. 

But all men are liable to have dominion. 

Some men, liable to have dominion, are not fit to rule. 

In the Uh -figure, 



there are five syllogisms. The mere forms are enough to quote: 

All P are M. ) 

All M are S. >- Bramantip. 

Some S are P. ) 

All P are M. ) 

No M is S. > Camenes. 

No S is P. } 

Some P are M. ) 

All M are S. [ Dimaris. 

Some S are P. ) 

No P is M. ) 

All M are S. v Fesapo. 

Some S are not P. ) 

No P is M. ) 

Some M are S. [ Fresison. 

Some S are not P. ) 

The reasons why these syllogisms are true, and why no other of 256 possible com- 
binations of propositions can give true conclusions, are certain laws, called the rules of 
the syllogism, which repose on first principles of the highest certainty. 

Mr. Mill has laid down the following fundamental axioms of the syllogism, as stated 
in its standard forms in the first figure. (1.) "Attributes coinciding with the same 
attribute, coincide with one another." M, the middle term, coincides with P, the predi- 
cate; S, the subject, coincides with M; therefore S and P coincide with one another. 
(2.) " Any attribute incompatible with a second attribute, is incompatible with whatever 
that second attribute coincides with." No M is P; M is incompatible with P; but S 
coincides with M, and therefore it also is incompatible with P. 

All the syllogisms of the last three figures are reducible to the first, by conversion of 


propositions and transposition of premises, according to the nature of the case. The 
symbolic name of each syllogism contains instruction for this process, as well as stating 
the composition of the syllogism. To aid the memory, these symbols are put together 
in five Latin hexameter verses of very ancient but unknown origin: 

" Barbara, Celarent, Darii, Ferioque prioris. 
Cesare, Camestres, Festino, Baroko, secundae. 
Tertia Darapti, Disamis, Datisi, Felapton, 
Bokardo, Ferison habet, quarta insuper addit 
Bramantip, Camenes, Dimaris, Fesapo, Fresison." 

The first line gives the standard figure, and states the propositions entering into each 
syllogism. The three A's in Barbara are three universal propositions. The E, A, E, in 
Celarent, are a universal negative, a universal affirmative, a universal negative; in Darii, 
A, 1. I, a universal affirmative and two particular affirmatives, etc. In the other figures 
the commencing letter (C, B, etc.) shows which standard syllogism each is to be reduced 
to (Baroko to Barbara, Cesare to Celarent, etc.). The consonant s means simple con- 
version of the proposition marked by the preceding vowel; p means conversion by limi- 
tation, or pei' accidens; m signifies the transposition of the premises; k occurs in Baroko 
and Bokardo, and denotes that these are to be reduced by supposing the conclusion 
false, and then showing that on that supposition Barbara would be contradicted from 
which it is inferred that the original form is true. 

There are some species of deductive arguments that do not fall under the syllogistic 
figures. Thus, the major may state a conditional proposition, and the minor affirm the 
truth of the condition. "If the witness is to be believed, the man is guilty" (major) ; 
now "the witness* is to be believed" (minor): therefore "the man is guilty." A true 
conclusion would also be obtained by a minor denying the consequent, " the man is not 
guilty." It would then follow that the witness (who affirms his guilt) is not to be believed. 
But no conclusion would follow from either denying the condition, ' ' the witness is not 
to be believed," or affirming the consequent, "the man is guilty;" for, in the first place, 
the man might be guilty whether this particular witness be credible or not ; and second- 
ly, the guilt of the man does not prove the credibility of the witness. This is called the 
conditional syllogism. 

Again, the major may be what is called a disjunctive or alternative proposition, from 
which also inferences may be drawn by supplying certain minors. "This was done by 
either A or B;" now " it was not done by A (or by B);" therefore "it was done by B 
{or bv A)." Should the major be understood to mean that it was done by one, and not 
by both, there would be two other possible inferences. "It was done by A (or by B);" 
therefore "it was not done by B (or by A)." There are other disjunctive pairs, as for 
example: " Either A is B, or C is D;" now " A is not B, therefore C is D," etc. This 
is called the disjunctive syllogism. 

A combination of the conditional and the disjunctive makes the dilemma. For 

If A exist, then either B or C exists. 
Neither B nor C exists. 
Therefore A does not exist. 

The following dilemma was given to refute the practice of torturing witnesses : "A 
person able to endure pain will be likely to utter falsehood under torture; one unable 
will be equally likely; therefore, a person under torture will be likely to utter falsehood." 

A very great enlargement has been given to the doctrine of the syllogism by sir W. 
Hamilton (see QUANTIFICATION), prof. De Morgan, and the late prof. Boole of Cork. 
They have shown that many more syllogistic pairs can be created, and have invented 
symbols for the purpose. It is, however, comparatively few, either of the old pairs or 
of the new, that are assumed by the ordinarily occurring arguments, either in the sci- 
ences or in common affairs. By far the most useful part of the syllogism is contained 
within the limits of the first or standard figure, which shows what premises are to be 
looked out for to prove any conclusion; namely, some general assertion of matter of fact, 
affirmative or negative (major), and a particular tixx<.rti<>/t that a given thing comes under 
the subject of the general assertion (minor), and therefore falls likewise under its predi- 
cate. When an argument is stated in a puzzling or perplexed form, with perhaps the 
omission of one of its essential propositions, it is well to know how to supply the sup- 
pressed premises, and put the argument into regular order: the truth or fallacy of the 
reasoning then becomes evident at a glance. 

SYLPHS, in the fantastic system of the Paracelsists, are the elemental spirits of the 
air, who, like the other elemental spirits (q.v.), hold an intermediate place between imma- 
terial and material beings. They eat, drink, speak, move about, beget children, and are 
subject to infirmities like men ; but, ou the other hand, they resemble spirits in being 
more nimble and swift in their motions, while their bodies are more diaphanous than 
those of the human race. They also surpass the latter in their knowledge, both of the 
present and the future, but have no soul; and when they die, nothing is left. In form 
they are ruder, taller, and stronger than men; but stand nearest to them of all the ele- 
mental spirits, in consequence of which they occasionally hold intercourse with human 
creatures, being especially fond of children, and of simple harmless people; they even. 

Sylvester. -| At) 

SymondM. J *. 

marry with our race, like the undines and the gnomes, and the children of such a union 
have souls, and belong to the human race. 

In common usage, the term sylph has a feminine signification, and is applied to a 
graceful maiden. How this curious change of meaning occurred is not quite certain; 
but it is probably owing to the popularity of Pope's Rape of the Lock, which introduced 
the term into the world of fashion and literature. For although even in Pope, the sylph 
that guards Belinda is a Jie, yet the poet so refined and etherealized his spiritual agents, 
that they soon came to be associated with all our ideas of feminine grace and beauty, and 
this circumstance may have reacted on the popular idea always loose and inaccurate 
of their character and sex, and brought about the change of gender to which we have 
alluded. See Paracelsus's Liber de Kymphis, Sylphis, Pygmceis et Salamandris et Cceteris- 
Spiritibus (Basel ed. of Paracelsus's works, 1590). 

SYLVESTER, the name of two popes, and of a third who was an anti-pope. The pon- 
tificate of the first immediately succeeded that of Melchiades in 314, and is memorable 
for the great council of Nicaea, in which the heresy of Arius was condemned. Sylvester 
himself did not attend the council, but sent two priests Vitus and Vicentius to take 
his place. His name is also celebrated in connection with the so-called donation of Con- 
stantine to the Roman church, the spuriousness of which (although no doubt had been 
raised regarding it during many centuries) has long been admitted by critics. He died 
in 335. Sylvester II., one of the most learned of the mediaeval popes, originally called 
Gerbert, was b. at Aurillac, in Auvergne, early in the 10th century. He was educated 
in the monastery of his native village ; but went early to Spain, where he learned mathe- 
matics, and afterward to Rome. He was appointed abbot of the monastery of Bobbio, 
where he taught with much distinction and success. At a later perioxl he went to Ger 
many as preceptor of the young prince Otho, afterward Otho II. ; and ultimately became 
secretary to the archbishop of Rheims, and director of tbe cathedral school, which became 
eminent under his care. The archbishop having been deposed, Sylvester was elected to- 
the archbishopric; but he was afterward set aside, the deposition of his predecessor 
having been declared invalid. In the year 998, however, he was appointed archbishop 
of Ravenna, whence he was called to the pontifical throne, in the following year, under 
the name of Sylvester II. He was a man of rare acquirements for his age. He was an. 
adept in mathematics, and in practical mechanics and astronomy, in which department 
his attainments acquired for him among his contemporaries the evil reputation of a magi- 
cian. He is also believed to have been acquainted with Greek, and perhaps with Arabic. 
Of all his works, which were numerous, his letters (printed by Du Chesne in the Histori- 
ans of France) have attracted most notice from their bearing on the history of an obscure 

SYLVESTER, JAMES JOSEPH, b. London, 1814; educated at Cambridge university. 
He became a distinguished mathematician, and has been professor at the university of 
Virginia, University college, London, the Woolwich academy, and the Johns Hopkins 
university, Baltimore, Md., with which he is now connected. He hae written several 
treatises on mathematical subjects, is the inventor of the "modified pantograph," and 
has made most important investigations in modern algebra. 

SYLVESTER, JOSHUA, b. England, 1563. His life was divided between the somewhat 
incongruous pursuits of merchandise and poetry, in neither of which did he achieve a 
distinct success. Of his original works, the human memory retains no trace; but in 
virtue of the great, though fleeting popularity obtained by his English version of the 
Divine Weeks and Works of Du Bartas, from which Milton is thought to have derived 
some hints, he lives in literary history as a sort of nominis umbra. He led a somewhat 
wandering life, and died at Middleburg, in Holland, in the year 1618. 

SYLVI'AD.2E, a family of birds, of the order insessores, and tribe dentirostres, including 
a very great number of small species, among which are many of the birds most noted 
for sweetness of song, while some of this power is possessed by almost all the family, so- 
so that the name warbters is often used as synonymous with sylviadse. The bill is sharp, 
slender, straight, and rather compressed toward the tip; the wings moderately long; the 
legs slender. To this family belong the nightingale, the blackcap, numerous species- 
known by the name of warbler, the redbreast, redstart, wheatear, whitethroat, stonechat, 
whinchat, golden-crested wren, hedge-sparrow, etc. The sylviadae are diffused over all 
parts of the globe; and some of those found in tropical countries possess considerable 
musical powers, but are generally as silent during the great heat of the day as during the 
darkness of night, and are chiefly to be heard early in the morning. 

SYMBOLIC BOOKS, in the language of the church, is a phrase that signifies the same 
as creeds and confessions (q.v.). The name is derived from the Greek symbolon, a sign 
or mark by which anything is known a creed being the distinctive mark or watchword 
of a religious community. 

SYME, JAMES, was born in 1799, in the county of Fife, and received a thorough educa- 
tion in art and medicine, in the university of Edinburgh. In his 19th year he began his 
anatomical studies under Listen, who appointed him his demonstrator. From 1825 to 
1832, he lectured on surgery in the Edinburgh school, and, while generously refusing to 
lecture in opposition to his old master in the Edinburgh infirmary, he established a hos- 

1 JQ Sylvester. 


pital at his own expense, where he delivered a clinical course for four years. In 1831, 
appeared his well-known treatise on The Excision of Diseased Joints; and in 1832, his 
Principles of Surgery, which has since gone through many editions, and which has 
established his reputation as a teacher of the first rank. In 1833, he was elected to the 
chair of surgery in the university of Edinburgh, whicb he filled with the highest dis- 
tinction. In 1847, he gave up his Edinburgh chair to fill that vacated in London by 
the death of Liston ; but collegiate misunderstandings induced him, after six months, 
to return to Edinburgh. As an operator, Mr. Syme had no superior; as a teacher, he 
had no equal. His innovations in the practice of his art were characterized by so much. 
ingenuity, controlled by scientific caution, that they were adopted by all really great 
surgeons. The best of his pupils, who are numerous, and scattered over every quarter 
of the globe, have been heard to declare that their soundest ideas in surgery are derived 
from Syme. Beside the works already named, he was the author of valuable treatises 
on diseases of the rectum; on the pathology and practice of surgery; on the urethra and 
fatulct in perineo; on incised wounds, etc. He died June 26, 1870. See the Memoir by 
Dr. Paterson (1874). 

SYM'MACHUS, COSLIUS, Pope, about 440-514; b. Sardinia; entered the priesthood, 
rose through the steps of sacerdotal rank, and in 498 was chosen as the successor of 
Anastasius II. But Laurentius, the favorite candidate of Festus, Anastasius I. and the 
Eutychians, had a strong following. As arbitrator Theodore I. of Italy favored Sym- 
machus: but in 499 Laurentius returning to Rome, accused the pope de facto of bribery, 
and a contest, marked by violence and bloodshed, ensued. The council of 502 acquitted 
the pope of the charges of bribery and Manicheism. Symmachus was canonized after 
his death. 

SYMMACHUS, Q. AURELITJS, a distinguished Roman orator, scholar, and statesman 
who flourished toward the close of the 4th c., was educated in Gaul, and after holding 
several lesser offices, became prefect of Rome (384 A. D.). Seven years later he was 
raised to the consulship. The date of his death is unknown, but we know that he was 
alive in 404 A.D. The character of Symmachus is a very fine one. A sincere pagan in 
*in age when classic paganism was almost extinct, he proved in his own person a pattern 
of its choicest virtues, and manfully, if in vain, strove to regain for it a place of honor 
in the state. Symmachus's extant writings consist of ten books of letters (Epistolarum 
Libri X.) and the fragments of nine orations. The former were published after his death 
by his sou, and contain not a little that is valuable in relation to the history of the period ; 
but the style is in general a slavish imitation of Livy. The best editions of the epistolre 
are those of Juretus (Par. 1604) and Scioppius (Mainz, 1608). The fragments of the 
orations were first discovered by cardinal Mai in a palimpsest of the Ambrosian library, 
and were first published at Milan in 1815; afterward, with some additions, at Rome in 
1823, in Scriptorum Veterum Nova Collectio. See Morin's Etude sur la Vie et les Ecrits d 
Symmaque, Prefet de Rome (Par. 1847). 

SYMMES, JOHN CLEVES, 1742-1814, b. Long Island; founder of the Miami settle- 
ments; member of congress, 1785-86; judge of the supreme court of New Jersey; chief 
justice of the north-west territory, 1788. He married a daughter of gov. William Liv- 
ingston. His daughter became the wife of president Harrison. 

SYMMES, JOHN CLEVES, 1780-1829, b. K J. ; in 1802 he became an ensign in th 
TJ. S. army, and served with credit in the war of 1812. After the close of the war ha 
became a resident of Newport, Ky. , and spent his time in studying, writing, and lectur- 
ing on scientific and geographical subjects. He acquired some notoriety by his extra- 
ordinary theory that there is an opening at each of the poles, leading into the center of 
the earth, which he thought was hollow, and capable of habitation. He wrote Theory 
of Concentric Spheres (1826). 

SYMMETRY OP ORGANS. Throughout the animal kingdom, a symmetry of organi 
very generally prevails in the two sides of the body. This is the case in man and in all 
the vertebrate; more perfectly, however, in the external than in the internal organs, the 
two sides of the body presenting great diversities in the circulating, digestive, and other 
systems. Even the external organs, although similar on the two sides, are never per- 
fectly so. On comparing the two hands, for example, the veins of the one will be seen 
to differ from those of the other. In mollusca, the symmetry of the two sides sometimes 
exists, and is sometimes entirely lost, the one side remaining undeveloped in the growth 
of the animal. In the artic'/lata, the symmetry is in general as perfect as in the ver- 
tebrata, and in the internal structure even more so. In the radiata, the whole type i* 
very different, and a very different kind of symmetry appears, not with reference to two 
sides, but to the rays into which the body divides. 

In the vegetable kingdom, a symmetry is found, more or less perfect, but never com- 
pletely so, between the two sides of leaves, fronds, etc. In flowers, a symmetry appears 
in the regular distribution of sepals, petals, stamens, etc., around the center of the 
flower; and even those flowers. which least exhibit it when fully blown, as papilionaceous 
flowers, possess it in the early stages of the bud as perfectly as others. 

SYMONDS, JOHN ADDINGTON, 1807-71, b. England; educated at the university of 
Edinburgh, where he took a medical degree. He was physician to the Bristol general 

Sympathetic. 1 4.J. 


hospital, and lecturer at the Bristol medical school. He published Steep and Dreams 
(1851); the Principles of Beauty (1857), and Miscellanies (1871). 


SYMPATHY (Gr. sympatheia, fellow-feeling) may be defined as the assumption by 
different individuals, or by different parts of the same individual, of the same or aii 
analogous physiological or pathological state at the same time or in rapid succession. 
The late Dr. Todd (art. "sympathy" in the Cyclopaedia <>f Anatomy and Physiology) 
divides all the examples of sympathy which are included in the above definition into 
three classes; first, sympathies between different individuals; secondly, those which 
affect the mind, and, through it, the body; and, thirdly, those which are strictly organic, 
and therefore physical. 

As examples of the first class may be mentioned the readiness with which the act of 
yawning is induced in a company, if a single person begins to yawn ; the facility with which 
hysterical convulsions are induced in a female hospital ward by a single'case; the fasci- 
nation of its prey by the serpent, apparently by the power of the eyes; the similar power 
exerted by so-called electro-biologists and mesmerists, and by which some men can 
control even the fiercest carnivora. Of these sympathies the only explanation that can 
be given is that suggested in the article on Animal Magnetism (q.v.). As examples of 
the second class, the following cases may be adduced : certain odors as of strawberries,. 
mutton, cats, and other most diverse objects will induce fainting in some people; the 
smell of a savory dish will excite a flow of saliva in the mouth of a hungry person; and 
the excitement of the emotions of pity will produce a copious iiow of tears. In these 
cases, an affection of the mind is a necessary link, but why that affection of the mind 
should produce its peculiar effect, is a question not easily answered; but it is plain that 
the portion of the nervous center which is affected in such cases, must have a direct 
influence upon the parts in which the sympathetic phenomena appear, through commis- 
sural (or connecting) fibers, or the continuity of its gray matter with that of the center from. 
which its nerves immediately spring. Examples of the third class occur in the pain in 
the knee which arises from disease of the hip-joint; the pain in the right shoulder from 
disease of the liver; the pain over the brow on taking a draught of iced water into the 
stomach; the various spasmodic affections connected with intestinal irritation, or the 
irritation of teething; the vomiting that occurs on the passage of a biliary or renal 
calculus, etc. All these cases may be more or less satisfactorily explained by the known, 
laws of the sensory and motor nerves. In some of these cases the explanation, however, 
cannot be regarded as altogether complete. For example, the pain over the brow from 
the ingestion of cold water or ice into the stomach, may be referred to irritation of the 
gastric branches of the pneumogastric nerves communicated in the medulla oblongata 
to the fifth nerve; but why the irritation should be confined to the frontal branch of the 
first (or ophthalmic) division of the fifth nerve, we are utterly unable to explain. 

SYMPHONY, in music, a word used in two different senses: 1. The instrumental 
introduction and termination of a vocal composition, sometimes called ritornello; 2. A 
composition for a full orchestra, consisting of from three to six movements. It is for 
the orchestra what a sonata (q.v.) is for a single instrument; but generally of greater 
length, and its movements more fully and richly developed, the subjects introduced 
being worked out in broader masses. The most usual though not unvarying order of 
movements is a brilliant allegro, ushered in by a slow introduction, an adagio or andante, 
a minuet with its trio, a short sportive movement called a scherzo, and a lively finale. 
The symphony is one of the highest of musical compositions, and one in which excel- 
lence is rare. Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Mendelssohn are among the few success- 
ful composers of symphony; and the nine symphonies of Be3thoven are generally 
acknowledged to be the greatest works of their class. The overture (q.v.) is in form 
not unlike a symphony, but much shorter; but the terms symphony and overture were 
at one time used almost synonymously, and several of Haydn's early symphonies are 
called overtures. At the present day the overture in the composer's score of an Italian 
opera is called sinfonia. 


SYMPTOMS (Gr. sympiptein, to concur), in medicine, are the morbid phenomena by 
which the physician becomes aware that derangements of some kind have taken place in 
the economy ; but it requires a mental effort to convert these symptoms into signs of 
disease. A symptom thus converted into a sign of some special disease or disordered 
condition, tends to constitute the diagnosis, or recognition of the disease. " The inter- 
pretation of symptoms," as Dr. Aitken observes, " can only be successful after a close 
observation of the patient often prolonged and repeated for more complete investigation 
so as to connect the results arrived at with his previous history. The utmost logical 
acumen is required for the due interpretation of symptoms. The individual value of 
each ought to be duly weighed; one symptom must be compared with another, and each 
with all, while the liability to variation of a similar symptom in different cases of a lik* 
kind must not be forgotten. Thus only can the nature of a disease be clearly determined, 
its severity and dangers fully appreciated, its treatment indicated, and the probability of 
recovery "foretold "The Science and Practice of Medicine, 3d ed. vol. i. p. 9. Many 


writers, following the example of Laennec, confine the term symptom to the phenomena 
depending on vital properties; while those phenomena of disease which are more directly 
physical, they call signs. We thus have what may be called physical signs and vital 
symptoms. The form, size, color, firmuess or softness, heat and odor of a part of the 
body, the sounds which it yields on percussion or discultation, etc., afford physical 
signs; while vital symptoms may be exemplified in pain, uneasiness, altered or impaired 
sensations, spasm, vomiting, the accelerated pulse and hot skin of fever, the state of 
the tongue and of the alviue and urinary excretions, etc. The term semeiology (literally, 
the theory of signs) has been given by medical writers to the general study of this subject, 
which is admirably discussed in Willianis's Principles of Medicine. 

SYNAGOGUE (Gr. =eccleia; Heb. beth-hakkeneseth , house of assembly), a Jewish place 
of worship. The origin of this institution is probably to be traced to the period of the 
Babylonian captivity, although tradition finds it in the patriarchal times. When, at 
the time of Ezra, and chiefly through Ezra's instrumentality, the ancient order of things 
was re established in Judea, synagogues were established in all the towns for the benefit 
of those who could not take part oftener than three, times a year, or not even as often 
as that, in the worship of the temple at Jerusalem, and a special ritual of lecture's and 
prayers was instituted. From the time of the Maccabees, we find them even in all the 
villages; and Josephus, Philo, the New Testament, the Mishua, and the Talmud, con- 
stantly allude to them. Common prayer and religious instruction were the purpose for 
which the people there met. The Sabbaths and feast-days were the principal times on 
which the faithful assembled in them; and they contributed more than anything else to 
the steadfast adherence of the people to their religion and liberty as long as there was 
any possibility of keeping both intact. At the same time they gradually undermined 
the priestly and aristocratic element that gathered round the temple, its gorgeous wor- 
ship and kingly revenues. Little is known of any special law's respecting the construc- 
tion of these buildings, save that the faces of the worshipers should be directed toward 
Jerusalem (misrach = eastward) (see MOSQUE); or that, in accordance with the verse in 
the Psalms, there should be a slight descent of a step or two on entering it, or that it 
should stand, if feasible, on a slightly elevated ground, or be somehow or other made 
visible far off. Erected out of the common funds or free gifts of the community, it 
had also to be supported by taxes and donations. All profane doings were strictly pro- 
hibited in it. No eating, drinking, reckoning, and the like, were allowed; and even as 
to dress and other things of general decorum, the reverence due to the place was 
enforced as rigidly as possible. It represented in miniature the form of the temple, 
itself an enlarged type of the tabernacle. At the extreme eastern end was the Aron 
lutkkodesh, the holy ark, containing several copies of the Pentateuch, from which the 
periodical readings were chanted. In front of this was the stand of the public reader of 
the prayers, not far from which was suspended the everlasting lamp (itcrtamid). On a 
raised platform in the middle of the synagogue, was the place of the reader or preacher. 
The women sat separated from the men by a low partition five or six ft. high. The 
affairs of the synagogue were administered by a board of "ancients" or "elders," at 
whose head stood a chief or principal (Rosh hakkeneseth = arcJmynagogos). This college 
managed the inner affairs of the synagogue, and had even the power of excommunica 
tion. The officiating minister, Whose office it was to recite the prayers aloud, was 
called aheliach tsibbur messenger of the community (angelos ecclesias, Rev.). His quali- 
fications were, among others, to be active, to be father of a family, not to be rich or engaged 
in business, to possess a good voice, to be apt to teach, etc. The beadle, or chazzan, 
had the general charge of the sacred place, and its books and implements. He had to 
present the scroll to the reader, and assist on other occasions. During the week-days, 
he had to teach the children of the town or village. He too had to be initiated by a 
solemn imposition of hands. This name of chazzan, however, at a later period, came to 
designate the officiating minister, and it has retained that meaning until this day. 
Almoners or deacons, who collected or distributed the alms, possibly the same as the 
batlanim or "idle men," whose office in relation to the synagogue cannot be exactly 
determined now, but who had always to be ready for the purpose of making up thfr 
requisite number of ten worshipers, were further attached to the general body of offi- 
cials. Respecting the prayers used, we have spoken under LITURGY (JEWISH). As to- 
the time of daily worship, we may observe that the third, sixth, and ninth hours of the 
day were the times appointed for it, and the more special days were the Monday and 
Thursday, when the judges sat, and the villagers came to town; and the Saturday, on 
which the forms of some of the prayers were altered according to the occasion. 

On the connection between the Jewish synagogue and the Christian church, and 
their respective rites and modes of worship we cannot here enlarge. Thus much, how- 
ever, we may say, that it is obvious to the most superficial observation that the princi- 
pal practices of the latter belong, with certain modifications, to the former; and it has 
been conjectured that even the melodies of certain hymns still sung in the Roman 
churches are to be traced to. the temple and the synagogues. It is, moreover, well 
known that the early Christian churches w r ere entirely organized after the pattern of the 
synagogues. As to the judicial power exercised by the officers of the synagogue, we 
refer to SANHEDRIM. They had, there can hardly be a doubt, a kind of authority with. 
U. K. XIV. 10 

.Synagogue. 1 A a 

*y 110 vial. 

regard to religious transgressions; but how far they were allowed to carry this authority, 
is not BO easily determined. Modern synagogues differ but in some minor points addi- 
tional prayers and the like from what we gather to have been the nature of those at 
the time of Christ, save that there are no more elders, but a simple board elected from the 
community, without any authority beyond that of, perhaps, a board of church wardens, 
and that the chazzan, as we said, has now the functions of the "sheliach." See JEWS, 
TEMPLE, LITURGY (JEWISH) etc. The languages used in the early synagogues of Pale*- 
tine and Alexandria, were Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek respectively. 

SYNAGOGUE, THE GREAT (keneseth haggedolaJi), an assembly or synod, supposed to 
have been founded and presided over by Ezra, consisting of 120 men, said to have been 
engaged in remodeling the national and religious institutions of the Jews after the return 
from Babylon. The palpable chronological discrepancies that occur in the early 
accounts about this synod, together with other doubtful points, have led modern schol- 
ars to deny its existence completely. But the fact of Josephus not mentioning it avails 
very little against the positive assertions of the Talmud, and what is still more impor- 
tant, of the Karaites, the professed adversaries of all tradition. True, Ezra, the con- 
temporary of Artaxerxes, can never have taken his place in it together with Zerubbabel 
nd Joshua, who left Babylon under Cyrus, or with Simeon the Just, who lived at the 
time of Alexander the Great. These, however, are but apparent anachronisms. The 
tradition never meant anything else than that the institution founded by Ezra, and which 
lasted up to the time of Alexander, comprised 120 men, of whom Simeon was one of the 
last. Anyhow, there is absolutely no reason to doubt that Ezra and Nehemiah did 
a certain amount of work which they could not have done without being assisted by 
eminent collaborators. It was to this body to which certain vital ameliorations in the 
administration of justice are ascribed. They developed public instruction, and fixed 
and enlarged the Mosaic laws by certain rules of interpretation. " Be circumspect in 
judgment; make many disciples; and erect a fence around the law ;" are some of the 
principal sayings ascribed to them. Above all, it seems to have been the office of Ezra 
and his coadjutors the men of the Great Synagogue to collect, purify, and redact the 
sacred books as much as in thorn lay. Whether, however, they really introduced the 
vowel-points, which have been handed down to us by the Masoretes, instituted the 
Feast of Purim, sanctioned the Eighteen Benedictions (see LITURGY, JEWISH), etc., is 
more than doubtful. They certainly disappeared before the Sanhedrim (q.v.) were insti- 
tuted, but it may be that their legislative functions were no longer needed at that 
advanced period. 


SYNCLI NAL AXIS is the line of curve in the trough of a series of beds from which 
the strata rise on either side. The ridge-curve is called the anteclinal axis. 

SYNCOPA'TION, in music. Notes which begin on the unaccented part of a measure, 
and end on the accented, are called syncopated or driving notes. Their effect is to invert 
the rhythm, and lay an emphasis on the usually unaccented part of the measure, e.g. : 


SYN'CRETISM (signifying acting together as Cretans), a term used: I. In ancient 
times, politically, to designate the Cretan custom of disregarding all internal dissensions 
whenever a controversy with a foreign country occurred. II. In the 16th c., philosophi- 
cally, to denote the efforts made to reconcile opposing systems. III. In the 17th c., theo- 
logically, first by Pereus in his Irenicon, and afterward to describe the views of Calixtus 
and his followers, who sought to heal the schism in the church by making the traditions 
of the first five centuries of equal authority with the Bible, and by adopting the Apostles' 
creed as the common basis of all Christian denominations and a sufficient definition of 
true Christianity. The plan was that all holding these tenets should come into peaceful 

SYNDIC (Gr. syn, with, and dike, justice), a name which has at different times and in 
different countries been given to various municipal and other officers. In Geneva the 
chief magistrate was formerly called the syndic. The syndics of cities in France, under 
the old regime, were officers delegated by the municipality as agents or mandatories; 
the various trading companies in Paris and the university had also their syndics; and in 
the university of Cambridge the same name is applied to members of special committees 
of members of the senate, appointed by grace from time to time for specific duties. See 

SYNECDOCHE (Gr. literally an "understanding one thing with another") is a term ia 
rhetoric denoting that mode of expression by which a part is put for the whole, and 
vice versa; as e.g., a door for a house, a sword for any weapon of war. 

SYNER GISM (Gr. synergeo, to work together with), the name given to a doctrine of 
theology which teaches that in the work of conversion, the will of man is not wholly 



passive, but can" co-operate, through consent, with the Divine Spirit. About 1557 the 
question was hotly discussed by the Protestant theologians Pfefflnger, Flacius, and 
Strigel, and soon the whole theological world was wrangling over the point. The Wit- 
tenberg divines were in t'avor of, the Mausfeld divines against, synergism. Finally, the 
Ooncodein formal, in its third article, condemned it. 

SYNE'SIUS, b. Gyrene, Africa, about 379, from a rich and noble family; was a 
philosopher, poet, and Christian bishop. He was a pupil of the renowned Hypatia of 
Alexandria, afterward studied at Athens, and, returning to Gyrene, lived in retirement. 
He was sent to Constantinople to solicit aid for the people suffering from famine, and, 
soon after his return to Gyrene, was converted from paganism by the influence of his 
Christian wife. In 410, though not baptized, and married, and holding certain doctrines 
not considered orthodox, he was made bishop of Ptolemais. After baptism and seven 
months' preparation he entered upon his duties. His works, mostly epistles, treatises 
and hymns, were collected by Petavius in Greek, with a Latin translation, and published 
in 1612 and 1640. The hymns have often been published, in several languages. He is 
supposed to have died about 430. 



SYNOD (Gr. and Lat., an assembly) in general signifies a meeting, but it is almost 
exclusively applied to ecclesiastical assemblies for the purpose of deliberating on doc- 
trinal or disciplinary subjects. In church law, several kinds of synods called also 
councils (q.v.)y-are enumerated: (1) ecumenical or general, of the entire church; (2) 
national that is, of the church of an entire nation; (3) provincial that is, of a province; 
(4) diocesan, or of a single diocese. Of these, the ecumenical council has been already 
described. Of the others, little explanation is needed beyond what is conveyed in the 
names themselves. By the law of the Roman Catholic church, the decrees of a national 
or provincial synod must be submitted to the pope, and unless confirmed by him, or at 
least suffered to pass for two years without condemnation, are not held to have force. 
The diocesan synod is convened by the bishop, and consists of the members of the 
chapter, the beueficed clergy having the permanent care of souls, and the heads of th 
communities of regular clergy. Synods of the English church are only held by th 
authority of the crown. A Presbyterian synod consists of only the ministers and elders 
within the particular district, generally one elder for each congregation. It is subor- 
dinate, however, to the general assembly, when there is a general assembly. 

SYNO DIG, the epithet applied to the period which elapses between a planet's appear- 
ance at one of the nodes of its orbit, and its return to the same node. See NODES and 

SYNONYM. When any one of several words will serve to name or express the same 
thing, that thing is said to be polyonymous, or many-named, and the words are called 
synonyms (Gr. names together, or in company). In this wide sense, man, soldier, general, 
Frenchman, might be called synonyms, as they can all be applied to denote the same 
individual e.g., Napoleon. See NOUN. But the term is commonly applied in a restricted 
sense to words having substantially the same meaning, with only slight shades of differ- 
ence as observe and remark. In a settled and matured language, no two words can 
have exactly the same meaning; in such a case, one of them would be superfluous, and 
would be silently dropped. Words that were originally identical in application, have 
become differentiated by usage, each being appropriated to a special variety of the gen- 
eral notion. 

The English language abounds in pairs of synonyms like sharp and acute, of which, 
the one is Anglo-Saxon, the other borrowed from the Latin. It would be difficult to- 
find a case of more exact correspondence of sense than acutus in Latin, and sharp (Ger. 
scharf) in Teutonic; but acute in English has become confined to the metaphorical sense 
of sharpness of the intellect or of the senses, the only case of its retaining the pri- 
mary, physical signification being in the technical phrase, an "acute angle." Sharp,. 
again, is applied both in the physical sense and also in the metaphorical ; but metaphor- 
ical sharpness is not exactly the same thing as acuteness. A " sharp" lad is one quick in 
apprehension and movement; an " acute" intellect is one having great power of pene- 
tration and discrimination; while in a lawyer of "sharp" practice, a reprehensible 
moral quality is implied. 

SYNO VIAL MEMBRANES AND FLUID. In every joint in which a considerable range 
of motion is required, the osseous segments (or contiguous extremities of bones) are sep- 
arated by a space, which is called the cavity of the joint. The end of each of the bones 
entering into the composition of the joint is incrusted by a layer of articular cartilage 
adapted to its form, and the entire cavity of the joint is lined by a delicate membrane, 
which is termed the synovial membrane, which secretes a peculiar viscid matter, termed 
synovia, or synovial fluid, for the purpose of lubricating the inner surface. In its micro- 
scopical characters, a synovial membrane so closely resembles a serous membrane, that 
we shall content ourselves with referring the reader to the article on the latter structures. 
There are, however, certain points of difference, which are fully described in the article 
" Serous and Synovial Membranes" in The Cydop&dia of Anatomy and Physiology. Like.- 

Syntax. 1 AQ 


a serous membrane, a synovial membrane is always a closed bag, like the pleura, for 
example, with an attached and a free surface, the latter being smooth ard moist. A. 
very simple form of synovial membrane anatomically known as a bursa is employed 
to facilitate the gliding of a tendon of a muscle or of the integument over a projection 
of bone. It consists of a bag connected by areolar tissue with the neighboring parts, 
and secreting a fluid in its interior. These bags are sometimes prolonged into synovial 
sheaths, which surround long tendons, such as those of the flexor and extensor muscles 
of the fingers and toes. In deep-seated whitlow (q.v.), when inflammation extends to 
one of the sheaths, and gives rise to the formation of adhesions, the motion of the 
inclosed tendon is destroyed, and a permanently stiff finger is the result. 

The synovial fluid, or synovia derives its name from its resemblance to the white of 
an egg (Gr. syn, with, and oon, an egg). It consists of water holding in solution mucin, 
albumen, extractive matters, fat, and inorganic salts. The analysis of Frerichs show 
that the composition and quality of the synovia vary essentially according as an animal 
is at rest or leads a wandering life. 

SYNTAX (Gr. taxis, arrangement, syn, together) is the part of grammar that teaches 
the putting together of words for the expressing of thoughts; in other words, it treats of 
the construction of sentences. The first step is the analysis of sentences the study of 
their anatomy and physiology, as it were (see SENTENCE). This important part of the 
subject is too often altogether overlooked. A clear perception of the mutual relations 
of the several members of a sentence makes the usual rules of syntax appear self-evident 
truths, and in most cases superfluous. Most of these rules fall under the heads of (1) 
concord and government, and (2) order of words or collocation. For details we must 
refer to special works on the subject. 

SYNTHESIS (Gr. synthesis, making a wt ole out of parts) is a term employed in chem- 
istry to designate the building up of a more or less complicated product from its ele- 
mentary constituents. As the synthesis of inorganic compounds is usually very simple, 
we shall confine our remarks to organic compounds. To take a very common substance 
as an illustration, there is no difficulty in resolving sugar into its ultimate elements, or, 
in other words, in ascertaining its composition by analysis. If we heat a little sugar to 
redness in a glass tube, it leaves a black deposit, which is carbon, while a liquid, which 
is water, distils over; and, on electrolyzing this liquid, we resolve it into hydrogen and 
oxygen ; so that we can thus show that sugar is composed of the ultimate elements, 
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. An analysis of this kind shows that sugar may be rep- 
resented by the formula CiaHnOu, and that one atom, or any given weight of it, con- 
tains 72 atoms or parts by weight of carbon, 11 of hydrogen, and 88 of oxygen. This 
pulling to pieces of the sugar is an easy matter, and has been known to chemists for 
more than half a century ; but the putting together of the pieces, or, in other words, the 
synthesis of sugar, is a very much more difficult task. We may bring together carbon, 
hydrogen, and oxygen in the due proportions, and, to use the words of prof. Wanklyn 
(in a lecture delivered at the Royal institution, Feb. 12, 1864), "we may shake them all 
together, or heat them, or cool them, and yet we shall never get them to combine so as 
to form sugar. Alcohol consists of 24 parts of carbon, 6 parts of hydrogen, and 16 parts 
of oxygen ; but no alcohol ever results from making such a mixture. Neither sugar nor 
alcohol can exist at the temperature to which it is requisite to raise our mixture of car- 
bon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in order to get chemical action to set in. At ordinary 
temperatures, the organic elements will not enter into combination, while at high 
temperatures they combine, it is true, but yield comparatively very few compounds." 
There was a general belief that organic products, such as sugar, alcohol, urea, oxalic 
acid, taurine, leucine, etc., required for their production a mysterious so-called vital force, 
totally distinct from the ordinary forces acting on matter. The first blow to this now 
obsolete doctrine was struck by WOhler in 1828, when he discovered that the organic 
base urea might be artificially obtained. See ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. Three years after- 
ward Pelouze obtained formic acid from inorganic materials. In 1845 Kolbe, by a 
somewhat complicated process, effected the synthesis of acetic acid, and consequently, 
indirectly, of its derivatives, among which may be enumerated acetone, the product of 
the destructive distillation of acetates; marsh gas, obtained by distilling an acetate with 
a caustic alkali, and ethylene; and the electrolysis of acetic acid, which Kolbe accom- 
plished a few years afterward, yielded methyl and oxide of methyl, which latter could 
be transformed into any other methylic compound. During the last twelve years new 
and simpler methods have been suggested by various chemists, among whom Berthelot 
must be especially mentioned, and enormous additions have been made to the list of so- 
called organic compounds which have been synthetically constructed. We shall give a 
description of the mode of producing alcohol synthetically, and shall then show that 
from it, as a starting-point, an immense number of other organic compounds can be syn- 
thetically produced. To obtain this product synthetically, several distinct steps are 
necessary. The first is the formation of a transparent colorless gas, acetylene, C 4 H 3 , 
from carbon and hydrogen in the electric arc; by passing this gas through sub-chloride 
f copper, acetylide of copper is produced, which, in contact with nascent hydrogen, 
gives olefiant gas, C 4 H 4 ; agitated with sulphuric acid, olefiant gas produces sulphovinic 
cacid, C 4 H S O,2SO 3 HO (a discovery dr.c to our own chemists, Faraday and Hennell, in 

1 4-Q Syntax. 


1820). On distilling this acid diluted with water, dilute alcohol comes over, which, on 
redistillation, in contact with quick-lime, yields pure mnic or ordinary alcohol, C 4 H<>Oj. 
Having thus obtained ordinary alcohol from inorganic materials only, we may employ 
it to form by synthesis an immense number of other organic compounds. By means of 
what is known as " the process of Mendius," we can, as it were, step from one alcohol 
to the next above it. Thus, from vinic alcohol (C 4 H 8 Oa) we obtain propylic (or tritylic) 
alcohol (C 8 H 8 O 3 ); from this we obtain butylic (or tetrylic) alcohol (CsHioOa); from this, 
amylic alcohol CioHuQi), and so on. From the propylic alcohol thus obtained we get, 
by oxidation, propionic acid, from which lactic acid, the acid of sour milk, may be 
obtained ; similarly, butylic alcohol yields butyric acid ; every alcohol, in short, yielding 
a corresponding fatty acid by oxidation. Glycerine, the base of the fats, may also be 
obtained by a somewhat circuitous process. By combining glycerine with propionic 
acid, and with the other fatty acids which may be synthetically formed, we obtain 
several oils and fats similar to those which occur as natural products. The case of tau- 
rine, C 4 H 7 NSaO(j, is even more striking; it is a product of various glandular metamor- 
phoses, but its chief source is the bile, where it exists in conjugation with cholic acid as 
tauro-cholic acid. This highly complex substance can readily be formed in the labora- 
tory from sulphuric acid, alcohol, and ammonia, each of which is capable of being built 
up from its constituent elements. 

Sugar has been obtained by Berthelot from glycerine, a substance which is obtainable 
by purely inorganic means; but as he effected the conversion of the glycerine into sugar 
by the action of putrefying animal tissue, we can hardly regard the sugar thus formed 
as being of purely inorganic origin, although the animal tissue only acted catalytically, 
or as a ferment, and did not contribute any actual material to its formation. There is, 
however, no doubt that an unexceptional means of producing this important alimentary 
substance will soon be devised, since bodies strictly allied to sugar have been already 
obtained.* Another artificial compound of great interest in an industrial point of view 
is toluol, Ci 4 H 8 , which has recently been obtained from phenele, which can itself be pro- 
duced synthetically from alcohol. " Starting," says Dr. Odling, "from these two bodies, 
we may procure all the so-called coal-tar colors, with the brilliancy and variety of which 
most of us are now familiar. The red base or rosaniline, C4oHi 9 N" 3 , the violet base or 
triethylrosaniline, C 5a H 3 iNj, and the blue base or triphenylrosaniline, C 7 H3iN 3 , being 
producible' in this way from their constituent elements, furnish admirable illustrations 
of the constructive powers of modern organic chemistry." 

We cannot conclude without adverting briefly to the possibility of economically 
replacing natural processes by artificial ones in the formation of organic compounds. 
On this subject, one of our most distinguished organic chemists, Dr. Frankland, observes 
that "at present, the possibility of doing this only attains to probability in the case of 
rare and exceptional products of animal and vegetable life. By no processes at present 
known could we produce sugar, glycerine, or alcohol from their elements at one hun- 
dred times their present cost, as obtained through the agency of vitality. But although 
our present prospects of rivaling vital processes in the economic production of staple 
organic compounds, such as those constituting the food of man, are exceedingly slight, 
yet it would be rash to pronounce their ultimate realization impossible. It must be 
remembered that this branch of chemistry is as yet in its merest infancy; that it has 
hitherto attracted the attention of but few minds; and further, that many analogous 
substitutes of artificial for natural processes have been achieved." 

For further details on this subject, the reader is referred to Berthelot's Chimie Organ- 
ique fondee sur la Synthese (2 vols. Paris, 1860); to the same author's lectures on the 
Lepons de Chimie professees en 1860 et 1862; to various lectures by Wanklyn, Frankland, 
and others, delivered at the Royal institution; and to Odling's lectures On Animals 
Chemistry, delivered at the college of physicians in the year 1865. 

SYNTONIN, or MUSCLE FIBRINE (Gr. synteinein, to render tense), contains in 100 parts: 
carbon, 54.06; hydrogen, 7.28; nitrogen, 16.05; oxygen, 21.50; and sulphur, 1.11. It 
is the principal constituent and the essential basis of all the contractile tissues. It may 
be obtained from muscular fibrin in the form of a coherent, elastic, snow-white mass; 
but whether it exists in the living body in a solid form or in solution, is undecided. Many 
recent physiological writers hold the latter view, and maintain that the phenomenon of 
cadaveric rigidity (rigor mortis) is due to its spontaneously coagulating after death. 

SYPHILIS, is according to Dr. Farr's system of nosological classification, to be 
regarded as belonging to the enthetic order of zymotic diseases (see NOSOLOGY and 
ZYMOTIC DISEASES). These diseases have the common property of being developed in 
the system after the introduction by inoculation or implantation of specific poisons. 
The poisons which produce diseases of this order may be introduced through any 
abraded cutaneous surface, or through mucous membranes, especially if any solution of 
continuity occurs. A morbid poison thus introduced into the system produces a specific 
effect both on the tissue at the place of insertion and on the blood, as soon as the poison 

* Carius, a trustworthy chemist, announced some years ago that he had succeeded In forming 
phenose, a kind of sugar, and possessing all its chemical characteristics, from benzol. Ann. d. Chem. 
u. Pharm. Dec. 1865 


begins to be become absorbed; or, in other words, it produces both a constitutional and 
a local change. The absorbed virus seems to undergo the following changes in the liv- 
ing and infected bod}' viz. (1) Increase, (2) Transformation, and (3) Separation or 
excretion. Taking our illustrations from the disease to which this article is specially 
devoted, the increase is shown by the fact, that the pus from a single syphilitic sore may 
by inoculation be made to spread the disease a thousand-fold. The transformation is 
indicated by the successive phenomena which supervene during the course of the 
disease. For example, syphilis is followed, as we shall presently show, by a series of 
secondary and tertiary phenomena, which follow a tolerably uniform course in different 
patients. The separation or excretion of the poison may be accomplished in several ways. 
While in some of the more intense poisons such as those of certain serpents the whole 
mass of the blood seems rapidly affected, in others, as syphilis, "a double process of the 
zymotic-like action seems to take place before the full effects which the poison is cap- 
able of producing are completed. The multiplication of the venereal poison, and its 
effects upon the system, seem to become developed during the existence of the harden- 
ing process which surrounds the infecting venereal sore. This is the first zymotic-like 
process, and is attended with a local papule, and perhaps an ulcer. From this local 
sore the system becomes contaminated, and in the blood a second process (of zymosis?) 
appears to be completed, by which the original poison becomes intensified, its pernicious 
influence more complete, and its specific, secondary, and tertiary effects are more fully 
developed." Aitkeu's Science and Practice of Medicine, 3ded., vol. i. p. 666. 

From this brief sketch of the nature of euthetic diseases, we turn to the considera- 
tion of the special disorder known as syphilis a word whose origin is unknown. The 
terrible ravages of this disease among our soldiers and sailors, to say nothing of the 
fearful misery which it occasions in private life, afford more than sufficient apology for 
our introducing into these pages some of the most important details regarding this 
repulsive form of disease.* It is almost unnecessary to observe that syphilis is a con- 
tagious disease usually propagated by impure sexual intercourse. The following is a 
brief history of the course of the disease, if its progress is not checked by proper 
remedial agents. At an uncertain period, varying from three to ten days, after expo- 
sure to the infection, one or more venereal ulcers (commonly known as chancres) appear 
upon the generative organs. These ulcers present m&ny varieties, which have been 
variously classified. The following arrangement, by Mr. Henry Lee, surgeon to the 
Lock hospital, is an eminently practical one viz. (1) The Hunterian or indurated or 
infecting chancre; (2) The non-indurated or suppurative chancre; (3) The ulcerative 
chancre; and (4) The sloughing chancre. These local affections are so different in their 
characters, and in their action on the constitution, that each must have a brief separate 
notice. (1) The indurated, or, as it is frequently termed, the Hunterian chancre, from 
its having been first accurately described by John Hunter, is the only one of these local 
affections that can be associated with constitutional syphilis Its natural course is thus 
described by Mr. Lee. "At an uncertain period, but generally from three to four days 
after exposure to infection, attention may be drawn to the part by a slight itching. On 
examination, a red spot, surrounded by a little induration, will perhaps present itself, 
or a vesicle about the size of a millet-seed will not unfrequently form upon the infected 
part. The cuticle covering this vesicle is so thin that it usually gives way at a very 
early period ; and this commonly happens before the disease has been carefully exam- 
ined. The base of the vesicle then becomes indurated, and the induration (whether 
preceded or accompanied by a pimple or a vesicle, or independent of either of these) 
assumes a circular form, extending equally in every direction, and terminating quite 
abruptly in apparently healthy parts. A sore generally follows; this is excavated, with- 
out granulations, sometimes glazed, at other times having some adhesive matter on its 
surface. The color of the chancre will depend often upon the amount and character of 
the substance which adheres to it, and will frequently present a fawn hue, or different 
shades of brown and red. When this adventitious* matter is removed, the sore will 
usually again assume its original smooth and red glazed appearance." "Syphilis" in 
Holmes's System of Surgery, vol. i. p. 400. This variety of sore frequently gives rige to 
a chronic enlargement of one of the glands of the groin (forming what is termed a bubo)> 
which does not involve the skin or the cellular membrane. It is followed by certain 

* Dr. Aitken observes that " no statistical nosology gives any idea of the number of men lost to the 
public service from syphilis. The loss of strength from venereal diseases alone (gonorrhea being included 
with syphilis in this term, and forming about 40 per cent of the cases) is equal to the loss of more 
than ei|ht days annually of every soldier in the service." Dr. Balfour in his Medical, Sanitary, and 
Statistical Report of the Army Medical Department for 1860. relates that " more than one-third of all 
the admissions into hospital have been on account of venereal diseases (369 per 1000). and the average 
number constantly in hospital is equal to 23.69 per 1000 of strength (2,315 men), each remaining in hoi- 
pital on an average 231/6 days. Thus the inefficiency is constantly equal to about 2^ regiments." In 
1861, these diseases caused a loss equal to 8.69 days for every soldier serving at home, there being a 
daily inefficiency of 2,077 men ; and the numbers are nearly the same for the succeeding years. The 
daily loss of service in the navy, in 1862. was about that of 586 men per day. How far these data 
apply to our civil population, it is hard to say; but it is much to be feared they apply pretty closely. 
"It is a question, says Dr. Parkes, " whether a large majority of the young men or the upper and 
middle class do not suffer in youth from some form of venereal disease. Ill the lower classes, it is 
perhaps equally common." Practical Hygiene, p. 453. For a comparison between the amount of 
venereal disease in our own and other armies, the reader may consult the same work, pp. 502, 503. 


constitutional symptoms known as secondary symptoms, and requires, both in its primary 
and secondary forms, mercurial treatment. (2) The suppurating chancre usually begins 
as an abrasion, which when fully developed, often presents the same appearance as if a 
piece of skin had been removed by a circular punch. The sore is covered with ill 
formed granulations, and extending equally in all directions, maintains its circular 
form. After continuing three or four weeks, it generally heals, without leaving the 
hardness which is so characteristic of the Hunterian, infecting or indurated sore. An 
other important diagnostic difference is furnished by the mycroscopico-chemical exam- 
ination of the fluid secreted by the sore. In this suppurating sore the secretion consists 
of pus, which, on the addition of acetic acid, exhibits the characteristic compound 
nuclei; while in the infecting sore the secretion resembles turbid serum, presenting none 
of the characters of the pus. It does not give rise to bubo, nor is it followed by second- 
ary symptoms. (3) The ulcerative chancre is a ragged worm-eaten ulcsration ; secreting 
an ill-formed pus, and presenting an irritable surface. Soon after the appearance of 
this sore, one of the glands of the groin will become enlarged and painful. This may 
be preceded by a shivering fit, more or less marked. The enlarged gland or bubo 
becomes very tender to pressure, and as the swelling increases, the skin becomes red, 
especially at the center, and the general symptoms of suppuration present themselves. 
Great relief is afforded by the discharge of the pus. It is never followed by secondary 
symptoms, and, like the preceding form, requires only local treatment. (4) The sl&ugh- 
ing chancre is fortunately rare in this country, but in many foreign ports, in warm and 
hot countries, this form of syphilis commits great ravages among our sailors, who have 
given to it certain characteristic names, such as the black pox, the black lion, etc. It 
does not affect the inguinal glands, and is not followed by constitutional symptoms, and 
requires only local treatment. 

Before noticing the constitutional or secondary symptoms which follow the Hunterian 
or infecting sore, we shall very briefly describe the treatment required for the last three 
forms, in which no constitutional symptoms occur. A suppurating sore should at once 
be thoroughly cauterized, so as to destroy all the tissues which have imbibed the poison. 
To secure this result, strong caustics are desirable ; and as they sometimes extend further 
than is desired, an antidote should be at hand, which not only checks the further exten- 
sion of the caustic, but deadens the pain. The agents most used in these cases are caus- 
tics and the mineral acids, and the potasm cum calce, a combination of potash and lime, 
which is prepared in the form of small rods for this purpose. The last of these is on 
the whole the best, as the extent to which it acts may be accurately regulated. When 
the action is sufficient, the application of a dilute acid will relieve the pain. Nitrate of 
silver, which is often employed, is not sufficiently energetic in its action to eradicate the 
disease. In the ulcerative sore, which is often irritable and painful, opium is useful 
both locally and internally. In other respects, the same treatment must be adopted as 
in the preceding variety. As the various means that have been suggested for prevent- 
ing the suppuration of the bubo, which always accompanies this sore, are of no avail, it 
is useless to mention them. If, after the bubo has burst, the remains of an indolent, 
enlarged gland, incapable of forming healthy granulations, are left, caustic must be 
applied, so as to cause them to slough away. In sloughing sores, the great object is to 
check the destructive process; for which purpose, fomentations and poultices are applied 
locally, and large and repeated doses of opium are given internally. The nitric acid 
lotion, or a solution of potassio-tartrate of iron (10 grains to an ounce of water), is often 
an efficient local application in these cases. 

We now return to the consideration of the Hunterian or indurated chancre, the only 
variety of venereal sore that gives rise to secondary or constitutional symptoms. If the 
patient seeks medical assistance as soon as he perceives the sore, it is possible that the 
application of a caustic will destroy the poison, and prevent any constitutional symp- 
toms. If, however, four days or more elapse before treatment commences, the best 
local application is some form of mercury, as mercurial ointment spread on lint, or the 
application of black wash (see LOTIOSS) steeped in the same material. When the poison 
has once entered the circulation, and become diffused throughout the body, it is desira- 
ble to neutralize it, if possible, before the appearance of any secondary symptoms. A 
very large number of drugs have at different times possessed an anti-syphilitic reputa- 
tion, and a few are doubtless useful; as, for example, iodide of potassium " There is 
one medicine alone, " says Mr. Henry Lee, one of the highest British authorities on the 
subject, "which, through good report and evil report, in spite of the strongest preju- 
dices of some against its use, and the no less adverse influence of others, who have 
employed it to an unjustifiable extent, has maintained its general reputation." Op. cit., 
p. 418. In these remarks on the value of mercury (if judiciously given) we fully con- 
cur; but the mercurialists and non-mercurialists are almost equally divided. It may be 
given internally in pills or in solution; or it may be introduced into the system through 
the skin, in the form of ointment; or lastly, it may be employed in the form of vapor, 
and thus applied to the skin. Of these three methods, none is equal to mercurial fumi- 
gation by calomel vapor, either in the readiness with which it removes the symptoms, 
or the slight disturbance it excites in the constitution, or in its certainty in preventing 
relapse This process is a very simple one. A piece of brick must be heated to a dull 
red heat, and placed in a pan having a little water at the bottom. A quantity of calo- 

mel, varying from 10 to 20 grains, is placed on the top of the brick ; and the patient them 
sits over the pan in a cane-bottomed chair, enveloped from his neck downward in a large 
blanket.* The operation is best performed at bedtime; it is complete in a quarter of an 
hour; and when the patient is sufficiently cool to put on his night-shirt, he should go to 
bed without disturbing the calomel on the surface of the skin. It is almost impossible 
to produce salivation by this -means of administering mercury; and all that is requisite 
is to produce a slight tenderness of the gums. The system must be kept under this 
gentle influence of the mercury till the induration in the primary sore has disappeared. 
At a period usually varying from one to two months after the first appearance of the 
induration (which is regarded by some writers as the first of the secondary symptoms), 
slight febrile symptoms, usually followed by an exanthematous eruption of the skin, 
often accompanied by sore throat, will occur. This eruption is a variety of roseola; it is of 
a rose-red color, which disappears on pressure, and is not raised above the surface. It gener- 
ally disappears in a few (lays, but if it persist, it will gradually change to a copper color, 
which is characteristic of all syphilitic eruptions which remain for a considerable time 
without suppurating or ulcerating. The syphilitic eruptions which usually follow this- 
primary rash may assume the varied forms of lichen, syphilitic tubercle, lepra, and pso- 
riasis; and the best mode of treating them is by applying local mercurial fumigation, 
and at the same time giving iodide of potassium (in rive-grain doses thrice a day) inter- 
nally. Occasionally, in persons with impaired constitutions, syphilitic eruptions assume 
a pustular character. For a description of these eruptions, we must refer to Cazenave's 
Manual of Diseases of the Skin, translated by Burgess. Similarly, there are cases in 
which, from some constitutional peculiarity, or, as Mr. Lee suggests, from some want 
of power in carrying out the natural processes of the disease, the syphilitic eruption may 
be accompanied by an effusion of serum only; or, in other words, may be of the vesicu- 
lar type. Thus, we hear of syphilitic herpes, syphilitic eczema, etc. These forms must 
be treated as the others. 

Among the secondary syphilitic diseases of the mucous membrane, may be espe- 
cially noticed (1) mucous tubercles, (2) deep ulcer of the tonsils, and (3) syphilitic laryn- 
gitis. Mucous tubercles appear as small tense eminences inside the cheeks, on the arches 
of the palate, on the lips, on the generative organs, and on the rectum. A solution of 
corrosive sublimate applied locally (one or two grains to the ounce of water), or calomel, 
proves an effective local application. Deep ulcer of the tonsils is best treated by corrosive 
sublimate given internally, in doses of A of a grain three times a day, in compound 
tincture of bark and water; and also used as gargle (in the proportion of 2 grains to a 
mixture of Tounces of water and 1 of honey. Syphilitic ulceration of the larynx, commonly 
known as syphilitic laryngitis, is characterized by pain or tenderness in the region of the 
thyroid cartilage (see LARYNX), huskiness of the voice, a hacking cough from attempts, 
to expectorate, with occasional expulsion of purulent matter mixed with blood. If the 
disease is not checked, enervation, night-sweats, and dangerous exhaustion, ensue, and 
life is often terminated by suffocation. 

In noticing the secondary symptoms, syphilitic iritis must not be overlooked; its 
symptoms and treatment are described in the article IKITIS. 

Our limited space precludes more than a very brief allusion to the more important 
tertiary syphilitic affections. The most important of these are those which attack the 
bones and their coverings. They maybe included under the heads of acute and chronic 
periostitis (the latter being ver} r common), nodes and exostosis, inflammation of bone, 
caries, and necrosis; next to these are tertiary affections of the skin and mucous mem- 
brane, which consist mainly of intractable ulcerations attacking the face (especially the 
nose and lips), nails, ears, and mucous membranes of the various openings of the body; 
and diseases of the glands. In many of these cases a modified form of mercurial fumi- 
gntion is most useful; but if mercury, even in this form, is thought inexpedient, in con- 
sequence of the general debility of the system, iodide of potassium, combined with any 
of the preparations of sarsaparilla, may be employed. Bark, iron, and the mineral acids 
are also of service in restoring the strength; and opium, by relieving the nocturnal pains 
which are so frequently present, will also prove most useful. The reader who wishes to 
pursue this subject further may be referred to Aitken's Science and Practice of Medicine, 
in which he will find an account of the tertiary syphilitic affections of the nails, heart, 
brain, lungs, liver, and tongue. 

The SYPHILIS OF CHILDREN is a subject which must not be omitted in an article on 
this disease. If the constitution of either the father or mother of an infant is saturated 
with the syphilitic poison, the child may be born with certain symptoms indicating that 
it is suffering from congenital syphilis. Moreover, the child of a mother having a primary 
sore, but no constitutional symptoms, may be inoculated with syphilis during the act 
of delivery; or the disease may be communicated in vaccination (if the matter be derived 
from an impure source); or by contact with syphilitic sores on the persons of wet-nurses 
or others.- All these cases are included in the infantile variety of the disease. One of 
the most striking symptoms of true congenital syphilis is that which is popularly known 

* A simple apparatus for mercurial fumigation, consisting of a kind of tin case containing a spirit- 
lamp, may be procured from Messrs. Savigny & Co., St. James's street, by those who object to rougk 
bricks and coarse pans. A special fumigating cloak, in place of the blanket, is sold with the apparatus. 


the muffles, in which a discharge collects in the nose, and sometimes blocks it up so 
completely that the infant is unable to suck for any length of time. The skin presents 
an eruption of spots, which are usually somewhat coppery, but sometimes of a rose-red 
tint; while on the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands the cuticle scales off, and 
an appearance like that of psoriasis is presented; and flat mucous tubercles occur at the 
parts where the skin and mucous membrane merge into one another. White ulcers of 
a crescentic form often occur in the mouth; and with these symptoms there is nearly 
always observed " the wizened and shrunken look, the anxious expression, and the dirty 
hue of the skin (a kind of dirty greenish yellow), which imparts to the infant a peculiarly 
repulsive aspect of old age." Holmes, "On the Surgical Diseases of Childhood;" op. 
tit., vol. iv. p. 830. Congenital syphilis frequently causes the death of the fetus at about 
the fourth or fifth month; and if a woman is repeatedly delivered of dead children from 
the fourth to the seventh mouth, the practitioner may fairly conclude that a syphilitic 
taint is probably present. In other cases the child is born alive with the "snuffling" and 
eruption; but, in the majority of cases, the infant when born is apparently healthy, and 
the disease does not show itself till about six weeks after birth. 

When congenital syphilis is diagnosed with certainty the medical attendant has a 
very important duty to perform, from which he must not shrink from any feelings of 
-delicacy. He must discover which of the parents is affected, and must prohibit further 
cohabitation until the secondary symptoms have been completely removed by the treat- 
ment which has already been described. " Neglect of this precaution," says Mr. Holmes, 
in his excellent memoir on congenital syphilis (contained in the 4th vol. of his System of 
Surgery), "may not only entail on the couple the misery of a family of deformed, puny, 
and ailing children, but to the woman at least is fraught with grave personal danger. 
Whatever may be the case among the poor, there is no doubt that, in the better classes, 
congenital syphilis is usually derived from the father, the mother being unaffected 
except through the fetus." There is scarcely a doubt that a woman carrying a syphilitic 
fetus may become thus infected with secondary syphilis by the exchange of fetal and 
maternal blood in the placenta; and this explains how it is that women who have never 
had the primary infecting sore occasionally show all the symptoms of secondary syphilis 
after living for some years with husbands similarly affected. 

Allusion has already been made to the fact that infantile (not congenital) syphilis may 
be communicated by vaccination. There is undoubted evidence that in the year 1861, 
in a thinly populated district of Piedmont, in which sj-philis is virtually unknown, 46 
children of various ages were simultaneously attacked with syphilis proceeding from 
chancres in the arm, and followed by buboes (enlarged glands) in the armpits: and that 
all these children had been vaccinated directly or indirectly from a single child, who was 
subsequently proved to have contracted syphilis from a wet-nurse; and further, that 
these children transmitted the same disease to a number of women, their wet-nurses, 
mothers, etc., and even to children who nursed and played with them; that the women 
so infected communicated the disease to their husbands; and finally, that the disease 
yielded in all cases to the ordinary treatment adopted in syphilis. This, as Mr. Holmes 
observes, is by far the most convincing instance of the propagation of syphilis by vacci- 
nation; but several others are recorded by Mr. Lee (Lectures on Syphilitic Inoculation, 
1-63) and other writers. 

Cases in which the nipple of the wet-nurse has been infected by a syphilitic infant 
are by no means rare, and have in various instances given rise to litigation. 

Congenital syphilis and infantile syphilis generally must be treated with mercury 
either in the form of inunction, by keeping a flannel band, smeared twice a day with 
mercurial ointment, in constant contact Avith the thigh or arm for about six weeks; or 
internally, by the careful use of gray powder (hydrarg. c. cretd). in doses of a grain and 
half or two grains, twice a day; combined with a little compound chalk-powder, if any 
irritation of the bowels occurs. The snuffles will be relieved by syringing the nostrils 
with lukewarm water, and then introducing a couple of drops of almond or olive oil. 

In a foot-note to an early paragraph of this article, we gave abundant evidence of 
the appalling prevalence of this disease. In his valuable treatise on Practical Hygiene, 
Dr. Parkes discusses the question of the prevention of this disease among soldiers; as, 
however, his remarks for the most part are applicable to other classes, we shall briefly 
notice them. The means of prevention which he discusses are; 1. Continence, which is 
promoted by (a) the cultivation of a religious feeling and of pure thought and conver- 
sation ; (b) the removal from temptation and occasions to sin ; (c) constant and agreeable 
employment, bodily and mentally; and ((/) temperance. 2. Early marriage. At present 
only 6 per cent of our soldiers are allowed to marry. 8. Precautions after the risk of 
contagion. In some French towns the use of lotions and washing is vigorously enforced, 
with the effect of lessening disease considerably. 4. Cure of the disease in those affected 
by it. Health-inspection, in special reference to venereal diseases, are made weekly in 
our army by the surgeon or assistant-surgeon; and although similar inspections of all 
recognized prostitutes have long been made by legal authority in many parts of the 
continent, no attempt at legal interference with the disease in women was made in this 
country till 1864, when the '.'contagious diseases bill "was passed, by which, in the 
neighborhood of certain places (Portsmouth, Plymouth, Woolwich, ChatJiam, bheerness, 
and Aldershot), prostitutes who are found diseased may be taken to an hospital, and 

ByphilUatloB. 1 Z.A 


there detained till cured. A committee appointed a few years ago by government to 
report upon the best means of checking the disease in the army and navy, in Feb. 1866 
issued their recommendations; the most important of which are (1) the periodic inspec- 
tion of all known prostitutes in the garrison towns placed under the provisions of the 
act of 1864; (2) the appointment of a surgeon vested with the necessary powers; (3) 
punishment for infringement of the act; (4) the extension of its operation to all garrison 
and seaport towns used by troops or ships: (5) the prohibition of the residence of public 
women in beer-shops ; (6) that the Lock hospitals be placed under government control . 
and lastly, that the police supervision of the women in the streets of such towns be more 
stringent. The evidence taken by this committee unquestionably proved that the work- 
ing of the act of 1864 was decidedly useful, although its application was so limited. 
For an account of the various plans which are adopted on the continent for the preven- 
tion of this disease such as the registration of brothels and of prostitutes, and the 
enforcement of periodic examinations at short intervals the reader is referred to the 
various works of Parent-Duchatelet, Acton, Sanger, and others on prostitution; and to 
two articles on the same subject by Dr. Holland (of Cork) in the British and Foreign 
Medico- Chirurgical Review for 1852. 

Without entering into any prolonged details regarding therhistory of this disease, we 
may briefly mention that, toward the close of the 15th c. , a great epidemic of syphilis 
pervaded Europe, and that it was supposed to have been imported from the new world ; 
and that, in the 16th c., syphilis was recognized as the result of a specific virus. During 
last century the history of this disease is divisible into three distinct periods, in each of 
which very different views have been prevalent. These may be described as 1. 
The period and doctrine of Hunter, who believed that the various forms of syphilis,and 
gonorrhea depend upon one and the same poison a view taught by Carmichael in Dublin, 
Cazenave in Paris, and others. 2. The period and doctrine of Ricord, who proved that 
gonorrhea was quite different from syphilis, and that inoculation with gonorrheal matter 
will not cause a chancer; and that there are two classes of chancers, the soft and hard, 
originating from the same source. 3. The present period, commencing in 1856, in which 
it is held that, exclusive of gonorrhea, there are two forms of the syphilitic poison. It- 
has been judiciously advised by Mr. Longmore, the professor of military surgery in the 
army medical school, that in accordance with our present knowledge of this disease, the 
term syphilis or syphilitic should be restricted to such cases as are believed to be of a 
specific infecting kind, while the term local venereal sore or venereal ulceration should 
be applied to those cases which require merely local treatment, and are not followed by 
constitutional symptoms. 

SYPHILIZA'TION is the term used to designate an operation which has the double 
object of eradicating syphilis already existing in the system, and of securing permanent 
immunity from any future attacks, by means of repeated inoculations of syphilitic 
poison. As long ago as the year 1844, a French physician, Auzias Turenne, undertook 
a number of experiments, with the view of testing whether John Hunter's view, that 
syphilis could not be communicated to the lower animals, was correct. After some 
failures he succeeding in producing venereal sores (chancers) in monkeys by inoculating 
them with the human virus; and he found that rabbits, cats, and horses might be 
similarly infected from the chancers of the monkey. He likewise found that the 
chancers produced by inoculation became less and less in each animal, until a period at 
length arrived at which the poison seemed to have lost all its power, and no further 
sores could be produced; and he was thus led to believe that by prolonged inoculation 
the system became protected. The subject was next taken up by Sperino of Turin, 
who inoculated patients suffering from syphilis by virus from a chancer, and repeated 
the inoculation once or twice a week, till the poison as in the case of Turenne's 
animals ceased to produce any effect ; and when this point was reached, all the other 
sores had healed. In 1851 prof. Boeck of Christiania, when traveling through Italy, 
had his attention drawn to the doctrine of syphilization ; and from that time to the 
present, he has devoted himself unremittingly to it, and is now the great authority on 
the subject. In 1858 Boeck, in consequence of the results he had attained from the 
practice of syphilization in cases where no mercurial treatment had been prescribed, 
alleged that syphilization might in such cases be regarded as a complete and certain 
cure. In cases where mercurial izat ion has been practiced, the use of iodine has to be 
persisted in during syphilization. During the summer of 1865 Dr. Boeck visited London, 
and took active steps to make his views on this subject accurately known in this country,, 
and the surgeons of the Lock hospital submitted a series of cases to his mode of treat- 
ment; and Mr. James Lane, one of the surgeons to that institution, asserted in 1866 that 
"hitherto, as far as he had seen, it had effected everything which had been promised 
for it! The progress of the cases in the Lock hospital had in almost every detail corre- 
sponded to the predictions of prof. Boeck respecting them. In several of those who had 
been longest under treatment, immunity from inoculation with primary syphilitic matter 
had been arrived at." The progress of syphilization as a remedy for syphilis and as a 
proof against syphilitic infection, has not been well marked in this country. Most 
surgeons are agreed as to the correctness of prof. Boeck's views, but the practice itself 
k offensire, and the length of time necessary for its being effectively carried out forms 

1 = K gyphllltl(m. 


n objection to its practice. In Sperino's experiments, the treatment extended from 9 
to 20 months or more. The prac'tice has been much in vogue in Christinia under Boeck 
and his colleague M. Bideukap; but it is unlikely to command attention other than of 
scientific kind, and as tending to acquaint us with the history of syphilis and with th 
nature of syphilitic infection. 

ST'BA (anc. Syros), the most important, though not the largest member of that group 
of islands in the JEgean sea known as the Cyclades (see GREECE), lies 13 m. s. of Audros. 
It is about 10 m. long by 5 broad, bare, hilly, and not very fertile. The products are 
wine, tobacco, grain, citrons, figs, honey, and vegetables; but the greater portion even 
of the common necessaries of life have to be imported from Greece and foreign countries. 
Its prosperity is of quite modern growth. During the war of independence, Syra 
remained neutral, and, in consequence, numerous fugitives flocked thither from other 
parts of Greece, especially from Chips and Psara, who, besides adding largely to the 
population, brought with them a spirit of political activity and commercial enterprise, 
the beneficial effects of which are now strikingly visible. Pop. 30,643. The capital, 
Syra or Herrnopolis, is situated on a bay on the e. side of the island. It rises terrace-wise 
from the shore, is well built, and is the seat of government for the Cyclades, and the 
residence of foreign consuls. It has numerous educational institutions, 4 printing- 
presses, and 3 weekly newspapers. Syra has become the great commercial entrepot of 
the ^Egean. Nearly one-half of all the imports of Greece reach it through this port. It 
buildsmore ships than any other town in the Levant, and owns one-third of all the Greek 
merchantmen. It has likewise regular steam communication with all the principle 
trading-towns in the Levant. Pop. of the town of Syra, '71, 20,996. 

Ancient notices of Syra are scanty. Homer praises it in the Odyssey as " rich in 
pastures, in herds, in wine, in wheat;" but it has no history. 

SYR ACUSE, anciently the most famous and powerful city of Sicily, situated on the 
south-eastern coast of the island, dO m. s.s.w. of Messina, was founded by a body of 
Corinthian settlers under Archias, one of the Bacchiadse, 734 B.C. The original colonists 
seem at first to have occupied nothing more than the little isle of Ortygia, about 1 m. 
long, and half a mile broad, which lies near the shore. It rapidly rose to prosperity, and 
was enabled to establish sub-colonies of its own: Acrae (664 B.C.), Casmense (644 B.C.), 
and Camarina (599 B.C.). Nothing definite is known of the early political state of Syra; 
but before 486 the political power had passed into the hands of a few leading families, 
or perhaps clans, who constituted an oligarchy, while the great body of the citizens 
formed a malcontent democracy. In that year a revolution took place. The oligarchic 
families G-eomori or G-amori, "landowners;" probably the descendants of the original 
colonists, like the patrician gentes of Rome were expelled, and the sovereign power was 
transferred to the citizens at large. Before a year passed, however, Gelon (q.v.), "despot" 
of Gela, had restored the exiles, and at the same time made himself master of Syracuse. 
He was a great ruler, and under him the city increased in size and wealth. It is believed 
to have been in Gelon's time that the adjoining mainland was first built upon. The 
locality of the new settlers was the slopes and heights of Achradina, or the "outer city," 
a triangular table-land n. of the island of Ortygia, and subsequently connected with it by 
a mole. It ultimately became the most extensive and populous quarter of Syracuse 
contained the agora, a temple of Zeus Olympios, the Prytaneum, with a splendid statue 
of Sappho, the fine monuments to Timoleon and the elder Dionysius (q.v.), etc. It may 
be convenient to mention here the other two quarters of the city, especially as the date 
of their settlement is not known. These were Tyche so called, according to Cicero, 
from an ancient temple of " fortune" erected there occupying a plateau to the w. of 
Achradina; and Neapolis (new city), stretching along the southern slopes of the plateau, 
and overlooking the marshes of the Anapus and the "great harbor," a spacious and well 
sheltered bay, about 5 m. in circumference. Neapolis became one of the finest parts of 
Syracuse. Here were situated the theater, ampitheater, and numerous temples, of which 
hardly a relic remains, except of the first mentioned. Ortygia contained the castle or 
citadel which immediately fronted the mainland, and overlooked the docks or navalia in 
the " lesser harbor. " 

Reverting to the history of Syracuse, which we must touch upon only in the most 
cursory manner, a noticeable characteristic of the reign of Hiero (q.v.), the successor of 
Gelon, is his cultivation of the fine arts, and his liberal patronage of men of genius, as 
^Eschylus, Pindar, etc. In 466 B.C., the democracy again got the the upper hand 
Thrasybulus, a "tyrant" of the baser sort, being expelled; and for sixty years a free and 
popular government was enjoyed, under which Syracuse flourished more than it had 
ever done. During this period occurred its great struggle with Athens (415-14 B.C.), 
in which it came off victorious, and its renown at once spread over the whole Greek 
world. But a new power appeared on the stage the Carthaginian, whose conquests in 
Sicily, toward the close of the 5th c., threatened the supremacy of Syracuse. Mean- 
while, Dionysius (q.v.) restored the "tyranny" of Gelon, and during a reign of 38 years 
greatly increased the strength and importance of the city. It was he who constructed 
the docks in the greater and lesser harbors, and surrounded the city with fortifications. 
His fierce and victorious war with Carthage (397 B.C.) raised the renown of Syracuse 
still higher. The reigns of the younger Diouysius (q.v.) and of Dion were unsettled; but 

Syracuse. 1 Kf> 


after the restoration of public liberty by Timoleon (344 B.C.), a brief season of tran- 
quillity ensued, during which the prosperity of the city- rapidly revived. Under Agath- 
ocles, however, the despotic form of government was again established (317 B.C.), and 
continued, with scarcely an interruption, down to the conquest of the city by the 
Romans (212 B.C.) during theHannibalicwar the ruler of Syracuse, Hieronymus, a rash 
and vain young man, having abandoned the prudent policy of his grandfather, Hiero 
(q.v.), broken the alliance with Rome, and joined the Carthaginians. 

Under the Romans, Syracuse slowly but surely declined, though it always continued 
to be the capital and first city of Sicily. Captured, pillaged, and burned by the Sara- 
cens (878 A.D.), it sunk into complete decay, and is at present confined to its original 
limits, Ortygia, which, however, is no longer an island, but a peninsula. Pop. '72, 
22,179. The streets of the modern town are, with few exceptions, narrow and dirty. 
Syracuse has a cathedral, a museum of classical antiquities discovered in Syracuse and 
the neighborhood, a public library, with some curious MSS. , numerous churches, mon- 
asteries, and nunneries, .and carries on a trade chiefly with Malta in wine, oil, salt, and 
salt fish. It has several remains of ancient and medieval edifices, which are much visited 
by travelers. 

SYRACUSE, a province in e. Sicily, on the coast; drained by the Abisso, Anapo, 
and Ragusa rivers; about 1400 sq.m. ; pop. '72, 294,885. The surface is mountainous 
except in the south. Along the sea-coast and in the river valleys the soil is fertile, and 
adapted to pasturage. Agates and marbles are found. The principal agricultural pro- 
ductions are corn, barley, hemp, flax, wines, and olives. It comprises 3 districts, Syra- 
cuse, Modica, and Noto. Capital, Syracuse. 

SYRACUSE, a city of Central New York, at the head of Onondaga lake, on the Erie canal, 
and at the junction of the New York Central and Oswego railways, 148 m. w. by. n. of 
Albany. From its central position it is called the city of conventions. It contains a 
handsome court-house, state arsenal, state asylum for idiots, 41 churches, 3 daily and 11 
weekly newspapers, 13 banks, schools, and libraries. Here are the largest salt-works in 
America (producing in 1874, 6,029,300 bushels of salt), 5 iron-furnaces, 14 machine- 
shops, manufactories of silver, tinware, sheet-iron, coach and wagon factories, and 
breweries. Pop. '75, 49,808. 

SYRACUSE (ante), a city and county-seat of Onondaga co., N. Y. ; pop. '80, 51,791. 
Its public buildings, include the court-house, banks, and churches; it is well laid out, 
and the Syracuse university and Oakwood cemetery are objects of interest to visitors. 
Its principal industry is the manufacture of salt, w r hich has existed from the first dis- 
covery of the springs by the Jesuits in 1654. In 1797 these were taken possession of by 
the state, and laws passed for the conduct of the manufacture. Twenty salt companies 
now pursue this industry, having invested in it a large capital, and employing many 
operatives. From 1797 to 1806, inclusive, the quantity manufactured was 78,000 bushels; 
1807 to 1816, 267,000; 1827 to 1836, 1,594,000; 1837 to 1846, 3,058,000; 1847 to 1856, 
5,083.000. The salt-springs are on the shore of the lake, near the city, and are reached 
by horse-cars. The entire product of all the manufactures of Syracuse was valued in 
1874 at about $14,000,000. The most important include Bessemer steel works, rolling- 
mills, blast furnace, foundries, and boiler-works, railroad journal-boxes, fruit-canning, 
musical instruments, etc. 

SYRIA. (Arab. E'sham, Turk. Soristari), a division of Asiatic Turkey, bounded on the 
n. by portions of Asia Minor, on the w. by the Levant, and on the s. by Arabia Petraea; 
on the e. and s.e. its boundary is rendered indefinite, in great part, by the sands of the 
desert, but at length becomes fixed by the course of the Euphrates. It is divided into 
several governments, which frequently change their limits. They are usually named 
after the principal towns Aleppo, Damascus, and Beyrout. The area is about 146,000 
sq.m. ; pop. about 2,250,000. The whole region is traversed by a double mountain-chain 
of which Lebanon (q.v) forms the highest part touching in its northern extremities the 
Alma Dagh (anc. Mom Amanus), and in its southern forming the Sinaitic range. The 
central part of this mountain system, which in many places exhibits the characteristics 
of a plateau, presents on the w. a steep front toward the Mediteranean, but on the e. 
rolls gradually away into the level uplands of the Syrian wilderness. The most notice- 
able features of the long furrow between the double ridge, beginning at its southern end, 
the gulf of Akaba, are the waterless wady of Arabah, the narrow, deep-sunken region 
known as El Ghur, through which the river Jordan flows, cud which embraces the Dead 
sea and the sea of Galilee, and the vale of Coele-Syria(q.v.), and its great continuation 
northward, watered by the Nahr el-Asy (anc. Orontes). The western ridge is broken 
through in three places : in the n. by the lower Orontes ; in the middle near Tripolis 
where the chain of Lebanon properly terminates and further s., near Tyre, by the 
Leontes. South of Tyre it recommences in the hill country of western Palestine (q.v.), 
which finally passes into the desert plateau of El Tyh, in the Sinaitic peninsula. The 
eastern ridge is less sharply defined, its most conspicuous elevations being Anti-Libanos, 
the mountains of Moab (east of the Dead sea), and Mount Seir, overlooking the 
wady Arabah. The principal rivers are the Orontes (q.v.), the Leontes, the Jordan (q.v.), 
the Barada or Abana, the river of Damascus. The only lakes worth mentioning are the 
"Oead sea (q.v.) and the sea of Galilee. 


Although Syria belongs to the countries comprised within the Asiatic rain-zone, yet 
in general the climate is excessively dry and hot, differing little from that of Arabia. 
Drought and scantiness of vegetation characterize almost equally the uplands and the 
valleys. Only where the mountains are lofty, the streams abundant, and the atmos- 
phere somewhat maritime, as in the terraced slopes of Lebanon, do we find some ap- 
proach to tropical luxuriance in flower, and fruit, and tree. Forests of evergreen, beau- 
tiful grassy pastures, and meadow-tracts are found there; and wheat, maize, rice, etc., 
are largely produced. The cultivation of the vine, the cotton tree, the mulberry, and 
also the finer sorts of fruits, as the olive and fig, is considerable, while indigo and sugar- 
cane are raised in the valleys of the Jordan and the region round about the Dead sea. 
The fauna of Syria, like its climate and vegetation, is similar to that of Arabia. The 
camel is of almost as much importance as further s., and the Syrian deserts, particu- 
larly toward the n., are the home of gazelles, hyenas, jackals, bears, buffaloes, and 
other wild animals. 

The greater part of the Syrian mountains is limestone ; mountain limestone in Le- 
banon, chalk in Anti Lebanon, and Jura limestone in Palestine. In the last of these 
volcanic formations occur, especially in the region of the Jordan and the Dead sea, 
where hot springs, beds of bitumen and sulphur, the shapes of the hills, and the fre- 
quent earthquakes afford unmistakable evidence of volcanic activity. Salt is the only 
mineral of much consequence, and is exported in considerable quantities; coal, how- 
ever, is worked near Beyroot. Sheep, goats with hangingears and silky hair, cattle, mules, 
and asses form, as in ancient times, a great part of the wealth of the inhabitants. 

Silk is the chief article of manufacture at Aleppo, Beyroot, Damascus, etc. but cot- 
ton and woolen fabrics, gold and silver thread-stuffs, glass, earthenware, leather, soap, 
etc. , are also manufactured in different parts of the country. The want of roads is a 
great hindrance to industrial activity. The first carriage-road was opened in 1863, be- 
tween Beyroot and Damascus. The other roads, with the exception of one or two short 
carriage-ways in mount Lebanon, are mere mule and camel tracks. In 1871 Syria 
exported grains, seeds, cotton, galls, wool, etc., to the value of 717,404; and imported 
cottons, woolens, copper, tin, iron, coals, indigo, pepper, coffee, etc., to the value of 

The religious sects of Syria are numerous. Most of the people are Mohammedans, 
but .Christians of the Greek church number 180,000; Maronites (q.v.) and Roman Catho- 
lics, 310,000; Jews, 40,000; Druses (q.v.), 90,000; lesser sects, about 30,000. The in- 
habitants are in some sense a mixed people, for the country has experienced many politi- 
cal vicissitudes, but by far the greatest number, whether Christians or Mohammedans, 
are of Shemitic origin, either Pheniciau, AramaBan, or Arabic. Their Turkish rulers, 
however, and such Turkomans and Kurds as we find settled in the n. of Syria, belong 
to the Turanian race. Arabic is everywhere spoken, and may be considered the national 
language, since the old Syriac or Aramaic tongue is wholly dead, except among the Nee- 
toriaus of Kurdistan. 

The history of Syria stretches far back into remote antiquity. In the time of Abra- 
ham (2,000 B.C.) Damascus was a city; in the oldest literature of Greece Sidon figures as 
the capital of a rich, populous, and civilized state; and in the Hebrew Scriptures, 
Canaan or Palestine is crowded with towns at the period of its conquest by Joshua; but, 
like most other so-called nations in early times, Syria did not form a single state; it was 
rather a cpngeries of independent states whose inhabitants belonged to the same race. 
Every important city had its king, whose normal occupation was fighting with his 
neighbors. Under David and Solomon something like political unity was achieved; yet 
it does not appear that these great rulers dispossessed of their territories the princes whom 
they subdued, but only made them tributary, and after their death things reverted to 
their previous condition. Rezin, a slave, then made himself master of Damascus, and 
extended the Damascene monarchy over all northern and central Syria; but the conquests 
of Tiglath-Pileser resulted in its becoming a province of the Assyrian empire. Sub- 
sequently the whole land, including Palestine, became part of the successive empires of 
Babylonia, Media, Persia, and Macedonia, Then followed the dynasty of the Seleu- 
cidaB (q.v.). After their fall Syria passed into the hands of the Romans, who retained 
it, though not continuously for on several occasions the Persian Sassanidaa (q.v.) man- 
aged to wrest it from them until the Arab conquest (7th c. A.D.). During the crusades 
(q.v.) of the middle ages several Christian principalities were established here, but en- 
dured only for a short period. Syria now became a possession of the sultans of Egypt, 
in whose time it was frightfully devastated by the Mongols. In the 16th c. it was con 
quered by the Turks, and has ever since formed part of the Turkish empire. 

SYRIAC. I. The language is a dialect of the Aramean, anciently spoken through 
out Syria, the form preserved in literature being probably that of Edessa. After the 
Mohammedan conquest, 636 A.D., it was gradually displaced by the Arabic; and since 
the 13th c. it has been used only as an ecclesiastical language in the Syrian churches, 
and spoken corruptly in a few districts of mount Lebanon and on lake Oroomiah. This 
last has by the labors of the American missionaries been made a written language. The 
Syrian alphabet contains 22 letters, all consonants, read from right to left, and 5 vowels 
denoted by diacritical points. In grammar it shares the Aramaic peculiarities; its 

. 158 

vocabulary contains Persian, Greek, Latin, Arabic, Tartar, and even French and Eng- 
lish words traces of the nations that have ruled Syria. II. The literature corresponding 
to the condition of the country which was continually subject to foreign dominion 
has no freshness, is made up of translations, and largely on religious subjects. It may be 
divided into three periods : I. Before the Mohammedan conquest, 636. Syriac was then a 
spoken language, and the universities of Edessa and Nisibis were famous through the 
ast. It produced the Peshito (i.e. the simple) version of the Bible, the oldest Syriac 
book extant, and accepted among all parties in the Syrian church. The Old Testament 
version was made by Christian translators directly from the Hebrew, and the New was 
made at Edessa in the 3d c., or the beginning of the 8d. II. 613-1318 was the period of 
decay ; at the beginning Syriac and Arabic were both spoken, and at the end both were 
used in books. III. From 1318 to the present time. Arabic is the spoken language; and 
Syriac is cultivated only as an ecclesiastical language, and chiefly in the Maronite college 
at Rome. 

SYBIAC VEKSIONS. Apart from the Peshito (q.v.), there were other Syriac versions 
-of the Old Testament current among the Syrian Christians, although they did not acquire 
canonicity among them. These were chiefly translated from the LXX., and the best 
known among them is one drawn up from the text of the Hexapla (q.v. ; compare also 
ORIGEN), which it follows most slavishly, without any regard for Syriac idiom or gram- 
mar. It contains the critical marks of Origen, and is moreover furnished with numerous 
variants, fragments from other Greek versions, and exegetical scholia. Bishop Paulus 
of Tela is supposed to have composed it at the instigation of bishop Athanasius, 617 A.D. 
There are now only a few (imperfect) MSS. extant of it one in Paris, one in the Ambro- 
siau library (a third, once in the possession of T. Masius, has disappeared), and further 
portions are found in the Nitrian collection in the British museum. The greater part 
of the Biblical books has been edited from it, but in separate publications. A complete 
edition is still a desideratum. An attempt is now being made toward a more complete 
edition of the Hexapla itself by a reconstruction of lost portions of the Greek, through 
the medium of the parallel Syriac passages preserved in this translation. 
MSS. in the Paris library contain fragments of another Greco- Syriac version, by Jacob, 
bishop of Edessa, who, in 703 and 704 A.D., composed it from the Peshito and the above 
translation, which is probably to be understood in the sense of his having made a new 
recension of Paulus of Tela's work, corrected after the Peshito. 

SYRIAN BITE, CHURCH OF, that portion of the oriental church which had its seat 
in Syria, and which was anciently comprehended in the patriarchate of Antioch, and 
{after that of Jerusalem obtained a distinct jurisdiction) in the patriarchate of Jerusalem. 
The Syrian church of the early centuries was exceedingly flourishing. Before the end 
of the 4th c., it numbered 119 distinct sees, with a Christian population of several 
millions. The first blow to the prosperity of the Syrian church was the fatal division 
which arose from the controversies on the incarnation. See MONOPHYSITES, NESTORIANS, 
EUTTCHES, JACOBITES. The Eutychian heresy, in one or other of its forms, obtained 
wide extension in Syria; and the usual results of division ensued in the corruption and 
decay of true religion. The Moslem conquest accelerated the ruin thus begun; and 
from the 7th c. downward, this once flourishing church declined into a weak and spirit- 
less community, whose chief seat was in the mountains, and whose best security from 
oppression lay in the belief on the part of the conquerors of their utterly fallen nd con- 
temptible condition. Under the head MARONITES has been detailed the most remarkable 
incident in the later history of the Syrian church. This branch of the eastern Christian- 
ity, although for the most part divided from the orthodox Greek church by the pro- 
fession of Monophytism, took part with the Greeks in their separation from the w. , under 
Michael Cerularius; and the reunion of the Maronites to Rome had the remarkable result 
of establishing side by side, within the narrow limits occupied by the Christians under 
the Moslem rule in Syria, two distinct communities, speaking the same language, using 
the same liturgy, and following the same rites ; and yet subject to two different patri 
archs, and mutually regarding each other as heretics and apostates from the ancient 
oreed of their country. 

The chief peculiarity of the Syrian rite, as contradistinguished from the Greek, con- 
sists in its liturgy, and the language of that liturgy, which is Syriac, and with which the 
people, and in many cases the priests, are entirely unacquainted. The liturgy is known 
as the liturgy of St. James. The Syrians agree with the Greeks in the use of leavened 
bread, in administering communion under both heads, in permitting the marriage of 
priests (provided they marry before ordination), and in administering the unction of con- 
firmation at the same time with baptism even to infants. 

The Christian community of Syria may at present be divided into four classes : the 
Maronites, the Greeks (who are also called Melchites), the Monophysites, who are called 
Jacobites, and the primitive Syrian Christians (not Maronites), who are in communion 
with Rome. This last-named community forms the small remnant of the ancient Syrian 
church, which remained orthodox during the controversy on the incarnation, at the 
time of the general lapse into Monophytism. To these are to be added the Christians wf 
the Latin rite and a few Protestants. The Marouites number about 160,000; the Greeks 
Are Mid t* be about 180,000; the Jacobites of Syria and of Armenia proper are said to 


reckon together about 40,000 families, of whom, however, probably scarcely 10,000 can be 
set down to the account of the Syrian church. The non-Maronite Syrians who follow 
their national rite, but are in communion with Rome, are supposed to amount to about 
5,000. The resident Latins are chiefly members of the religious orders who from im- 
memorial time possess convents in the Holy Land, and European Catholics, who hare 
settled permanently, or for a time, at Jerusalem, Beirut, and Damascus. None of these 
can in any way be regarded as belonging to the Syrian church. It may be well to add, that 
the belief, and in most particulars th.e disciplinary practice of these several classes coin- 
cide substantially with those respectively of the same communities in the other churches 
of the east. All (with the exception of the Maronites and the few united Syrians of the 
Greek communion reject the supremacy of the Roman see. The Syrians'of the Greek 
comruuniou reject the double procession of the Holy Ghost; and the Jacobites firmly 
maintain their old tenet of Eutychianism. Among them all are to be found monks and 
religious females. All enforced celibacy on their bishops, and refuse to priests the privi- 
lege of contracting a second marriage, or of marrying after ordination. The practice of 
fasting prevails among all alike. They receive and practice the invocation of saints 
and prayers for the dead, and the use of painted, although not of graven images. Many 
particulars regarding them are to be gleaned from the memoirs of recent missionaries of 
the several denominations, among which the letters published from time to time by the 
French society for the propagation of the faith, are particularly full. For the modern 
Nestoriaus, and the Syrian Christians of Travancore, see NESTORIANS. 

SYRINGA, a genus of plants of the olive family (order oleacece). The English name 
of the genus is lilac (q.v.), and is derived from lilag, the Persian for flower. Syringa 
vulgaris, the common lilac, is a native of Persia, Hungary, and the borders of the Danube. 
Dr. Sibthorp found it wild on mount Haamus, but not in Greece. It has been long culti- 
vated by the Turks. It is one of the few shrubs that are not injured by the smoke of 
cities, and it flourishes in perfection in most of the squares of London. It grows very 
fast, from 20 to 36 in. every year. The Persian lilac, 8. Persic", is a small shrub from 4 
to 6 ft. high, and is one of the most ornamental of low deciduous shrubs. When 
planted in pots and forced, it may be made to flower at Christmas; but under the circum- 
stances the flowers will lose their ordinary fragrance. There are three varieties of this 
species in the English nurseries. 8. Chinensis is a native of China. It is intermediate 
between 8. vulgaris and 8. Persiw. It grows vigorously to a height of from 10 to 12 ft. 
The lilas de Marly and lilas Sange are varieties. Syringa is also a name improperly 
applied to the mock-orange or Philadelphus (q.v.). 

SYRINGE (Gr. syrinx, a pipe), a hydraulic instrument, consisting of a cylinder of 
metal or glass, having a conical nozzle at one end, and the other fitted with an air-tight 
piston. The nozzle being inserted in a liquid, the retraction of the piston draws the 
liquid into the cylinder, on the principle of the pump (q.v.), and by its forward pressure 
the liquid is expelled from the nozzle in the form of a jet. 

SYRRHAPTES, a genus of birds of the grouse family (tetraonidce), of which only one 
species is known (S. Pallasii), a native of the deserts of Tartary, abundant in the neigh- 
borhood of lake Baikal. From its peculiar characters, which led Pallas to call it tetrao 
paradoxus, it has received the somewhat pedantic name of heteroclite grouse. (A word 
is called heterodite by grammarians which departs from the ordinary forms of declen- 
sion.) The legs and toes are short, and densely feathered; and the toes are joined 
together for the greater part of their length. The bird walks with difficulty, but flies 
very well, although in general only for short distances. The wings and tail are very 
long, terminating in remarkably long, slender, pointed plumes. 

SYRTIS MAJOR AND SYRTIS MINOR, the ancient name of two gulfs of the Medi- 
terranean sea, on the u. coast of Africa. The former (now called the gulf of Sidra) 
lies between cape Mesurata, in Tripoli, and the table-lands of Barca, and forms the 
most southern part of the Mediterranean. The latter (now called the gulf of Cabes) lies 
to the n.w., between Tunis and Tripoli. The shores of both are inhospitable, and 
abound in quicksands, which, carried by the wind, are said by the ancients to have 
frequently overwhelmed ships, and the reports of modern travelers to some extent con- 
firm these old traditions. Their waters are (or were) dangerous to sailors, on account 
of the shallows, sand- banks, and sunken rocks that abound in them. The name Syrtis 
is derived from an Arabic word serf, meaning a desert. 

SYRUP, sirup, sherbet, and shrub are all derived from the Arabic srb; the first 
through the Latin, the second through the Persian, and the third through the Hindu. 
Syrup, in its simplest meaning, is a saturated solution of sugar boiled to prevent fer- 
mentation; but it also means the juice of fruits saturated with sugar and many fla- 
vored liquids, treated in the same way. Generally speaking, the finest refined sugar 
is used; and every effort is made to get the syrup very clear and free from all fecu- 
lent matter. Syrups of fruits are much used on the continent to mingle with water 
for drink, and are very wholesome. They arc also used in Britain, but not much, 
xcept in medicine there being many medicinal syrups. 

8YSTYLE, an arrangement of Classic columns in which the intercolumniation ia- 
qual to twice the diameter of the column. 


SYZEAN', a t. of central Russia, in the gov. of Simbirsk, on the right bank of tb 
Volga, about 150 m. below the t. of Simbirsk. It owes its foundation to its advan- 
tageous commercial position on the Volga, and in the middle of a district teeming 
with agricultural produce. From the wharfs of Syzran, 150 vessels, laden with cora, 
are annually dispatched to Rybinsk and St. Petersburg. Pop. '67, 19,279. 


SZABOLCS, a co. in n.e. Hungary, bounded on the n. by the Theiss river, about 
3,cOO sq.m. ; pop. '70, 265,584. The surface is level, with large areas of marsh. Tha 
soil is sandy, but fertile. The principal productions are corn, cattle, and wine. Capital, 

SZAE VAS, a t. of Hungary, in the co. of Bekes, in a plain on the Koros, 22 m. n.e. 
from Csongrad. It has a considerable trade in corn and cattle. Pop. '69, 22,446. 

SZATMAR', or SZATHMAR', a co. in n.e. Hungary, s. of the river Theiss, drained 
by the Szamos river; about 2,250 sq.m. ; pop. '70, 280,568. The surface is level, except 
in the east, where it is mountainous. There is a large area of marsh. The soil is fer- 
tile. The principal productions are corn, hemp, flax, tobacco, and wines. The inhabi 
tants are mostly Magyars. Capital, Szatmar. 

SZATHMAE -NEME THY, a t. of Hungary, on the Samos, 60 m. n.e. of Debreczin; 
pop. '69, 18,353. 

SZECHENYI, ISTVAN, Count, 1792-1860; b. Vienna, of a noble and wealthy Hun- 
garian family. He served in the Austrian army in the wars with Napoleon, and afterward 
traveled through Europe. Clearly seeing the great need for reform and advance in 
the material and social status of the Hungarian people, he gave liberally of both 
time and money in bringing this about. Among his acts were the endowment of 
the Hungarian academy; the founding of a society for improvement in horse-breeding, 
a most important occupation in Hungary; and the establishment of schools of acting 
and music. To his exertions were due the erection of the great suspension bridge 
between Pesth and Ofeu, the removal of obstacles to navigation at the "Iron Gates," 
and the introduction of steamboats on the Danube. He became minister of public 
works. He opposed the revolutionary measures of Kossuth, and when the revolution 
of 1848 broke out, became insane, and though he recovered, continued to reside at the 
Dobliug asylum, where he committed suicide after a domiciliary visit by the Austrian 

SZE-CHTTEN (Four streams), a vast province of western China, and the largest of the 
18. It has an area four times greater than that of England, but the population is 
scanty. The Kincha-Kiang, or "Golden sanded river," which rises in the southern 
slopes of the great Tibetan range, flows through Sze-chuen, and after receiving sev- 
eral tributaries, it becomes, before leaving the province, the famous Yang-tse-Kiang. 
In its course, it passes at right angles and by narrow gorges, through a succession of 
ranges of hills, which have a direction from n. to south. The people of Sze-chuen can- 
not always force a subsistence from their stubborn soil. Famines are not uncommon, 
when whole families are starved to death, and thousands subsist oh a mixture of rice, 
roots, and common earth. Coal is abundant, but of inferior quality ; seams of from 3 
to 5 feet in thickness are laid bare in the gorges cut by the Yang-tse, and gold is found 
in small quantities. 

SZEGEDIN, till lately the second largest t. in Hungary, but almost completely 
destroyed by a terrible flood in Mar., 1879. In this hardly paralleled catastrophe, of 
the 7,000 houses of the city, only 350 were left standing. The ruin to property was 
immense; the loss of life was given at 2,000. Szegedin stands (or stood) on the low- 
ground where the Theiss is joined by the Maros, 118 m. s.e. of Buda-Pesth. In its nor- 
mal condition, it manufactures great quantities of soda, tobacco, coarse cloth, etc., has 
the largest wharfs on the Theiss, and carries on an extensive river-trade in wood and 
corn with Transylvania. Its markets rank next to those of Pesth and Debreczin. Pop. 
'69, 70,179. 

SZEGSZAED, a t. of Hungary, near the right bank of the Danube, 80 m. s.s.w. of 
Pesth. Here excellent red wine is made. Pop. '69, 11,069. 


SZENTES , a market t. of Hungary, 30 m. n. of Szegedin, near the left bank of the 
Theiss. The commune contains (1869) 27,658 inhabitants, who are chiefly engaged ia 
the wine culture. 

SZOLNOK, a co. in Hungary, bounded on the s.e. by Transylvania, within which it 
was formerly included, drained by the affluents of the Szamos river, about 850 sq.m. ; 
pop. '76, 113,689. The surface is mountainous and well wooded. The soil in the ral- 
leys is fertile. The principal productions are corn, rye, oats, tobacco, and wine*. TL 
inhabitants are mostly Wallachians. Capital, Szilagy-Somyl6. 

SZOLNOK , a t. of Hungary, on the Theiss, 66 m. e.s.e. of Pesth. It contains impor- 
tant salt magazines, and is the center of the traffic by steamers on the Theiss, and an 
important railway station. Pop. '69, 15,847. 

m Syzran. 




TTHE twentieth letter of the English alphabet, is the sharp or mute of the lingual 
. series, t, d, th (dh). It is produced by pressing the fore-part of the tongue against 
the front of the palate. The name in Shemitic (Tau) signifies a mark (in the form 
of a cross.) The Shemitic tongues had another <-sound, which became the Greek 9 (th). 
This aspirated t is wanting in Latin and its derivatives ; it is also foreign to high-Ger- 
man, although the Gothic and other low-German tongues (English) possess it. The 
Gothic th has become in high-German d. In the spelling of high-German, th occurs not 
unf requently ; but it is never pronounced, and the introduction of it being considered by 
students of the language an aberration, there is a tendency to drop the h. There is 
evidence that in Latin, at an early period, t before i was sibilated so as to sound like ts 
or z. See letter C. Before s, t was frequently dropped ; as fons for fonts, sors f or sorts. 
Final t was in Latin pronounced but faintly" and inscriptions show that in popular 
speech it was often dropped; e.g., fece for fecit, mxse for vixit. Thus the modern 
Komanic languages have inherited the loss of the pronominal ending t from their com- 
mon mother. In French, t between two vowels has been elided; as pere mere, from 
pater, mater. In the corresponding words of the allied languages, t is often interchanged 
with other letters. T in Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin becomes th in Gothic and English, 
and d in high-German; thus Lat. tres (Sans, trayas), Goth, thrais, Eng. three, Ger. drei ; 
Lat. tectum (Gr. tegos), Goth, thak, Eng. thatch or thack, Ger. dach ; Lat. f rater, Goth. 
brothar, Eng. brother, Ger. bruder. In German, the t of the English is often represented 
by 2, as Eng. two = Ger. zwei ; Eng. toll = Ger. zott; while German t or th becomes Eng. 
, as Ger. tag, than = Eng. day, dew A. more remarkable interchange is seen in Lat. 
lacrima = Eng. tear. See PHILOLOGY. 

TABASCO, a state in s.e. Mexico; bounded on the n. by the gulf of Mexico, on the 
e. by Campeachy, on the s. by Chiapas and Guatemala, and on the n. by Vera Cruz; 
drained by-the Tabasco, the Usumasinta, and other streams; about 12,500 sq. m. ; pop. 
'71, 83,707. The surface is mostly low and level, with a large area of marsh. The cli- 
mate is very hot and unhealthful. Mahogany and other valuable woods abound. The 
principal productions are rice, tobacco, coffee, sugar-cane, pepper, indigo, and honey. 
Capital, San Juan Battista. 

TABANID.2E, a numerous family of dipterous insects, of the section proboscidecg, 
which live by sucking the blood of horses, oxen, and other animals, and are popularly 
known by the name of GAD-FLY, which, however, is of ten given also to some of the OBstrida 
(see BOT). The insects called cleg (q.v.) are of this family. The proboscis is exserted, 
and is generally terminated by two lips; the palpi are also exserted ; the antennae art 
three-jointed, the third joint consisting of a number of rings. The tabanidse fly with a 
buzzing noise. They are very annoying to cattle in the end of spring and early part of 
summer; and where they abound, the skins of cattle are often streaked with blood from 
their bites. The LARGE GAD-FLY (T. bovinus) is more common in some parts of the 
continent of Europe than anywhere in Britain, and is rarer in Scotland than in Eng- 
land But the British tabanidae are numerous. The species are widely distributed. 
Some of them inhabit the deserts of Arabia and Africa, and attack camels in prodigiout 

T A BARD (Fr. tabarre from tabard-urn, low Lat.), a military garment in general use in. 
the latter half of the loth and beginning of the 16th c., which succeeded the Jupon and 
Cydas. It fitted closely to the body, was open at the sides, had wide sleeves or flaps 
reaching to the elbow, and displayed the armorial ensigns of the wearer on the back 
and front, as well as on the sleeves. About the middle of the 16th c., the tabard ceased 
to be used except by the officers at arms, who have down to the present time continued 
to wear tabards embroidered with the arms of the sovereign. 

TABASHEEK, a substance sometimes found in the cavities or tubular parts of the 
stems of bamboos and other large grasses. It consists chiefly of silica, with a little lime 
and vegetable matter, or sometimes of silica and potash, in the proportions of about 70 
parts of silica and 30 of potash. It appears to be formed by extravasation of the juices 
of the plant, in consequence of some diseased condition of the nodes or joints. It is in, 
high repute among the Hindus as a tonic, and is prepared by imperfect calcination and 
trituration. The powder is often chewed with betel, in order to renovate the constitu- 
; tion. There are several varieties of tabasheer, one of which, of very rare occurrence, is 
* extremely beautiful, of a delicate azure color by reflected light, and of a faint yellowish 
hue by transmitted light, easily crushed between the fingers, and of "an aerial and 
unsubstantial texture, which we look for in vain in any other solid. " Other varieties 
are yellowish, white, and much like some varieties of opal. Tabasheer is very porous, 
and absorbs water and oil very rapidly; effervescence taking place when it is plunged 
in water. By absorption of oil; the opaque varieties become transparent. When the 
greater part of the oil is expelled by heat, the structure of the tabasheer becomes appar- 
ent; it is beautifully veined, the veins being sometimes parallel, and sometimes curved. 
U. K. XIV. 11 

Tabby. 1 9 


The optical properties of tabasheer are remarkable. Of all known substances, it has the 
lowest refractive power. 

TABBY, or TABBYIXG, another name for watering fabrics. See MOIRE. It is usually 
applied to stuffs or worsted cloths instead of silks. 

TABERNACLE (Heb. Olid Moed = tent of meeting, scil., between God and man; LXX. 
Skene, Vulg. Tabernaculum F&deris), or, more fully, "tabernacle of the congregation," 
was the tent first erected by Moses in the desert as a visible symbol of the divine Pres- 
ence in the midst of the people. It was the place where he went to receive his inspira- 
tions as their representative when they "came to seek Jehovah." A cloudy pillar 
descended and stood at the door of the tabernacle while " the Lord spake to Moses." 
The detailed description of the tabernacle contained in Ex. xxv. seqq., xxxvi. seqq., 
renders more than a brief outline superfluous in this place. Suffice it to mention that it 
was divided into the " sanctuary" proper which formed the front part, and the dimen- 
sions of which were 20 cubits in length, 10 in width, and 10 in height and the "holy 
of holies," which was 10 cubits square and 10 high, A kind of court-yard, formed by 
curtains suspended between columns, ran round the tabernacle, 100 cubits long and 50 
wide. The entrance was toward the east the rising of the sun and closed by another 
costly curtain, into which, like unto the first covering, figures of "cherubim" were 
woven. The surrounding court was much larger on this eastern than on the western 
side, for here it was that the people assembled for the purpose of worship. Here also 
stood the altar, made of acacia-wood, upon which a perpetual fire was kept burning, 
and the brazen laver. The sanctuary^ contained the gilded table with the showbread to 
the right, the golden candlestick with the seven branches to the left, and between 
both the " golden altar," or the " altar of incense," upon which the high-priest burned 
incense in the morning and evening. In the holy of holies, the holy ark, or ark of the 
covenant, alone was kept; a box of acacia-wood, plated with pure gold both in and 
outside, containing the two tables of the Ten Commandments. On the top of it were 
the two cherubim, their faces turned toward each other; and between them there was 
the symbolical presence of Jehovah (the Shechinah), to which Moses appealed for 

Only once a year, on the Day of Atonement, the high-priest was allowed to enter the 
holy of holies, while the sanctuary was the ordinary place of the priests, and the court 
that of the Levites. The tribe of Levi was also that to which the place nearest to the 
tabernacle, around which the 12 tribes were grouped, was assigned, as it also was the 
duty of its members to convey the building from place to place during the migrations. 

.The tabernacle, after the people had settled in Canaan, was erected at Shiloh, where 
it was still found at the time of Saul, although the ark of the covenant itself had been 
carried away by the Philistines, in the time of Eli, and when restored, placed at Kirjath- 
jearim. Nor was the tabernacle of Shiloh the only sanctuary, as it was intended to be. 
We find other local sanctuaries with priests at Bethel, Nob, Sichem, Mizpah, etc. at 
which even Samuel worshiped, as in legally instituted places. When David is reported 
.to have removed the ark from Kirjath-jearim to Jerusalem, nothing is said about the 
tabernacle of Shiloh; on the contrary, David erected a new one on purpose for the ark. 
It seems probable that it was removed at some time or other from Shiloh to Nob, and 
thence to Gibeou, from whence Solomon seems to have fetched it away, with all its 
vessels, thus putting an end to the double worship that under David had divided the 
faithful between Gibeon, where Zadok officiated, and Jerusalem with Asaph's worship. 
Nothing is further known of the tabernacle, which, besides being a symbol of God's 
presence, had also served the purpose of a visible political and religious link between the 
tribes. As a safeguard against idolatry and unlimited sacrificial worship, however, it 
did not prove effective enough. 

TABEENACLE, (Lat. tabernaculum, armarium), in the Roman Catholic church, is the 
name given to the receptacle in which the consecrated elements of the Eucharist are 
retained. The name is derived by analogy from the tabernacle of the old law, and in 
form the Roman Catholic tabernacle bears a general resemblance to the Jewish original. 
By the present discipline, the tabernacle is commonly a small structure of marble, metal, 
or wood, placed at the posterior part of the altar, and of costly material and workman- 
ship. Even when the exterior structure is of marble or metal, there is commonly an. 
inner receptacle of wood (properly cedar), lined with silk. The tabernacle is appro- 
priated exclusively to the reservation of the Eucharist, and it is prohibited to keep within 
it any other object, however sacred, as the chrism, relics of saints, the altar vessels, etc. 
A lamp is constantly kept burning before the tabernacle, which is ordered to be kept at 
all times carefully locked, the key being retained by the clergy, to whom it is forbidden 
to intrust it to any lay person, even the sacristan or other official of the church. 

TABEENACLES, FEAST OF (Heb. Succoth, LXX. Heorte skenon, Vulg. Feria> taber- 
naculorum). a Hebrew feast of seven days' duration, beginning on the fifteenth day of 
the seventh month (Tishri), and instituted principally in memory of the nomad life of 
the people in the desert, and the booths or tents used on their march. Besides this sig- 
nification, it also had an agricultural one, like the other two pilgrimage festivals, the 
passah and the feast of weeks. It was emphatically the feast of ' ' ingathering " i.e., the 
close of the labors of the field the harvest of all the fruits, of the corn, the wine, and 

1 Tabby. 


the oil. During this feast, the great bulk of the people were enjoined to dwell in booths, 
which we learn from Neherniah viii. 15, were made of olive, pine, myrtle, palm, and 
other branches, and were erected on the roofs of houses, and in the courts and streets. 
The scriptural injunction, to take trees and " boughs of goodly branches of palm trees," 
etc., was by tradition explained to mean a bunch made of palm, myrtle, and willow 
branches, and the esog-fruit, a species of citron which the faithful carried in procession 
during these seven days in the temple; while those who did not visit the temple only 
said a benediction over it on the first day. The Sadducees and Karaites, however, 
demurred to this explanation, taking the passage merely to refer to the construction of 
the booths. Special sacrifices, and a greater number of bnrnt-offerings than on any 
other festival, were offered up on this; and on it also the law was to be read to the people 
every seventh year. It was emphatically called the festival, and was the most joyous of 
them all. There was especialty, during the time of the temple, the "joy of the liba- 
tion," consisting of the priest's fetching, during the morning sacrifice of each day, water 
from the well of Siloah, and pouring it out, with the accompaniment of music and hymns. 
There was further a grand illumination in the evening in the court of women, which is 
said to have lighted up the whole city of Jerusalem ; and during and after which, dancing 
and singing took place. On each day the trumpets were sounded 21 times. At the end 
of the seven days' joy, an eighth day of solemn rest was celebrated, which was perfectly 
distinct from the other days both in its sacrifices and in its general service. The bunch 
was laid aside, the booths were relinquished, and a sin offering in expiation of trans- 
gressions that might have taken place during the hilarity of the previous feast-days was 

Three distinct times we find the inauguration of the temple celebrated on this impor- 
tant festival, by Solomon, Ezra, and Judas Maccabaeus, although with regard to the 
festival itself it would seem from Nehemiah viii. 17, that it never had been properly 
celebrated before the exile. The observances of the booths and the harvest-bunches are 
still in force with the strict adherents of traditional Judaism, although the agricultural 
signification of the festival to them can only be a historical or poetical reminiscence. It 
has been well observed of old, that no festival could have been more apt to inculcate the 
fundamental principle of Judaism viz., the equality of all men, than this, which 
enjoined that every one should live for a time in primitive dwellings, without distinction 
of rank, or station, or fortune, and should rejoice in the fruits of the last harvest on the 
hallowed spot, together with the whole people of the land, "before the Lord." 


TA'BES DOKSA LIS, an affection of the nervous system, now known in medicine as 
locomotor ataxy. Tabes dorsalis was so named by Romberg of Berlin; but Dr. Todd of 
London in 1847 first recognized its true nature, and specially insisted on the distinctions 
to be drawn between tabes dorsalis and paraplegia (see PARALYSIS). The name of loco- 
inwtor ataxy was first applied to the affection by Dr. Duchenne of Paris. It is charac- 
terized by a want of power in harmonizing the action of certain muscles, the absence 
of such co-ordinating pow*r being first apparent in the lower extremities, and the gait 
in consequence being straggling and unsteady. True paralysis is absent, but sensitive 
ness is diminished, and neuralgic pains are present in the legs and feet. The loss of 
power progresses, and the later stages of the malady are marked by such symptoms as 
disordered vision, incontinence of urine, and exhaustion. The duration of this disease 
varies. It may run its course in a few months, or be prolonged over years. The etiology 
or causes of tabes dorsalis are still obscure. Mr. Lockhart Clarke has shown that a 
peculiar change in the posterior columns of the spinal cord, and in the posterior or sen- 
sory roots of the spinal nerves, accompanies this disease. Prolonged exposure to cold 
and damp, drunkenness, sexual excesses, masturbation, and like causes have been cred- 
ited with inducing the disease. It is alleged to be more common in males than in 
females, and subjects between the ages of 30 and 50 are said to suffer most frequently 
from its attack. The characteristic movements in tabes dorsalis are worthy of note. 
The patient has an unsteady gait, and walks like a drunken person, but soon recovers 
his bearing in some degree. A difficulty in carrying out the intents of the will is expe- 
rienced, and in picking up an object one hand is employed to steady the other. When 
the eyes are shut, the patient walks with extreme difficulty. Tabes dorsalis may be dis- 
tinguished from disease of the cerebellum by the absence of the characteristic pain at 
the back of the head, and vomiting. The prognosis of tabes dorsalis is very unfavora 
ble. Its progress may be retarded, but the prospect of ultimate cure is well nigh hope- 
less. The treatment, as may readily be understood, is limited to the improvement of 
> the general health, rather than to any specific remedies. Warm clothing, nutritious 
food, and rest are the chief items in the course of treatment prescribed for this disease ; 
while opiates are indicated for the relief of the rfluralgic pains. Sulphur baths have 
been prescribed in the earlier stages to relieve the numbness, and attention requires to 
be paid to the bowels with a view of alleviating constipation. 

TABINET, a rich kind of cloth, chiefly used for window-curtains. It consists of a 
warp of silk and a weft of wool -yarn, of the same kind as that used in making poplin. 
It has the appearance of a fine damask, and is usually enriched with diaper patterns. 

Tableaux. 1 (\t 


TABLEAUX VIVANTS (i.e., living pictures), representations of works of painting 
and sculpture, or of scenes from history or fiction, by living persons. They are said to 
have been invented by Mme. de Genlis, when she had charge of the education of the 
children of the duke of Orleans. They have long been common in theaters, and have 
more recently become an amusement of private circles. In an aesthetic point of view, 
they are of no value whatever, but rather are of injurious influence, and contrary to 
just principles of taste. 

TABLE-LANDS, or PLATEAUS, are extensive plains at a considerable elevation above 
the sea, whose boundaries are either ranges of mountains much higher on the side away 
from than on the side next to the table-lands; or steep acclivities, sloping from the level 
of the plateaus to the surrounding country. They are often traversed by mountain 
chains, and occasionally even lose the character of plains altogether, being mere con- 
glomerations of hills. The chief table-lands are in Europe, central Spain; in America, 
the Oregon territory, the great salt plain of Utah, the north and center of Brazil; in 
Africa, the interior of Barbary ; while in Asia, almost the whole of the south and center 
of the continent consists of plateaus, which rise terrace above terrace till they culmi- 
nate in that of Thibet. Of the Asiatic plateaus, the principal are: that of Asia Minor 
(3,280 ft. above sea-level), Armenia (7,000 ft.), Persia or Iran (3,000 ft.), Mysore (4,000- 
5,000 ft.), Deccan (1500-2,000 ft.), Thibet (12,000-17,000 ft.), and Chinese Tartary 
(3,000-4,300 ft.). These table-lands are generally accounted for by the supposition of 
a more extensive and uniform action of the upheaving force than that which produced 
mountains : and satisfactory indications of the former action being quite recent, and 
long subsequent to the latter, are occasionally discovered. 

TABLE-MONET is an allowance granted to general-officers in the army, and flag- 
officers in the navy, to enable them to fulfill the duties of hospitality within their 
respective commands. It varies according to the locality or importance of the appoint- 
ment, 3 3s. a day being the maximum, except under very unusual circumstances. 


TABLES, LUNAR, are tabular lists of the values of the elements of the moon's orbit, 
as planetary tables are those of the elements of the planets' paths ; but the term is also 
occasionally employed to denote the tabulated angular distances of the moon from cer- 
tain stars at fixed epochs, as given in the Nautical Almanac (q.v.). See LATITUDE. 


TA BOB, a celebrated mountain of northern Palestine, rising solitarily in the north- 
eastern part of the plain of EsdraSlon, to about the height of 1000 ft. and commanding 
the most extensive and probably the most magnificent prospect in the Holy Land. 
Eastward, the eye catches a gleam of the waters of the Galilean sea, 15 m. distant; 
while the whole picturesque outline of its deep-sunken basin, of the rolling trans- 
Jordanic plateau, and the course of the sacred river itself, is clearly traceable ; westward, 
stretch away into the dim horizon the rich plains of Galilee, rising up into the dark- 
- green ridges of Carmel, overhanging the Levant; on the north and north-east, the snow 
covered heights of Hermon (see LEBANON) glitter pale over the intervening hills; while 
to the south, the view embraces the fatal heights of Gilboa and the confused landscapes 
of Samaria. Tabor itself is at present thickly clad with forests of oak, pistacias, etc. , 
the haunt of wolves, wild-boars, lynxes, and various kinds of reptiles. Its beauty 
alone would be sufficient to insure it distinguished mention among the mountains of 
Palestine, but it owes its celebrity even more to its having been regarded from an early 
period as the mount of Transfiguration. This opinion, however, is now all but uni- 
versally abandoned, as there is strong evidence of its summit having been then occupied 
by a city; and travelers are disposed to look for the scene of this supernatural incident 
further north, in the neighborhood of Hermon. In the times of the crusaders, Tabor 
was studded with churches and monasteries, relics of which, as well as of Roman and 
Saracenic structures, still remain. 

TA'BOR, a small drum, played with one stick, in combination with a fife. It was 
formerly used in war, but has now given place to the kettle-drum. 

TA BOEITES (a sect of the Hussites in Bohemia), derived their name from their for- 
tress of Tabor, near the river Luschnitz, an affluent of the Moldau, 49 m. s.s.e. of Prague. 
There is now a small town at the place, which has a population of 6,717, and carries on 
some wollen manufactures, etc. The first leader of the Taborites was John Ziska 
(q.v.) of Trocyuow. Under him was Nicolas von Hussinecz, who repelled the impe 
rial army from Tabor in 1420. The Calixtines, desirous of the peace of the country, 
offered the throne of Bohemia first to king Ladislas of Poland, then to the grand duke 
Witold of Lithuania, and afterward to his brother Coribut. Ziska refused his consent, 
and thus these parties became completely separated. In the years 1420 and 1421 both 
of them set forth their creed in a number of articles. The Taborites absolutely rejected 
all ordinances of the church not expressly appointed in the holy Scriptures. Both 
parties were united by common danger in opposition to a common enemy. In 1422 
Ziska defeated the imperialists at Deutschbrot, and thereafter with uninterrupted sue 
cess in a number of minor conflicts; and in 1424 Prague was saved from destruction 
only by submitting to hard terms of peace. After Ziska's death, Procop (q.v.) the 

1 *:.; Tableaux. 


greater, or Procop rasa (the shaver), and Procop the less were the leaders. In 1427 
and in 1431 they gained great victories at Miess and Tachau over the mercenary cru- 
saders of the German empire, and till 1432 their incursions were the dread of the neigh- 
boring countries. The council of Basel, finding them still uncouquered in 1433, pro- 
ceeded to treat with them ; aud the Calixtines entered into an arrangement, known as the 
Prague compact, which, however, was despised by the Taborites and the Orphans, as 
that section of the Taborites who considered Ziska as irreplaceable, had come to be 
termed. The Taborites and Orphans were completely defeated at Bohmischbrot on 
May 30, 1434, by the now united forces of the Roman Catholics and the Calixtines. In 
the treaty of Iglau in 1436, the emperor Sigismuud confirmed the compact, and prom- 
ised religious aud political liberty. The civil war, however, continued till king Ladislas 
in the diet at Kuttenberg, in 1485, established a religious peace, securing both Roman 
Catholics and Calixtines in their possessions. The Taborites were eventually lost in 
the sect of Bohemian Brethren (q.v.), which arose from among them. 

TABRIZ' (pronounced and frequently written Tabreez), a great and ancient city of 
Persia, capital of the province of Azerbijan, 40 m. e. of lake Urumiah, and on the Aji, 
which flows s.w. into that lake. The town is surrounded by a ditch and a brick wall, 
pierced by 7 gates. It forms an oblong of gardens and houses, 2 m. long; stands 
4,000 ft. above sea-level, but nevertheless has the appearance of being shut in by moun- 
tains. The streets are broader and cleaner than in most eastern cities, but they are 
flanked as usual by the pits from which the earth required for their houses was taken; 
the houses are infested with noxious insects ; and the bazaars are roofed with sticks, and 
are dark and dirty. Water, however, is comparatively plentiful. The chief buildings 
of Tabriz are not specially striking. Perhaps the principal architectural feature of the 
town is the fine ruin, Kabud Masjid, or "blue mosque," about 300 years old, and in 
part covered with blue tiles beautifully arabesqued. The citadel is a spacious edifice 
of burned brick, the walls of which, however, have been cracked in many places by earth- 
quakes. Tabriz is the seat of a varied industry, in which leather and silk manufactures, 
and gold and silver smith's w r ork alone are of importance; recently it has also become 
the emporium of an extensive trade, the exact vame of which, however, is not known, 
owing to the careless manner in which the custom-house officials transact their business, 
and to the prevalence of smuggling. Merchandise, to the value 400,000 is exported 
through the regular channels from Tabriz to Russia; but it is estimated that in 1859 a 
quantity of equal value was conveyed to that country by smugglers. Since 1859 this 
illicit traffic has very much diminished, although it still exists along the whole Russo- 
Persian frontier of Azerbijan. The chief imports are cotton fabrics, sugar, woolen 
cloth, and wines and spirits. The chief exports are cotton cloths (originally from Eng- 
land), drugs and spices, dried fruits, shawls, carpets, and raw silk. The commerce of 
1877-78 was very small, mainly on account of the Russo-Turkish war, which arrested 
the trade between Trebizond and Tabriz. The imports were in that year valued at 
525,500, the exports at only 270,000; while in 1873-74 the collective trade amounted 
to over 7,100,000. The Anglo-Indian telegraph line passes through the city. 

Tabriz, the ancient Tauris, became the capital of Tiridates III., "king of Arme- 
nia, in 297 A.D., and was probably at that time an old city. In 791 A.D. it was enlarged 
and greatly embellished by Zobaidah, the wife of Harun-al-Rashid. In 858, and again 
in 1041, the city was devastated by an earthquake. It was taken and sacked by 
Tiiuur in 1392, and was soon after seized by the Turkomans, from whom it was 
taken by the Persians in 1500. In 1721 it was again visited by a dreadful earth- 
quake, and on this occasion 80,000 persons are said to have perished. It has been 
several times in the hands of the Turks, but was finally taken from them by Nadir 
shah in 1730. Tabriz is a city of Turks, and Turkish is the language spoken. Pop. 
variously estimated at 110,000 to 180,000. Eastwick's Three Tears' Residence in Per- 
sia (Lond. 1864), and Commercial Reports from Her Majesty's Consuls (1878). 

TA BU, TAPU, or TAMBU, a Polynesian term, denoting an institution found every- 
where, and always essentially the same, in the Polynesian islands and in New Zealand. 
Its primary meanings seem to be exactly the same as those of the Hebrew to'ebah. This 
word, like the Greek anathema,, the Latin sacer, and the French sacre (and the correspond- 
ing and similar terms in most languages), has a double meaning a good sense and a bad; 
it signifies on the one hand, sacred, consecrated; on the other hand, accursed, abominable, 
unholy. It results from a thing being held sacred, that certain acts are forbidden with 
reference to it, and from any act being deemed abominable, that it is forbidden ; a 
notion of prohibition thus attaches to the word tabu, and this is in many cases, the 
most prominent notion connected with it. The term is often used substantively in the 
sense of a prohibition, a prohibitory commandment. If a burial ground has been con- 
secrated, it is tabu; to fight in it is then an act sacrilegious and prohibited, and this also 
is tabu; moreover, those persons are tabu who have violated its sanctity by fighting in 
it, and they are, loosely and popularly, said to have broken the tabu. This example 
illustrates all the uses of the word. It has furnished to the English language the now 
familiar phrase of being " tabooed "= forbidden. 

The extent to which, among -the Polynesians and New Zealanders, things and acts 
are tabu, must appear almost incredible to Europeans unaware of the facts 01 savage life. 

Tacahout. 1 AA 


Without much detail, it is impossible to convey any idea of it. The prohibitions, how- 
ever, divide into two classes: one consisting of traditional rules, binding upon all, act- 
ing through religious terror equally upon chiefs and people; the other,, of prohibitions 
imposed from time to time, obviously with the view of maintaining or extending the 
authority of the chiefs. Those of the first class are by far the most remarkable. Of 
the most important of them those bearing upon what are called sacred things, those 
relating to the person of the chief, and those relating to intercourse between relatives 
a few examples may be given. 

Any house or piece of ground consecrated to a god is tabu, and thus affords an invio- 
lable shelter to men fleeing from an enemy. A fortiori, all temples are tabu. To sit 
upon or to touch the threshold of a temple *is tabu to all except chiefs of the first order, 
the lesser chiefs may stride over the threshold, but common persons pass over it on their 
hands and knees. It is tabu to eat the plant or animal believed to be the shrine of one's 
tutelary god. To come in the way of a funeral procession is severely tabu, for it is 
believed that the gods accompany the procession ; if any person were to disregard the 
warning chant of the mourners, they would rush at him and put him to death." Again, 
to touch the person of a chief is tabu to his inferiors; also, to touch anything belong- 
ing to him, to eat in his presence, to eat anything he has touched, or to mention his 
name. And a chief's threshold is as sacred as that of a temple, and must be passed 
over in the same manner. It is strictly tabu to touch a dead chief or anything which 
belonged to him, or any of the clothes or utensils employed in his interment; even those 
employed in laying out the body pay the penalty of infringing this prohibition. The 
interdict upon family intercourse varies in extent in different places. In the Tonga 
islands it was tabu to mention the name of father, mother, father-in-law, mother-in-law ; 
also to touch these relatives, to eat in their presence (unless with the back turned, when 
constructively the person was not in their presence), or to eat anything which they had 
touched. In the Fiji islands, generally, it is tabu for brother and sister, first cousins, 
father -in-law and son-in law, mother-in-law and daughter-in-law, brother-in-law and 
sister-in-law, to speak together, or to eat from the same dish. Husband and wife, too, 
are forbidden to eat from the same dish. In some places a father may not speak to his 
son after he has passed his 15th year. In an immense number of cases, equally extra- 
ordinary, the tabu is used to enforce the prevailing ideas of social propriety. It inter- 
feres with cooking, eating, dressing, speaking; scarcely anything is too minute to be 
Regulated by it. 

The traditional tabu also supplies to some extent the place of laws and a police. In 
many places exposed property of some kinds is always under its shelter. In some cases 
it appears to have been worked in the interest of the priests; thus, certain foods for 
example, turtle are always tabu, and cannot be eaten until a portion has been set aside 
for the gods. There is a purely superstitious use of it, too, in relation to common 
things, as when a canoe is made tabu that it may go more safely. 

The chiefs have a large discretionary power of declaring articles or actions tabu ; 
indeed, their power is unlimited, but they are expected to keep within precedent. In 
many cases they use it for purely public purposes thus, when a feast is coming on 
they lay a tabu upon pigs and nuts, and other articles, that there may be abundance for 
the feast. And when a scarcity of anything is apprehended they place a temporary 
tabu on its use. Speaking generally, any article of food fish, flesh, fowl, grain, or 
fruit may be rendered tabu. A coast, a river, a hunting-ground, may be declared 
tabu; and then there is an end of fishing, and sailing, and hunting, until the chief has 
withdrawn the prohibition. The tabu is obviously a powerful instrument of govern- 
ment; and the chiefs are very adroit in using it for their own advantage. 

When a man has accidentally infringed the tabu against touching a chief, or a rela- 
tive, or things immediately connected with him, he is freed from the state of tabu by a 
ceremony called moe-inoe; this consists in pressing, first the palms, then the back of the 
hands, to a superior chief's foot, and afterward washing the hands with water. If a 
man has accidentally eaten food which a relative or chief has left, he r goes through a 
ceremony called fota, which consists in pressing a superior chief's foot against the 
stomach. Any breach of the laws relating to sacred places must be atoned for by sacri- 
ficing to the offended god. A person, when he is tabu, must not use his hands in feed- 
ing himself or in working; were he to feed himself, it is believed that he would die; he 
must be fed by others until the tabu is removed. In many cases the tabu can only be 
removed by time. Thus, a common person, who has touched a dead chief, remains 
1abu for ten lunar months; a chief for four or five months, more or less, according to 
the deceased's superiority over him. In several cases breach of tabu is punished with 
"death ; in many, it involves a sort of outlawry the neighbors of the offender being free 
to carry off or to destroy his goods. 

It is obvious that the effect of breaking a tabu at any rate, one effect of it is to 
produce uncleanness. The offender has done something unholy, accursed; his hands 
are not clean; if he has not sinned in the last degree he must make atonement or un 
dergo purification. The chief, holding a divinely appointed rank, recognized as a semi- 
divine person, descended from the gods, is the medium of purification; he has authority 
to loose as well as to bind. The offense consists in a thing having been done displeas- 
ing to the supernatural powers, for which, it is believed, they will not fail to take 


vengeance. It is not, in the general case, an offense against any particular god; nor is 
the punishment of it looked for from one god more than from another. Tabu is cer- 
tainly older than most of the Polynesian gods; it must have existed for ages before the 
mythologies took their present shapes; it might have existed before any uame for god 
had become current. It has no connection with fetishism. The Polynesians do not 
worship natural objects; their belief that certain plants and animals are the shrines of 
gods would naturally lead to the worship of those; but, in fact, they merely do not eat 
the plant or animal which is the shrine of their tutelary god. And though this is 
enforced by a tabu, the tabu is evidently distinct from the belief in the god's connec- 
tion with the plant or animal; it is only the means of enforcing that belief beiugt he 
customaiy means used to prevent any act which would provoke a god to anger. The 
origin of tabu seems to be a vague fear of superhuman powers; this has become associ- 
ated with certain things and acts; thus practically, tabu is a system of divinely ap- 
pointed restraints religion, in the primary sense of the word. The religious horror 
has attached itself or, through the policy of priests and rulers, has become attached 
to every prohibition supported by a strong expediency; which it is apt to do among 
rude peoples, especially where the prohibition relates to the family, or to the relation of 
tribesmen to their chief. It must have been through a long process of construction, 
carried on by the governing classes the chiefs and the priests that tabu became the 
system it now is. The extensive political application of tabu is sufficient evidence that 
the Polynesian chiefs have been adepts in the art of turning the religious feelings of 
their countrymen to their own account. 

TACAHOTJT is the name given in Algiers by the Arabs to the small gall formed on 
the tamarisk tree, tamariscus indica. Since the discovery of photography these galls 
have become of considerable importance as a source of gallic acid, of which they con- 
tain a large proportion. The French chemists import considerable quantities; and the 
same gall, under the name of mahee, is imported for the same purpose by British chem- 
ists from India. 

TA CAMAHAG. or TACAMAHA'CA, a name which, from the number of its applications, 
has produced considerable confusion in the history of commercial products. No less 
than four different resins are known under this designation. One, from Mauritius, is 
obtained from a tree common in India and its islands, called the poon-wood tree, calo- 
phyttum inophyllum. Another, from South America and the West Indies, is obtained 
from zanthoxylum (fagura) octandra this is usually called shell tacamahac. A third, 
also from South America, is yielded by a tree called itia.i tacamahaca; it is supposed to 
be the Mexican copal. And the fourth is from North America, and is the produce of 
the Carolina or tacamahac poplar; it is collected in small quantities, and has only a 
small value for supposed medicinal properties. The others are chiefly used for var- 

TACCA, a genus of plants of a small natural order called taccacea> nearly allied to aracea). 
They are large perennials, with tuberous roots. The species are few, and are found in 
maritime places and woods in the South Sea islands and the warmest parts of Asia and 
Africa. Some of them (T. pinnatifida, etc.) are much cultivated for the sake of their 
tubers, which are used as an article of food, although they are acrid, and require macer- 
ation in water to remove their acridity, on account of which also they are generally 
eaten with vinegar, or some acid substance. They contain a large quantity of starch, 
which is wholesome and nutritious, and is imported into Britain as a substitute for West 
Indian arrow-root. . It is known as Tahiti arrow-root. Dr. Seemann says that it is an 
effectual cure for dysentery, which other arrow-root is not. The boile'd leaf-stalks of 
the plants of this genus are also used in China and Cochin-China as an article of food. 

TACHE, ALEXANDRE, b. Lower Canada, 1812; educated at St. Hyacinthe college, 
joined himself to the order of the Immaculate Conception, and in 1843 was ordained at 
the St. Boniface post of the Red River mission. From this point he traveled great dis- 
tances toward the n.w. and in Manitoba. In 1853 he succeeded bishop Provencher, to 
whom he had previously been coadjutor, and in 1871 he became metropolitan. Arch- 
bishop Tache was the founder of the St. Boniface theological college, and has written 
books on the subject of his missionary labors in the north-west. 

TACIT RELOCATION, in the law of Scotland, is a phrase borrowed from the Roman 
law, signif ying that when a tenant continues in possession of the lands after his lease or 
term has ended, there is an implied or tacit renewal of the lease, whereby he continues 
bound to pay the same rent and observe the same stipulations. The same doctrine exists 
in English law, though the above phrase is not used. 

TACITURNITY, in the law of Scotland, is a mode of extinguishing an obligation by 
mere silence, and making no claim upon it within a long time. It is a distinct ground, 
and embraces a shorter period than the ordinary prescription of limitation (q.v.); for if 
a creditor never apply for payment or performance of the obligation, a presumption 
arises either that there never was such an obligation, or that he has abandoned it. Much 
depends on the circumstances of each case whether such a doctrine is applicable; and, 
as a general rule, the periods of prescription are adopted as superseding the common law 
doctrine of taciturnity. 


1 f*Q 

TACITUS, CAITJS CORNELIUS, the historian. Of his parentage, or of the time and 
place of his birth, we can only conjecture that his father was probably Cornelius Tacitus, 
a Roman eques, who is mentioned as a procurator in Gallia Belgica, and who died in 79. 
From the emperors Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian he received promotion and other 
marks of favor; and in 78 he married the daughter of Caius Julius Agricola. In 88, 
when Domitiau was emperor and Tacitus praetor, he assisted as one of the quindecemviri 
at the celebration of the Ludi seculares. Agricola died in Rome in 83, while Tacitus and 
his wife were absent; and nothing further is known of the historian till 97, when, in the 
reign of Nerva, he was appointed consul suffectus, succeeding Tacitus Virgiuius Rufus, 
whose funeral oration he delivered. Tacitus had already attained distinction as an 
orator when the younger Pliny was entering upon public life; and both of them were 
appointed, in Nerva's reign in 99, to conduct the prosecution of Marius, then proconsul 
of Africa. Tacitus became one of the most intimate friends of Pliny, of whose letters 
11 are addressed to him. The time of Tacitus's death is unknown, but he most proba- 
bly survived Trajan, who died in 117. His extant works are: (1) Vita Agricoke, written 
after the death of Domitian in 96, and universally admired as a masterpiece of noble 
.sentiment and pregnant epigram. (2) Histories, written after Nerva's death in 98, and 
before the Annales, and embracing the period from the second consulship of Galba in 
68 to the death of Domitian in 96. Only the first four books have reached us in a per- 
fect state, but there must have been many more. (3) Annales, commencing with the 
death of Augustus in 14, and closing with the death of Nero in 68. These also have 
reached us only in an imperfect state. (4) De Moribus et Populis Germanice. This treatise 
is trustworthy only as regards those Germans who were best known to the Romans from 
their proximity to the Rhine. For the provinces beyond that river it has no value, 
whether geographical or political. (5) Dialogus de Oratoribus, if the work of Tacitus at 
all, must be his earliest. Tacitus is one of the greatest of historians. In love of truth 
and integrity of purpose he is equalled by few; in conciseness of phrase and power of 
saying much and implying more in one or two strokes of expression he is rivalled by 
none. The best editions are those of Orelli and Halm. 

TACITUS, MARCUS CLAUDIUS, about 200-76, A. D. ; b. Interamna (modern Terni), in 
Umbria ; elected emperor after the death of Aurelian and an interregnum of seven months. 
He began his brief reign of 200 days at the advanced age of 75 years; one of the oldest 
and wealthiest of the senators. He instituted needful reforms in relation to the coinage 
and the morals of his subjects; being himself of temperate habit, upright, and honest; 
giving liberally to the state from his private fortune, and living as simply after his acces- 
sion to the throne as in private life. He claimed descent from the historian Tacitus, 
whose works he ordered preserved with care in the public libraries, and copies made 
every year. He favored the restoration of the power of the senate. His victory over 
the Scythians is recorded on his coins by the inscription " Victoria Gothi" and "Victoria 
Pontica." He died at Tyana, some say of a fever, others by assassination. 

TACK, the Scottish law-term, synonymous with lease (q.v.). 

TACK TACKING. The tack of a sail is the lower windward corner. The tack is the 
rope employed in hauling down that corner to its proper position. The tack of a fore- 

and-aft sail is its lower forward clue or corner; it also 
designates the rope for hauling down that corner. A ship 
is said to be on the starboard or port tack when she is close- 
hauled, with the wind on the starboard or port side. 

Tacking is the practice of beating up against an adverse 
wind by a zigzag course. If a vessel at A require to sail 
due n. to B, and if the wind be either n., or from any 
point n. of the line CAD, it is obvious that the wind will 
not carry her directly to her destination. As an extreme 
case, let the wind be n. or dead against her. By setting 
her sails obliquely, as at A, it will be possible to beat up 
in the direction AE. If the master consider that at E he 
has passed sufficiently from his straight course to B, he 
will then put his helm a-lee, which brings the ship's head 
straight to the wind, the tacks of the sails being at the 
same time set free. The after-sails are then smartly 
braced over to the opposite side, and the ship's head falls 
off from the wind in an opposite direction to th